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CMMI. ® for Development,. Version CMMI-DEV, V CMU/SEITR- ESC-TR Improving processes for better products. CMMI Product . This report is an upgrade of CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD/SS, Version and represents The focus of the CMMI Version effort is on improving the quality of CMMI. CMMI-DEV v (slides ); 3. Introduction • About Capability Models • Evolution of CMMI • CMMI for Development (CMMI-DEV) • The.

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Cmmi V1 2 Epub

Epub Cmmi pdf. Cmmi For Development, Version 1 - Sei Digital Library cmmi for 布 sitemap index. PDF ePub Mobi. Download PDF. Download PDF. Page 2. This three-day course introduces the fundamental concepts of Capability Maturity Model Integration® (CMMI®) to systems and software engineering managers. Epub Maio . model of project management currently used as a reference for assessment is CMMI v (CMMI-DEV) (SOFTWARE, ).

This article aims to analyze the impact of project management maturity level and adopt reference models on IT projects performance success. A quantitative research approach was used, including a survey with 51 professionals from the sector. Results showed positive impact between project management maturity level and meeting of stakeholders' demands. A positive statistical correlation was also found in firms that develop information technology projects through PMBoK adoption concerning meeting requirements and meeting of stakeholders' demands. Keywords: Project Management. Information Technology IT. Project success. Project management maturity model.

Shenhar and Dvir 2007 aggregate to the basic dimensions - which they name efficiency achieve budget and time targets - another four: impact on customer; impact for the team; business success; and preparation for the future. In contrast, the second approach reduces the dimensions considered for project success, once it considers them related and, therefore, liable to summary. This approach understands that the traditional criteria of cost, time and quality are related, that is, to a certain quality there are relations between cost and time.

Agarwal and Rathod 2006 state that cost, time, functionality and quality remain as important criteria for software project performance and have been used in various studies, both together with other measures and alone. The performance assessment of development projects in technology and information systems have been the concern of several authors and organizations in the past two decades JIANG et al.

However, reports by Standish Group International show that software production in the world still presents many improvement opportunities both in terms of process as well as in terms of quality, offering products at much more appealing costs than the current ones.

Predicting Defects Using Information Intelligence Process Models in the Software Technology Project

According to the report by Standish Group International, published in 2003, there has been an improvement compared to the ones previously published by the same organization.

Reference models and project management methods There are several sets of models of project management methods available nowadays. Also known as reference models, most of them advocate the sequential application of a structured, replicated and continuous process that, when used by an organization in a gradual and safe way to their businesses, allow to progress toward the institutionalization of standardized practices SILVEIRA, 2008.

But, before the implementation of a given project management method, each organization should analyze the different types of methods available in order to make use of the best concepts needed to its own strategy and project management THOMAS; MULLALY, 2007. PMBoK has its contents structured in five groups of processes initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and control, and closing and nine knowledge areas scope, time, cost, quality, human resources, communication, risk, procurement and integration.

In turn, each knowledge area consists of processes, in a total of 42, with their respective inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs PROJECT... CMMI-DEV deals with the development process of products and services through 22 process areas; each of them contains specific and generic practices, which address since the configuration management in the beginning of the process until the final validation and verification SOFTWARE...

Project Management Maturity Models It is hard to imagine that organizations may have a "collective brain", but one can find organizations' knowledge and experience in operational procedures, description of labor processes, descriptions of position, paths, routines, and in knowledge databases in products and projects GAREIS; HUEMANN, 2000.

The maturity of project management of an enterprise can be understood as a measurement of its level of excellence in the area. Organizational maturity in project activity is not necessarily related with the passage of time, but with the nature of the business and the market forces DINSMORE, 1998.

The search for excellence in project management by organizations is measured by its maturity level in managing their projects, by measuring how much the processes of companies are dedicated to their projects. The maturity level in project management of an organization tells how much this organization has already moved towards the search for excellence achievement in the management of its projects PATAH, 2004.

Maturity models in project management have been influenced by the work of Humphrey 1989 , who identified maturity levels in the process of IT project development, relying mainly in managerial attitudes found in enterprises CARVALHO et al.

Paulk et al. Bouer and Carvalho 2005 , based on the definition of maturity by Project Management Institute PMI , report that maturity implies that management capabilities should evolve over time, with the purpose to yield consecutive results in the management of projects.

The onset of maturity models in project management is a recent phenomenon, dating from approximately a decade and a half ago. After that, there was an evolution from this model to a more comprehensive one called CMMI Capability Maturity Model Integration , which can be applied to enterprises of any sector, not being restricted only to IT organizations.

Both are based on concepts of maturity levels or stages and structural requirements of process key-areas through the compliance of a series of practices, specific and generic, inherent to each of its maturity levels: 1 Initial; 2 Repetitive; 3 Defined; 4 Managed; and 5 Optimizing. The method model of project management currently used as a reference for assessment is CMMI v1. The resources spent in improvement of software processes, based on the model, are estimated at billions of dollars.

There is a growing research basis that supports a link between high levels of maturity and optimized organizational performance.

A survey carried out by Jiang et al. In their study, the authors concluded that the adoption of CMM, specified in the key-areas for software process improvement SPI , has a positive relation with project development. Jiang et al. Nevertheless, the authors warn that the process activities of project management CMM — level 2 activities have no significant relation with their regression analysis, what suggests that organizations may not experience great benefits until they reach CMM maturity Level 3.

According to the authors, the process activities of project management may be the necessary basis for project success, but not for providing visible return.

In the past decades, other maturity models specific for describing and measuring competence in project management have been developed. Besides the ones mentioned above, other less known models have arisen, such as the maturity model proposed by Dinsmore 1998 and the one called "PM-competence", proposed by Gareis and Huemann 2000. Dinsmore 1998 proposes five stages through which an organization should go through in order to become mature and managed by projects: 1 The buying of the idea; 2 Planning; 3 Deployment; 4 Tests; and 5 Operating the management of projects.

On the other hand, in the model by Gareis and Huemann 2000 , the basis for the "PM-competence" is project management process with sub-processes. The assessment of the "PM-competence" of an organization is based on an IT questionnaire containing approximately 80 questions.

These questions, related, for example, to processes from the beginning of projects, are clustered in matters regarding planning methods of objectives, risks, communication, organization and culture. In addition, the OPM3 program tries to aid organizations to develop the capability to support the macro-business process in managing all projects, connecting them with the business strategy. The product of the OPM3 program comprises a glossary of terms, outputs that show that project management brings success, contingency variables and the descriptions of the model steps PROJECT...

Originally, the OPM3 assessment questionnaire consisted of 151 questions. In 2008, the model was updated with the publishing of its second edition and the number of questions was reduced to 125. The main alteration from the first to the second edition was that the latter also assess the organizational enabling criteria structural, cultural, technological and of human resources , as well as its suitability to the PMI portfolio standard launched in 2006.

Project Management Maturity Model PMMM consists of five levels that, alike the models by the Software Engineering Institute, each level represents a different degree of maturity in project management. Maturity assessment, for each of these five levels, is realized by means of specific questionnaires.

Figure 2 shows the five maturity levels and the life cycles that characterize maturity level 2 of the PMMM model. Level 2 of the PMMM model- common processes In the second level proposed by Kerzner 2001 , the organization recognizes which common processes should be defined, used and improved so that the success obtained in a project can be replicated in the other projects of the organization.

Kerzner 2001 points out at least six driving forces to promote the understanding of project management benefits by executives. It can be accomplished in parallel with the first three life cycle phases. The growth phase begins with the creation of the project management process.

It includes the development of a management system for cost and time control, the integration of these controls and the development of a training curriculum in project management. Summary of the theoretical chart In this research, the relation between maturity and reference models with success in IT projects was considered as shown in Chart 1. The hypotheses presented in the next section emerge from the relation between these constructs. Given the nature of survey questions, the authors have chosen to adopt a quantitative survey strategy.

According to Godoy 1995 , in a quantitative study the author is concerned with objective measuring and quantification of results. According to Bryman 1989 , assessment surveys require data collection, which, in the field of organizational survey, invariably happens by means of self-applicable questionnaires and structured or semi-structured interviews.

Still according to the author, data collection is usually made in an amount of units that enables statistical generalization. However, the search for statistical generalization involves large samples. It is also worth noting that these units may be people or organizations, with people being from the same or different organizations.

Kerzner 2001 proposes the assessment of the 20 questions in the five life cycle phases: embryonic, executive management recognition and acceptance, line management recognition and acceptance, growth and maturity. For a company to be ready for maturity level 3, a score equals or greater than 6 at all life cycle phases of level 2 is necessary.

Although the literature on critical factors of success in projects presents several criteria that may have an impact on their development, some factors seem to be consensual: time, cost, quality. For the project chosen by the interviewee, information about its characteristics budget, number of participants, lifespan , the tools used for its management and its performance was asked.

The questionnaires were distributed in person to 133 agents, consultants and analysts, formally allocated in the IT area in the organizations where they acted. The sample has regional cutting, since it concentrates in enterprises in the State of Sao Paulo. The questionnaires were charted and analyzed through Minitab-16 statistical software. Field research The sample is comprised of 113 IT professionals - "lato sensu" graduate students at a Brazilian state university. The assessment was performed in person with the surveyor available to clear any possible doubts.

The respondents' selection followed the non-random sampling criterion, being considered a convenience sample. Thus, it was possible to obtain a knowledgeable sample on the studied theme that was able to answer the survey questionnaire adequately. Sixty-seven 67 out of a hundred thirteen 113 questionnaires were answered and handed in, sixteen of which were discarded for presenting incomplete information, remaining fifty-one 51 valid questionnaires. The main results of the field research will be presented in this section.

Characterization of the sample The sample consists of professionals involved in projects of technology development and information systems, from companies belonging to the IT sector as well as to other sectors. The participants represent 45 different companies.

Thus, there are respondents from the same enterprise and the maximum number of respondents from the same company is three. Out of these respondents, 40 78. Tabulation of results In a first stage, data regarding the application of the questionnaire on maturity assessment in project management Part 2 were determined with the intention to evaluate which organizations are classified as mature in project management.

In addition, the statistical patterns for standard deviation and median are presented for all phases. It is noticed that, for an enterprise be apt for maturity level 3, scores equal or greater than 6 in all life cycle phases are necessary KERZNER, 2001. Data were also stratified by the amount of companies that were specific of the IT sector or other sectors.

Analyzing Table 1 , which shows the distribution of data from the 51 survey participants per life cycle phase of projects, one can observe that the embryonic phase was the one with the greatest amount of companies that have reached or surpassed score 6 in maturity - with 21 companies 41. In the line management recognition and acceptance phase 31.

Figure 3 depicts the profile of the general average score of companies belonging to the IT sector, the other sectors, and the general average score of the whole survey, with no stratification. The mean values calculated suggest that both groups do not present maturity in none of the five phases of the life cycle, although some enterprises, individually, have reached scores equal or greater than six in all the five phases of the life cycle, as in Table 1.

Figure 3 shows that the mean values for maturity, found for the IT companies, are greater than the values found for companies that do not belong to the IT sector, but hold projects of technology development and information systems.

Therefore, the information technology sector apparently presents greater organizational maturity in project management. Finally, concerning project development assessment, it was noticed that 86.

Results analysis Four hypotheses were tested in order to answer the questions worded in this survey. Table 2 presents a summary of the results obtained, discriminating variables analyzed and the results of the chi-square statistic and the descriptive level nd.

This result indicates that mature organizations ensure the success of their projects partially meeting the demands of stakeholders in IT projects.

With respect to hypotheses 2 and 3, both are true, since all tests related to these hypotheses were not statistically significant.

Figure 4 shows the confirmation of the hypothesis 4b and 4d. Conclusions One of the purposes of the present article was to assess the organizational maturity level in the management of technology development and information projects. Through the analysis of the collected data, it was possible to verify that most of the studied enterprises still have not reached the maturity score in none of the five phases of the life cycle at PMMM level 2, as presented in section 4.

This result can be attributed to the fact that this project typology, as well as the IT sector, are relatively new, with most companies and departments being not even two decades old, which frequently implies in little learning, lack of institutionalized processes and consolidated management models. Even without reaching relevant maturity levels, an important finding is that the average value for maturity score, by phase of PMMM level-2 life cycle, was higher in companies that are specific of the IT sector compared to organizations belonging to other sectors.

This suggests a greater development of IT enterprises compared to IT departments of other organizations, possibly due to the specialization of the former in executing this project typology. In addition, the relation between PMMM level 2 maturity phase and project success was evaluated, testing the 1a, 1b, 1c and 1d group of hypotheses. Only with regard to fulfilling stakeholders' demands in IT projects, it was possible to verify significantly better performance of mature companies against immature ones.

But, before the implementation of a given project management method, each organization should analyze the different types of methods available in order to make use of the best concepts needed to its own strategy and project management THOMAS; MULLALY, PMBoK has its contents structured in five groups of processes initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and control, and closing and nine knowledge areas scope, time, cost, quality, human resources, communication, risk, procurement and integration.

In turn, each knowledge area consists of processes, in a total of 42, with their respective inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs PROJECT CMMI-DEV deals with the development process of products and services through 22 process areas; each of them contains specific and generic practices, which address since the configuration management in the beginning of the process until the final validation and verification SOFTWARE Project Management Maturity Models It is hard to imagine that organizations may have a "collective brain", but one can find organizations' knowledge and experience in operational procedures, description of labor processes, descriptions of position, paths, routines, and in knowledge databases in products and projects GAREIS; HUEMANN, The maturity of project management of an enterprise can be understood as a measurement of its level of excellence in the area.

Organizational maturity in project activity is not necessarily related with the passage of time, but with the nature of the business and the market forces DINSMORE, The search for excellence in project management by organizations is measured by its maturity level in managing their projects, by measuring how much the processes of companies are dedicated to their projects. The maturity level in project management of an organization tells how much this organization has already moved towards the search for excellence achievement in the management of its projects PATAH, Maturity models in project management have been influenced by the work of Humphrey , who identified maturity levels in the process of IT project development, relying mainly in managerial attitudes found in enterprises CARVALHO et al.

Paulk et al. Bouer and Carvalho , based on the definition of maturity by Project Management Institute PMI , report that maturity implies that management capabilities should evolve over time, with the purpose to yield consecutive results in the management of projects. The onset of maturity models in project management is a recent phenomenon, dating from approximately a decade and a half ago. After that, there was an evolution from this model to a more comprehensive one called CMMI Capability Maturity Model Integration , which can be applied to enterprises of any sector, not being restricted only to IT organizations.

Both are based on concepts of maturity levels or stages and structural requirements of process key-areas through the compliance of a series of practices, specific and generic, inherent to each of its maturity levels: 1 Initial; 2 Repetitive; 3 Defined; 4 Managed; and 5 Optimizing.

The method model of project management currently used as a reference for assessment is CMMI v1. The resources spent in improvement of software processes, based on the model, are estimated at billions of dollars. There is a growing research basis that supports a link between high levels of maturity and optimized organizational performance.

A survey carried out by Jiang et al. In their study, the authors concluded that the adoption of CMM, specified in the key-areas for software process improvement SPI , has a positive relation with project development.

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Jiang et al. Nevertheless, the authors warn that the process activities of project management CMM — level 2 activities have no significant relation with their regression analysis, what suggests that organizations may not experience great benefits until they reach CMM maturity Level 3.

According to the authors, the process activities of project management may be the necessary basis for project success, but not for providing visible return.

In the past decades, other maturity models specific for describing and measuring competence in project management have been developed. Besides the ones mentioned above, other less known models have arisen, such as the maturity model proposed by Dinsmore and the one called "PM-competence", proposed by Gareis and Huemann Dinsmore proposes five stages through which an organization should go through in order to become mature and managed by projects: 1 The buying of the idea; 2 Planning; 3 Deployment; 4 Tests; and 5 Operating the management of projects.

On the other hand, in the model by Gareis and Huemann , the basis for the "PM-competence" is project management process with sub-processes. The assessment of the "PM-competence" of an organization is based on an IT questionnaire containing approximately 80 questions.

These questions, related, for example, to processes from the beginning of projects, are clustered in matters regarding planning methods of objectives, risks, communication, organization and culture. In addition, the OPM3 program tries to aid organizations to develop the capability to support the macro-business process in managing all projects, connecting them with the business strategy.

The product of the OPM3 program comprises a glossary of terms, outputs that show that project management brings success, contingency variables and the descriptions of the model steps PROJECT Originally, the OPM3 assessment questionnaire consisted of questions. In , the model was updated with the publishing of its second edition and the number of questions was reduced to The main alteration from the first to the second edition was that the latter also assess the organizational enabling criteria structural, cultural, technological and of human resources , as well as its suitability to the PMI portfolio standard launched in Project Management Maturity Model PMMM consists of five levels that, alike the models by the Software Engineering Institute, each level represents a different degree of maturity in project management.

Maturity assessment, for each of these five levels, is realized by means of specific questionnaires. Figure 2 shows the five maturity levels and the life cycles that characterize maturity level 2 of the PMMM model.

Level 2 of the PMMM model- common processes In the second level proposed by Kerzner , the organization recognizes which common processes should be defined, used and improved so that the success obtained in a project can be replicated in the other projects of the organization.

Kerzner points out at least six driving forces to promote the understanding of project management benefits by executives. It can be accomplished in parallel with the first three life cycle phases. The growth phase begins with the creation of the project management process. It includes the development of a management system for cost and time control, the integration of these controls and the development of a training curriculum in project management.

Summary of the theoretical chart In this research, the relation between maturity and reference models with success in IT projects was considered as shown in Chart 1.

The hypotheses presented in the next section emerge from the relation between these constructs.

Given the nature of survey questions, the authors have chosen to adopt a quantitative survey strategy. According to Godoy , in a quantitative study the author is concerned with objective measuring and quantification of results. According to Bryman , assessment surveys require data collection, which, in the field of organizational survey, invariably happens by means of self-applicable questionnaires and structured or semi-structured interviews.

Still according to the author, data collection is usually made in an amount of units that enables statistical generalization. However, the search for statistical generalization involves large samples.

It is also worth noting that these units may be people or organizations, with people being from the same or different organizations. Kerzner proposes the assessment of the 20 questions in the five life cycle phases: embryonic, executive management recognition and acceptance, line management recognition and acceptance, growth and maturity. For a company to be ready for maturity level 3, a score equals or greater than 6 at all life cycle phases of level 2 is necessary.

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Although the literature on critical factors of success in projects presents several criteria that may have an impact on their development, some factors seem to be consensual: time, cost, quality. For the project chosen by the interviewee, information about its characteristics budget, number of participants, lifespan , the tools used for its management and its performance was asked. The questionnaires were distributed in person to agents, consultants and analysts, formally allocated in the IT area in the organizations where they acted.

The sample has regional cutting, since it concentrates in enterprises in the State of Sao Paulo. The questionnaires were charted and analyzed through Minitab statistical software. Field research The sample is comprised of IT professionals - "lato sensu" graduate students at a Brazilian state university. The assessment was performed in person with the surveyor available to clear any possible doubts.

The respondents' selection followed the non-random sampling criterion, being considered a convenience sample. Thus, it was possible to obtain a knowledgeable sample on the studied theme that was able to answer the survey questionnaire adequately. Sixty-seven 67 out of a hundred thirteen questionnaires were answered and handed in, sixteen of which were discarded for presenting incomplete information, remaining fifty-one 51 valid questionnaires.

The main results of the field research will be presented in this section. Characterization of the sample The sample consists of professionals involved in projects of technology development and information systems, from companies belonging to the IT sector as well as to other sectors.

The participants represent 45 different companies. Thus, there are respondents from the same enterprise and the maximum number of respondents from the same company is three. Out of these respondents, 40 Tabulation of results In a first stage, data regarding the application of the questionnaire on maturity assessment in project management Part 2 were determined with the intention to evaluate which organizations are classified as mature in project management.

In addition, the statistical patterns for standard deviation and median are presented for all phases.

It is noticed that, for an enterprise be apt for maturity level 3, scores equal or greater than 6 in all life cycle phases are necessary KERZNER, Data were also stratified by the amount of companies that were specific of the IT sector or other sectors.

Analyzing Table 1 , which shows the distribution of data from the 51 survey participants per life cycle phase of projects, one can observe that the embryonic phase was the one with the greatest amount of companies that have reached or surpassed score 6 in maturity - with 21 companies In the line management recognition and acceptance phase Figure 3 depicts the profile of the general average score of companies belonging to the IT sector, the other sectors, and the general average score of the whole survey, with no stratification.

The mean values calculated suggest that both groups do not present maturity in none of the five phases of the life cycle, although some enterprises, individually, have reached scores equal or greater than six in all the five phases of the life cycle, as in Table 1.

Figure 3 shows that the mean values for maturity, found for the IT companies, are greater than the values found for companies that do not belong to the IT sector, but hold projects of technology development and information systems. Therefore, the information technology sector apparently presents greater organizational maturity in project management. Finally, concerning project development assessment, it was noticed that Results analysis Four hypotheses were tested in order to answer the questions worded in this survey.

Table 2 presents a summary of the results obtained, discriminating variables analyzed and the results of the chi-square statistic and the descriptive level nd. This result indicates that mature organizations ensure the success of their projects partially meeting the demands of stakeholders in IT projects.

With respect to hypotheses 2 and 3, both are true, since all tests related to these hypotheses were not statistically significant. Figure 4 shows the confirmation of the hypothesis 4b and 4d. Conclusions One of the purposes of the present article was to assess the organizational maturity level in the management of technology development and information projects. Through the analysis of the collected data, it was possible to verify that most of the studied enterprises still have not reached the maturity score in none of the five phases of the life cycle at PMMM level 2, as presented in section 4.

This result can be attributed to the fact that this project typology, as well as the IT sector, are relatively new, with most companies and departments being not even two decades old, which frequently implies in little learning, lack of institutionalized processes and consolidated management models. Even without reaching relevant maturity levels, an important finding is that the average value for maturity score, by phase of PMMM level-2 life cycle, was higher in companies that are specific of the IT sector compared to organizations belonging to other sectors.

This suggests a greater development of IT enterprises compared to IT departments of other organizations, possibly due to the specialization of the former in executing this project typology. In addition, the relation between PMMM level 2 maturity phase and project success was evaluated, testing the 1a, 1b, 1c and 1d group of hypotheses. Only with regard to fulfilling stakeholders' demands in IT projects, it was possible to verify significantly better performance of mature companies against immature ones.

No significant differences were identified for the other success criteria. This is a sign that a company with greater maturity level in project management fulfills the needs of its customers more effectively. Studying the relation between different reference models in project management, it was possible to notice that the majority of the sample adopts PMBok by Project Management Institute a.

Nowadays, PMBoK is probably the most well-known reference model in Brazil and, therefore, the most used. This study has demonstrated that its application has the ability to affect the performance of IT projects positively, even without the observation of complete success. It is worth adding that in the survey conducted by Jiang et al. It is noteworthy that the performance data of IT projects from the sample differ from the survey carried out by Standish Group International in information technology projects, with relation to the following criteria: compliance with the planned budget and meeting of timeline and fulfillment of project requirements.

While in the analyzed sample This discrepancy between the values observed in the sample and those published by Standish Group International may be explained by the large investment made in project management, as mentioned in section 2.