Prelude in C from The Well Tempered Clavier, Book One. Andante. J. S. Bach. More FREE music at: aracer.mobi~deben. The WellTempered Clavier (Book I). Prelude and Fugue No.1 in C Major. (Ed. Czerny), BWV Piano score. C major. Brought to you by aracer.mobi . File:J.S. Bach - The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1 - aracer.mobi file (1, × 1, pixels, file size: MB, MIME type: application/pdf.
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The Well-Tempered Clavier (Das Wohltemperierte Klavier), BWV –, is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. He first . Work Title, Das wohltemperierte Klavier I (The Well-Tempered Clavier). Alt ernative. Title, Praeludia und Fugen durch alle Tone und Semitonia (Preludes and. [PDF] + Video - Piano solo - Baroque * License: Public Domain -.
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It was in fact written in —50, and in imitation of Bach's example. The opposing system in Bach's day was meantone temperament [ citation needed ] in which keys with many accidentals sound out of tune. See also musical tuning. Bach would have been familiar with different tuning systems, and in particular as an organist would have played instruments tuned to a meantone system.
It is sometimes assumed that by "well-tempered" Bach intended equal temperament , the standard modern keyboard tuning which became popular after Bach's death, but modern scholars suggest instead a form of well temperament.
Intended tuning[ edit ] During much of the 20th century it was assumed that Bach wanted equal temperament , which had been described by theorists and musicians for at least a century before Bach's birth. This represents an equation of the most tonally remote enharmonic keys where the flat and sharp arms of the circle of fifths cross each other opposite to C major.
Any performance of this pair would have required both of these enharmonic keys to sound identically tuned, thus implying equal temperament in the one pair, as the entire work implies as a whole. However, research has continued into various unequal systems contemporary with Bach's career.
Accounts of Bach's own tuning practice are few and inexact. The three most cited sources are Forkel , Bach's first biographer ; Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg , who received information from Bach's sons and pupils; and Johann Kirnberger , one of those pupils.
Forkel reports that Bach tuned his own harpsichords and clavichords and found other people's tunings unsatisfactory; his own allowed him to play in all keys and to modulate into distant keys almost without the listeners noticing it. Marpurg and Kirnberger, in the course of a heated debate, appear to agree that Bach required all the major thirds to be sharper than pure—which is in any case virtually a prerequisite for any temperament to be good in all keys.
Bach's son Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach himself published a rather vague tuning method which was close to but still not equal temperament: having only "most of" the fifths tempered, without saying which ones nor by how much.
Since there have been many other proposals and many performances of the work in different and unequal tunings, some derived from historical sources, some by modern authors. Whatever their provenances, these schemes all promote the existence of subtly different musical characters in different keys, due to the sizes of their intervals.
However, they disagree as to which key receives which character: Herbert Anton Kellner argued from the mids until his death that esoteric considerations such as the pattern of Bach's signet ring , numerology , and more could be used to determine the correct temperament.
His result is somewhat similar to Werckmeister's most familiar "correct" temperament. It is especially effective as a moderate solution to play 17th-century music, shying away from tonalities that have more than two flats.
John Barnes analyzed the Well-Tempered Clavier 's major-key preludes statistically, observing that some major thirds are used more often than others. His results were broadly in agreement with Kellner's and Werckmeister's patterns. Mark Lindley , a researcher of historical temperaments, has written several surveys of temperament styles in the German Baroque tradition. In his publications he has recommended and devised many patterns close to those of Neidhardt, with subtler gradations of interval size.
Since a article in which he addressed some issues in the Well-Tempered Clavier, Lindley's theories have focused more on Bach's organ music than the harpsichord or clavichord works. Title page tuning interpretations[ edit ] Top of Bach's title page for the 1st book of 'The Well-Tempered Clavier', , showing handwritten loops which some have interpreted as tuning instructions. More recently there has been a series of proposals of temperaments derived from the handwritten pattern of loops on Bach's title page.
These loops though truncated by a later clipping of the page can be seen at the top of the title page image at the beginning of the article. Andreas Sparschuh, in the course of studying German Baroque organ tunings, assigned mathematical and acoustic meaning to the loops.
Each loop, he argued, represents a fifth in the sequence for tuning the keyboard, starting from A.