Portland Road, W11 – Construction Management Plan The purpose of this Construction Management Plan (“the Plan”) at this planning stage is to outline. CONSTRUCTION. PLANNING AND SCHEDULING. Emad Elbeltagi, Ph.D., P. Eng.,. Professor of Construction Management. Structural Engineering Department. management of capital projects involving construction of a transit facility or .. transit project planning, design, and construction, developed and produced.
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Determine the relationship between activities. Estimate activities time duration, cost expenditure, and resource requirement. Develop the project network. The full scope of work for the project is placed at the top of the diagram, and then sub-divided smaller elements of work at each lower level of the breakdown.
At the lowest level of the WBS the elements of work is called a work package. Effective use of the WBS will outline the scope of the project and the responsibility for each work package. There is not necessarily a right or wrong structure because what may be an excellent fit for one discipline may be an awkward burden for another.
To visualize the WBS, consider Figure 1. In level 2, the project is sub-divided into its three main trades, and in level 3 each trade is sub- divided to specific work packages. Figure 1. Level 2: Independent areas. Level 3: Physically identifiable sections fully contained in a level 2 area, reflect construction strategy. Level 4: Disciplines set up schedule. Level 5: Master schedule activities, quantity, duration. Example 1. The figure, also, shows that work packages are tied to the company unified code of accounts.
The unified code of accounts allows cataloging, sorting, and summarizing of all information. WBS coding A project code system provides the framework for project planning and control in which each work package in a WBS is given a unique code that is used in project planning and control. The coding system provides a comprehensive checklist of all items of work that can be found in a specific type of construction.
An example of this coding system is the MasterFormat Figure 1. The Master format is divided into 16 divisions as follows: 1 General Requirements.
Emad Elbeltagi 10 Specialties. An activity is defined as any function or decision in the project that: consumes time, resources, and cost.
Emad Elbeltagi Figure 1. Emad Elbeltagi Production activities: activities that involve the use of resources such as labor, equipment, material, or subcontractor.
Examples are: excavation, formwork, reinforcement, concreting, etc. Procurement activities: activities that specify the time for procuring materials or equipment that are needed for a production activity. Examples are: brick procurement, boiler manufacturing and delivery, etc. Management activities: activities that are related to management decisions such as approvals, vacations, etc. This level of details depends on the purpose of preparing the project plan. In the pre construction stages, less detailed activities can be utilized, however, in the construction stages, detailed activities are required.
Accordingly, level of details depends on: planning stage, size of the project, complexity of the work, management expertise. Emad Elbeltagi Example 1. Break the construction works of the bridge into activities. The plan will be used for bidding purposes. Emad Elbeltagi 1. A circle of activity precedence will result in an impossible plan. For example, if activity A precedes activity B, activity B precedes activity C, and activity C precedes activity A, then the project can never be started or completed.
Site clearing of brush and minor debris , B. Removal of trees, C. General excavation, D. Grading general area, E. Excavation for utility trenches, F. Placing formwork and reinforcement for concrete, G. Installing sewer lines, H. Installing other utilities, I. Pouring concrete. Emad Elbeltagi Activities A site clearing and B tree removal do not have preceding activities since they depend on none of the other activities.
We assume that activities C general excavation and D general grading are preceded by activity A site clearing. It might also be the case that the planner wished to delay any excavation until trees were removed, so that B tree removal would be a precedent activity to C general excavation and D general grading.
Activities E trench excavation and F concrete preparation cannot begin until the completion of general excavation and grading, since they involve subsequent excavation and trench preparation. Activities G install lines and H install utilities represent installation in the utility trenches and cannot be attempted until the trenches are prepared, so that activity E trench excavation is a preceding activity.
We also assume that the utilities should not be installed until grading is completed to avoid equipment conflicts, so activity D general grading is also preceding activities G install sewers and H install utilities.
Finally, activity I pour concrete cannot begin until the sewer line is installed and formwork and reinforcement are ready, so activities F and G are preceding.
Other utilities may be routed over the slab foundation, so activity H install utilities is not necessarily a preceding activity for activity I pour concrete.
The result of our planning is the immediate precedence shown in Table 1. Table 1. Beams 20 Excavate left abutment 10 30 Excavate right abutment 10 40 Excavate central pier 10 50 Foundation left abutment 14, 20 60 Foundation right abutment 14, 30 70 Foundation central pier 14, 40 80 Construct left abutment 50 90 Construct right abutment 60 Construct central pier 70 Erect left P.
Beams 16, 80, Erect right P. Beams 16, 90, Fill left embankment 80 Fill right embankment 90 Construct deck slab , Left road base Right road base Road surface , , Bridge railing Clear site , Logical relationship considering resource constraints For efficient use of resources or in case of constrained resources, it might be beneficial to consider the resources when determining the logical relationship among the activities that use the same resources.
For example, consider the case of construction a simple project consists of three units and each unit has three sequential activities logical relationship.
Emad Elbeltagi Table 1. The absence of overlap means that the first activity must finish before the second may start.
A negative overlap lag means a delay is required between the two activities Figure 1. The main segments of a single house, the responsibilities, and the logical relationship are identified as follows: - 11 work packages are involved: A and B civil work, substructure , C, D, E, and F civil work, superstructure , G electrical, interior , H electrical, exterior , I mechanical, HVAC , J mechanical, elevator , and K mechanical, plumbing. Emad Elbeltagi Types of activities relationships Four types of relationships among activities can be defined as described and illustrated below Figure 1.
Typically, relationships are defined from the predecessor to the successor activity.
The successor activity can begin only when the current activity completes. The finish of the successor activity depends on the finish of the current activity. The start of the successor activity depends on the start of the current activity.
The successor activity cannot finish until the current activity starts. A project network is a set of arrows and nodes. Before drawing the network, it is necessary to ensure that the project has a unified starting and ending point. The need for this start activity arises when there is more than one activity in the project that has no predecessors and the end activity is needed when there is more than one activity that has no successors.
Also, networks should be continuous i. Emad Elbeltagi There are two ways that are commonly used to draw a network diagram for a project: 1.
Activity on Arrow AOA representation. Activity on Node AON representation Activity on arrow network AOA In this method, the arrows represent activities while the nodes represent the start and the end of an activity usually named as events Figure 1. The length of the arrow connecting the nodes has no significance and may be straight, curved, or bent.
When one activity depends upon another, both appear on the diagram as two arrows having a common node. Emad Elbeltagi - Each activity must have a unique i — j numbers, where i the number at the tail of the arrow is smaller than j the number at the head of the arrow.
This will allow for accommodation of missed activities. In some situations, when more than one arrow leave the same node and arrive at another node, dummy activities must be used. The dummy activity is an activity with zero duration, consumes no resources, drawn as dashed lines, and used to adjust the network diagram. A dummy activity is also used when one activity depends upon two preceding activities and another activity depends only upon one of these two preceding activities as shown in Figure 1.
Activity on node network AON This method is also called the precedence diagram method. In this method, the nodes represent activities and the arrows represent logical relationships among the activities. If the arrow starts from the end side of an activity activity A and ends at the start side of another activity activity B , then A is a predecessor of B Figure 1.
AON representation allows the overlap or lag representation on the relationship arrows connecting activities. At this point, we note that two activities A and B lie between the same two event nodes; for clarity, we insert a dummy activity X and continue to place other activities as in Figure 1.
Placing activity G in the figure presents a problem, however, since we wish both activity D and activity E to be predecessors.
Inserting an additional dummy activity Y along with activity G completes the activity network, as shown in Figure 1. Emad Elbeltagi To understand the drawing of the AON, some ordering for the activities may be necessary.
This is done by placing the activities in a sequence step order. A sequence step may be defined as the earliest logical position in the network that an activity can occupy while maintaining the logical relationships. In this example, as there are two activities activities A and B has no predecessor, then a start activity is added to have one unified start activity Start for the project.
Also, a finish activity Finish is added as there are two activities without successors activities F and G.
Considering the data given in Table 1. Then, we take all activities on the list one by one and look at their immediate predecessors and then assign a sequence step that equals the highest sequence step of all immediate predecessors plus one as given in Table 1. After all sequence step numbers have been assigned, the AON diagram can be drawn.
Note that dummy activities are not required for expressing precedence relationships in activity-on-node networks. Emad Elbeltagi Sequence step 1 2 3 4 5 6 Figure 1. These durations are used in preparing a schedule. For example, suppose that the durations shown in Table 1. The entire set of activities would then require at least 3 days, since the activities follow one another directly and require a total of 1.
A straightforward approach to the estimation of activity durations is to keep historical records of particular activities and rely on the average durations from this experience in making new duration estimates. Emad Elbeltagi between different projects, unit productivity rates are typically employed for this purpose. The number of crews working is decided by the planner.
In many cases, the number or amount of resources applied to particular activities may be modified in light of the resulting project plan and schedule.
Some estimate of the expected work productivity must be provided. Historical records in a firm can also provide data for estimation of productivities. Having defined an activity duration, it means that the planner have already defined the number of resources that will be employed in a particular activity.
Knowing activity duration and resources employed, it is simple to estimate the activity direct cost. Then, the three elements of an activity: duration, cost, and resources form what is called construction method.
Some activities can be performed using different construction methods. Execution is all about building deliverables that satisfy the customer. Team leaders make this happen by allocating resources and keeping team members focused on their assigned tasks.
Execution relies heavily on the planning phase. The work and efforts of the team during the execution phase are derived from the project plan. Project Monitoring and Control Monitoring and control are sometimes combined with execution because they often occur at the same time. As teams execute their project plan, they must constantly monitor their own progress. To guarantee delivery of what was promised, teams must monitor tasks to prevent scope creep, calculate key performance indicators and track variations from allotted cost and time.
This constant vigilance helps keep the project moving ahead smoothly. Project Closure Teams close a project when they deliver the finished project to the customer, communicating completion to stakeholders and releasing resources to other projects. This vital step in the project lifecycle allows the team to evaluate and document the project and move on the next one, using previous project mistakes and successes to build stronger processes and more successful teams.
Although project management may seem overwhelming at times, breaking it down into these five distinct cycles can help your team manage even the most complex projects and use time and resources more wisely. Share this:.