1. MANAGEMENT. Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. PETER F. DRUCKER. TRUMAN TALLEY BOOKS / E.P. DUTTON / New York. Management - Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices by Peter Drucker. Pages· · MB·1, A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. Book/Management - Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices by Peter Drucker e book. pdf. Find file Copy path. Fetching contributors Cannot retrieve contributors at.
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Management—Tasks, responsibilities, practices. Book Reviews Edited by Harry Jones The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society--A Venture in Social. Concept of the Corporation; The Practice of Management; The Effective Executive;. Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices; Innovation. Management: tasks, responsibilities, practices. [Peter F Drucker] Links to this item. Inhaltsverzeichnis download (pdf). Close. Add library to.
Budgets are revenue and expenditure plans developed for each unit to help management decide where to apply the financial and human resources of an organization.
In estimating revenues and expenses, executives are able to establish communications with each part of the organization and integrate the objectives, plans, and expendi- tures of each part with the whole of the organization.
Budgets, cor- rectly used, are thus major tools for integrating the plans and performance of the organization—upward, downward, and sideways. By holding each unit responsible for the plans and expenditures in the budget, the budgeting process provides a framework for achiev- ing accountability for performance for each unit and person in the organization.
Operating and capital budgets are established to maintain cur- rent operations. For these budgets, the appropriate question is, What is the minimum amount of resources necessary to keep exist- ing operations going? Administered budgets, however, are dis- cretionary, opportunity-focused budgets, used for new programs, products, research, and other activities such as management devel- opment.
Opportunity budgets often integrate resource expenditures following from strategic decisions. They should be estimated over the life cycle of the opportunity in order to guarantee funding and achieve desired outcomes. The budget process provides a forum for evaluating existing mar- kets, products, processes, and programs for continuation. Activities that would no longer be initiated if not already in place are prime candidates for abandonment.
So as not to cause chaos each period, a periodic review sometimes called a zero-based review of the activ- ities for each unit should be established well in advance. This helps Peter F. Drucker on Executive Leadership 17 to institutionalize a systematic process of abandonment within the organization. Creating appropriate measurements and maintaining control are other skills that effective executives must acquire.
Controls are therefore not neutral. They reflect the values of the organization and they direct behavior. Consequently, con- trols must focus on results. They should be easy to understand and be considered a resource for the person who is responsible for the work that is being controlled. Controls must also be timely and con- gruent with goals. Qualitative assessments that the executive also must receive and evaluate are in many cases much more appropriate indicators of performance than are quantitative measurements for example, is one person a better fit for an open position than another?
The management sciences concern themselves with evaluating the assumptions of management through the use of quantitative tools such as statistics, system simulation, project management tech- niques, and information for decisions extracted from the account- ing system.
These tools help executives develop factual information for analyzing decisions. Management science tools, such as Six Sigma quality and lean methodologies, are extensively employed for improving the operational processes. Executives can use the management sciences to help create a true whole that is greater than the sum of its parts that is, to pre- vent suboptimization of parts of the organization and to balance the requirements of the present with those of the future.
In fact, the system may well be damaged thereby, or even destroyed. In some cases the best way to strengthen the sys- tem may be to weaken a part to make it less precise or efficient. The theory of the business THOB is the starting point for setting objectives. Management by objectives MBO is a well-defined method of setting objectives to achieve the mission of the organi- zation as defined in the THOB.
MBO involves setting goals and objectives to balance short-range and long-range objectives.
These objectives become the basis for organizing the human and capital resources of the firm and for making work assignments. The MBO process brings together aspects of executive leader- ship and management.
And to make sure that an organization is properly implementing its THOB, managers must engage in a communica- tion process, make decisions, and use measurements and the man- agement sciences. But management by objectives is not only a technique that executives should learn; it is a genuine philosophy of executive leadership.
MBO embodies a process that supports and facilitates teamwork. Communication—upward, downward, and sideways—is essential to setting and accomplishing objectives. Upward communication must be used to ensure that each executive has a clear picture of where the organization is going and how his or her objectives fit into the whole.
Most important, when properly employed, MBO relies on a process of self-control and seeks to achieve alignment between individual needs and the goals of the organization.
MBO thus seeks to meld individual freedom and responsibility with orga- nizational performance and results. It rests on a high concept of human motivation and behavior. It is the underpinning for a highly spirited organization. Organizing should result in minimizing the number of relationships required for each position to achieve performance. Executives should seek clarity, simplicity, and economy in their structures, and they should keep to a minimum the number of levels required, because each layer is a communication link that adds complexity and noise to the decision process.
A manager must also motivate and communicate. This requires social skills, trust, a focus on results, and other conditions for a highly spirited organization. It includes providing equitable rewards that balance the merits of the individual with the needs and stabil- ity of the group. Motivation comes from people decisions, job design, high expectations for performance, and sound decisions on compensation and rewards.
To ensure that efforts in the organization are directed toward objectives, a manager must establish yardsticks of performance. Per- formance in each position is measured in relationship to the objec- tives of the person and those of the organization. Establishing controls and appropriate reporting mechanisms facilitates the process of self-control as well as the processes of developing oneself and others. If one were to take a poll, it is likely that few people would iden- tify themselves as having ever considered topics such as, Am I a lis- tener or reader?
How do I learn most effectively? Is my job aligned with my values? One must determine where one belongs—in a large or small organization; as a freelancer; in a cor- poration, government, or social sector institution; or perhaps as an executive or a technologist. Not only do workers have to understand how they work, they must also understand how the people around them work so they can help these people maximize their contributions.
Managing these relationships is crucial to effectiveness.
Executives also must take responsibility for developing the abil- ities of subordinates and coworkers around them. This is a key result area for the executive.
This process is crucial for cultivating future leaders of an enterprise and for helping employees acquire skills that will prepare them for the future. Development is, however, a double- edged process. One cannot develop oneself unless one is actively engaged in the development of others.
To summarize our discussion of Figure 1. Executive principles must be directed toward developing and maintaining a high spirit of performance, achieving organizational results, and managing social impact to derive the common good.
But this is not all effective executives must do. The Internet provides everyone with equal access to information. It results in eliminating distance in the world economy. Globalization and out- sourcing have intensified competition in labor, product, and capi- tal markets.
The rate of change is becoming torrid and one can react to it, adapt to it, or become proactive and lead it—thus influencing Peter F. Drucker on Executive Leadership 21 future environmental trends.
They recognize that an organization that seeks to maintain the status quo is already in decline. Change leaders formulate entrepreneurial strategies and look for windows of opportunity to apply these strategies. They also create an internal culture and set of management systems that encourage and reward innovation and entrepreneurship. Executives will have to focus much more on making knowledge work productive and the knowledge workers achieving members of their organizations, given the growing importance of both in the developed and the developing economies.
This requires attention to building on strengths and to increasing the productivity of knowledge workers, but also to integrating specialists into the per- forming whole. Consequently the traditional workforce is shrinking. Such demographic changes mean that marketing strate- gies and the theory of the business of an enterprise may have to change. Split markets in which both the younger and older gener- ations make up the population dictate very different value proposi- tions and marketing strategies.
Another important area bearing on corporations is managing environmental and social impacts.
The size of our global population already exerts a negative impact on the environment. Organizations are likely to face stricter regulations in the future. These environmental issues will raise the importance of creat- ing accurate measures of emissions and of outcomes associated with reduction efforts of business units.
These issues will create busi- ness opportunities, as well as social responsibility objectives and measures. In addition, the company has established different targets for each business unit for reducing emissions of carbon diox- ide and overall GHG. The corporation of tomorrow will be far more complex than pre- vious corporations, or those of today, since it will constitute a web of partnerships, joint ventures, alliances, outsourcing contractors, and Peter F.
Drucker on Executive Leadership 23 various other kinds of associates or affiliates that are unprecedented in the current breadth and intricacy. Each aspect of the corporation may have its own management, but the relationships among entities will certainly have to be more coordinated and made to perform.
The blizzard of data will have to be converted into information that is pertinent for each knowledge worker and executive. Broadly, tech- nology is enabling continual increases in productivity for service and knowledge work in the twenty-first century as it had for man- ufacturing and agricultural work in the twentieth century.
This is enhancing the ability of executives to expand output per hour for both service and knowledge workers. To prosper, networked organizations must rely on communica- tions technology such as the Internet, mobile electronic devices, and videoconferencing to enhance their ability to collaborate amongst their parts and to coordinate the whole.
Creating data net- works and knowledge management systems also will be important in order to link databases and create simple access to relevant infor- mation across global supply chains. The increased use of technology will have an impact on execu- tives and will require that the list of management science skills be expanded to include the ability to take advantage of information technology. The changes in our society will open up numerous opportuni- ties for and sources of innovation.
In addition, major parts of the human resource func- tion, the routine and not-so-routine parts, are and will be outsourced for example, note the emergence of professional employment organizations and business processing organizations.
These are among key motivators for employees and must be carefully managed, especially if employees are wanting to work until they are seventy and beyond. Drucker on Executive Leadership 25 developed countries will have to manage a smaller workforce or to continually educate a larger portion of their populations.
Executive leadership and management practices must change to fit these new realities of the global, knowledge-based, information soci- ety and at the same time they must strive to achieve a high spirit of performance. Conclusion Figure 1.
In this chapter, I have described each of the ele- ments in Figure 1. These elements, in whole or in part, have been used to advantage by leaders in business, government, and the social sector, in the United States and around the world, and they will continue to do so for the forseeable future.
The remaining five tasks—objective setting, organizing, motivating, assessing progress, and developing people— are almost always classified as management activities. Nevertheless, these activitites are not as separable as implied by such a classifica- tion scheme. As a result, I believe the term executive is now more appropriate than either the term leader or manager. Executive is applied to individuals in an orga- nization—leaders, managers, and knowledge workers—who make decisions that have significant influence on one or more of the three key performance areas—direct results, values, and people decisions.
Drucker has consistently emphasized the importance of character and integrity for executive and leadership responsibilities. Character is not developed that way. That is developed inside and not outside. Drucker, Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices, p. Your list has reached the maximum number of items. Please create a new list with a new name; move some items to a new or existing list; or delete some items.
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