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He went to Boys High School, one of the top high schools in Brooklyn. He also edited Principia, the school's Physics paper, for a year. In he began taking legal studies classes at night in addition to his undergraduate course load. He hated it and almost immediately dropped out. In he transferred to Cornell, but he left after just one semester due to poor grades and high costs.
In , he married his first cousin Bertha, who was still in high school at the time. The pair had met in Brooklyn years earlier. Maslow's early experience with behaviorism would leave him with a strong positivist mindset.
He was so ashamed of the thesis that he removed it from the psychology library and tore out its catalog listing. Maslow's thesis was published as two articles in Academic career[ edit ] He continued his research at Columbia University on similar themes.
There he found another mentor in Alfred Adler , one of Sigmund Freud 's early colleagues. From to , Maslow was on the faculty of Brooklyn College.
His family life and his experiences influenced his psychological ideas. After World War II , Maslow began to question the way psychologists had come to their conclusions, and although he did not completely disagree, he had his own ideas on how to understand the human mind.
He was thus ineligible for the military. However, the horrors of war inspired a vision of peace in him leading to his groundbreaking psychological studies of self-actualizing. The studies began under the supervision of two mentors, anthropologist Ruth Benedict and Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer , whom he admired both professionally and personally. They accomplished a lot in both realms. Being such "wonderful human beings" as well, they inspired Maslow to take notes about them and their behavior.
This would be the basis of his lifelong research and thinking about mental health and human potential. Maslow was a professor at Brandeis University from to He became a resident fellow of the Laughlin Institute in California. In , Maslow had a serious heart attack and knew his time was limited.
He considered himself to be a psychological pioneer. He gave future psychologists a push by bringing to light different paths to ponder. Maslow believed that leadership should be non-intervening. Consistent with this approach, he rejected a nomination in to be the president of the Association for Humanistic Psychology because he felt that the organization should develop an intellectual movement without a leader.
How can we humanistically understand the problem of evil? The main point of that new movement, that reached its peak in s, was to emphasize the positive potential of human beings. He focused on self-actualizing people.
Self-actualizing people indicate a coherent personality syndrome and represent optimal psychological health and functioning. In Maslow's view, self-actualized people can have many peak experiences throughout a day while others have those experiences less frequently.
All were "reality centered," able to differentiate what was fraudulent from what was genuine. They were also "problem centered," meaning that they treated life's difficulties as problems that demanded solutions. These individuals also were comfortable being alone and had healthy personal relationships. They had only a few close friends and family rather than a large number of shallow relationships.
Maslow noticed that self-actualized individuals had a better insight of reality, deeply accepted themselves, others and the world, and also had faced many problems and were known to be impulsive people. These self-actualized individuals were very independent and private when it came to their environment and culture, especially their very own individual development on "potentialities and inner resources".
Together, these define the human experience. To the extent a person finds cooperative social fulfillment, he establishes meaningful relationships with other people and the larger world.
In other words, he establishes meaningful connections to an external reality—an essential component of self-actualization. In contrast, to the extent that vital needs find selfish and competitive fulfillment, a person acquires hostile emotions and limited external relationships—his awareness remains internal and limited.
Methodology[ edit ] Maslow based his study on the writings of other psychologists, Albert Einstein and people he knew who [he felt] clearly met the standard of self-actualization.
In this case, from a scientific perspective there are numerous problems with this particular approach. First, it could be argued that biographical analysis as a method is extremely subjective as it is based entirely on the opinion of the researcher.
Personal opinion is always prone to bias, which reduces the validity of any data obtained. Therefore, Maslow's operational definition of Self-actualization must not be blindly accepted as scientific fact.
None of his published works included a visual representation of the hierarchy. The pyramidal diagram illustrating the Maslow needs hierarchy may have been created by a psychology textbook publisher as an illustrative device. The DVD Guide helps students use the DVD in conjunction with the textbook, deepening their understanding and applying what they have learned to everyday life. Beyond the study aids found in the textbook, Pearson offers a number of supplements for students:.
Study Guide with Practice Tests. This helpful study guide offers Chapter Summaries, Learning Objectives, Study Questions organized according to major headings in the text, Suggested Readings, Crossword Puzzles for mastering important terms, and two multiple-choice Practice Tests per chapter.
Milestones Study Cards. Adapted from the popular Milestones tables featured in the text, these colorfully illustrated study cards outline key developmental attainments.
Easy to use, they assist students in integrating the various domains of development and constructing a vision of the whole developing person.
PART I. Chapter 6: Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood. Erikson's Theory: Chapter Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood.
Becoming a College Student in Midlife. Lifelong Learning Chapter Emotional and Social Development in Late Adulthood.
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Laura E. Berk is a distinguished professor of psychology at Illinois State University, where she has taught human development to both undergraduate and graduate students for more than three decades. Her research has been funded by the U. Her empirical studies have attracted the attention of the general public, leading to contributions to Psychology Today and Scientific American. Berk has served as a research editor for Young Children and a consulting editor for Early Childhood Research Quarterly.
Currently, she is an associate editor for the Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology. She is a frequent contributor to edited volumes on early childhood development, having recently authored chapters on the importance of parenting, on make-believe play and self-regulation, and on the kindergarten child.
An Encyclopedic Companion ; the article on Vygotsky for the Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science ; and the chapter on storytelling as a teaching strategy for Voices of Experience: Presenting the Evidence.
In addition to service in her home community, she is a member of the national board of directors and chair of the central region advisory board of Jumpstart, a nonprofit organization that provides one-to-one literacy intervention to thousands of low-income preschoolers across the United States, using college and university students as interveners.
Berk is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, Division 7: Developmental Psychology. We're sorry! We don't recognize your username or password. Please try again. The work is protected by local and international copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning.
You have successfully signed out and will be required to sign back in should you need to download more resources. This title is out of print. Exploring Lifespan Development, 2nd Edition. Berk, Illinois State University. Availability This title is out of print. Series This product is part of the following series. MyVirtualLife Series.
Four types of thematic boxes complement the text: New to This Edition. The Test Bank contains over 1, multiple-choice questions, each of which is page-referenced to chapter content and classified by type factual, applied, or conceptual. Student Supplements Beyond the study aids found in the textbook, Pearson offers a number of supplements for students: Emerging Adulthood Erikson's Theory: Becoming a College Student in Midlife Chapter Share a link to All Resources.
Websites and online courses. Other Student Resources. Discipline Resources. Instructors, you may still place orders with your bookstore. About the Author s.