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Just post a question you need help with, and one of our experts will provide a custom solution. You can also find solutions immediately by searching the millions of fully answered study questions in our archive. How do I view solution manuals on my smartphone? You can download our homework help app on iOS or Android to access solutions manuals on your mobile device. Asking a study question in a snap - just take a pic. Absorptive capacity C. Organizational obsolescence D.
Built-in obsolescence Difficulty: 1 Easy The president of Mountain Home University has been asked by the board of trustees to set up p.
Such a unit is typically called a. Which of the following statements is true about the Bayh-Dole Act of ? It made university technology transfer activities illegal and unethical. It allowed universities to collect royalties on inventions funded with taxpayer dollars. It restricted provision of patents for inventions developed at universities. It made investment in research and technology mandatory for public companies.
In , Shanghai's municipal government set aside 13 square kilometers of land near the p. The project aimed to foster research in microelectronics, the development of a technologically advanced labor pool, and the creation of new industries in Shanghai.
This project would be best termed a. Institutions designed to nurture the development of new businesses that might otherwise lack p. Which of the following is true of interfirm collaborative research and development networks?
Collaborative research networks are not important or viable in high-technology sectors. Interfirm networks can enable firms to achieve much more than they could achieve individually.
The flow of information and other resources through a network is independent of the network's size. Information diffusion is fairly slow and limited in collaborative research networks with dense structures and many paths for information to travel. Technology transfer offices B. Technology incubators C. Strategic business units D. Technology clusters Difficulty: 1 Easy Which of the following statements is true of geographical clustering? The proximity of many competitors serving a local market leads to competition that increases their pricing power in their relationships with both downloaders and suppliers.
Close proximity of firms eliminates the likelihood of a firm's competitors gaining access to the firm's proprietary knowledge. Clustering invariably leads to lower concentration of pollution and inordinately low housing costs.
Proximate firms have an advantage in sharing information that can lead to greater innovation productivity. The benefits firms reap by locating in close geographical proximity to each other are known p. Knowledge brokers B. How do multinational firms coordinate their development activities towards a common goal when they take place in multiple countries?
The questions addressed include: Should new product development processes be performed sequentially or in parallel? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using project champions? What tools can the firm use to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its new product development processes? How does the firm assess whether its new product development process is successful?
Chapter 12 builds on the previous chapter by illuminating how team composition and structure will influence project outcomes. The questions addressed include: How big should teams be? What are the advantages and disadvantages of choosing highly diverse team members? Do teams need to be collocated? What type of team leader and management practices should be used for the team? Chapter 13 reviews innovation deployment options. The questions addressed include: How do we accelerate the adoption of the technological innovation?
How do we decide whether to use licensing or OEM agreements? Does it make more sense to use penetration pricing or a market-skimming price? What strategies can the firm use to encourage distributors and complementary goods providers to support the innovation? Why is innovation so important for firms to compete in many industries? Innovation enables firms to: -introduce more product and service variations, enabling better market segmentation and penetration; -improve existing products and services so that they provide better utility to customers; -improve production processes so that products and services can be delivered faster and at better prices.
Increasing globalization has both expanded the potential markets for many firms while simultaneously exposing them to greater competition; this has resulted in firms putting more emphasis on innovation as a lever of competitive differentiation. What are some of the advantages of technological innovation? Technological innovation increases knowledge, and makes more options available.
On the whole, evidence suggests that technological innovation has increased GDP and standards of living worldwide. Technological innovation also, however, poses some risk of negative externalities, e. Students may also suggest that technological innovation may or has lead to the loss of diversity in culture and traditions. The instructor may wish to encourage them to debate such risks of innovation versus the ways that innovation has enhanced our lives.
Why do you think so many innovation projects fail to generate an economic return? Innovation is an inherently risky undertaking. Most innovation projects are characterized by both technical uncertainty will the project result in a technically feasible product or service?
In their eagerness to innovate, firms are at risk of undertaking too many projects, overestimating their potential returns and underestimating their uncertainty. This is compounded by the fact that many people mistakenly believe that creativity can only be tapped through an unstructured process, when in fact innovation is most powerful and has a greater likelihood of success when it is planned and implemented strategically.
Individual creativity is considered to a function of intellectual abilities, knowledge, thinking styles, personality traits, intrinsic motivation and environment. Firm creativity is more than the sum of member creativity. Firm creativity is also a function of the organizational structure and the strategic management approach employed.
The chapter moves on to explore how creativity is transformed into innovative outcomes by the separate components of the innovation system e. Firms are most likely to collaborate with customers, suppliers, and universities, though they also may collaborate with competitors, producers of complements, government laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and other research institutions.
Emphasis is placed on developing an understanding of technological clusters including how they are formed and the benefits associated with them. The role of knowledge transfer in the creation of clusters is demonstrated in the context of Silicon Valley. To help students understand the relationship between creativity and innovation.
To explore, quantitatively and qualitatively, the role played by individuals, firms, universities, governments, and non-profits in innovation.
The chapter highlights the role of collaborative networks in innovation, including technological spillovers, and technology clusters. Innovation can arise from many different sources including individuals, firms, universities, government laboratories and incubators, and private non-profit organizations.
An even more important source of innovation is the networks that link innovators together.
These networks leverage a broader range of knowledge and resources than an individual entity could. VII Creativity a. Creativity is defined as the ability to produce work that is useful and novel i. The most creative works are novel at the individual producer level, the local audience level, and the broader societal level. When a product is novel to its creator but know to everyone else it is referred to as a reinvention. Individual creativity is a function of intellectual abilities, knowledge, style of thinking, personality, motivation, and environment.
Researchers have argued that the most important capability is the ability to look at problems in unconventional ways. Too much knowledge can result in an inability to think beyond the existing logic and paradigms of a field while too little knowledge can lead to trivial contributions ii. The most creative individuals can distinguish important problems from unimportant ones. Self-efficacy, tolerance for ambiguity, and a willingness to overcome obstacles and take reasonable risks are the personality traits most important for creativity.
Intrinsic motivation has also been shown to be very important for creativity. Organizational creativity is a function of creativity of the individuals within the organization and a variety of social processes and contextual factors that shape the way those individuals interact and behave.
Common methods of tapping employee creativity include 1 the suggestion box, 2 idea management systems Google, Honda, BankOne. Idea collection systems such as suggestion boxes, or idea management systems are only a first step. Managers can be trained to signal through verbal and nonverbal cues that each employees thinking and autonomy is respected.
Employees can also be trained to use creativity tools such as using analogies or developing alternative scenarios. You may want to discuss the various ways that Google inspires creativity as described in the Theory in Action box. Translating Creativity Into Innovation a. Innovation occurs when new ideas are implemented into some useful form e. The Inventor has been the focus of much study and there is significant disagreement over whether inventors are born or made.
It is also important to note that the qualities that make an individual inventive do not necessarily make that individual entrepreneurial. Inventors are often portrayed as eccentric and doggedly persistent scientists.
One ten-year study of inventors showed that the most successful inventors: 1. Have mastered the basic tools and operations of the field in which they invent, but have not specialized solely on that field.
Are curious, and more interested in problems than solutions. Question the assumptions made in previous work in the field. Often have the sense that all knowledge is unified. They will seek global solutions rather than local solutions, and will be generalists by nature. You may want to raise the example of Dean Kamen from the Theory in Action here and ask students how he illustrates these characteristics. Users are another important source of innovation. Users are keenly aware of their unmet needs and have the greatest motivation to find ways to meet those needs.
You may want to bring up how doctors started using Superglue to repair skin in emergency situations as discussed in text. Innovation by users can blossom into wholly new industries, as demonstrated by the snowboarding example provided in the Theory in Action box.
Firms are a very important engine of innovation. Firms consider their own research and development spending to be their most important resource for innovation.