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The pivot is in the center of the compass. The needle carries an aluminum ring which is graduated to degrees and half degrees. The graduations starts from zero marked at South end of the needle and run clockwise.
Figures are written inverted in prismatic compass. The sighting vanes with a sighting slit at top and reflecting prism are fixed to the box. They are diametrically opposite to each other. The sighting vane also called as object vane consists of a hinged metal frame in center. A vertical horse hair is stretched in the center of metal frame.
A glass lid covers the top of the box. The sighting vane is pressed against a lifting pin which lifts the needle off pivot and holds it against the glass lid. A light spring is fitted inside the box. A brake pin is placed at the base of object vane.
When the brake pin is pressed gently, the light spring comes in contact with the aluminum ring and the ring comes to rest. The graduations on the ring are reflected from hypotenuse side of the prism to the eye.
The graduations are read through reflecting prism. A steel stand carries a frame which is lowered or raised to adjust the prism to eye sight of observer. The prism is folded over the edge of the box and is held by hinged strap, when not in use.
A metal cover fits over the glass lid and the sighting vane. The sighting vane is provided with a hinged mirror which can incline at any angle so that object too high or too low to be sighted directly can be sighted by reflection. PAGE No………….. Centering: To place the center of the compass exactly over the station is called as centering.
The station is marked with a peg. Centering is done with the help of plumb bob on dropping a small piece of stone. Levelling: The compass is leveled by means of eye. A ball and socket joint is provided and then it is clamped.
The ring swings freely when leveled. Observing bearings: To observe the bearing of a line PQ. Center the compass over station P and level it. The sighting vane and prism and turned up vertical so that the graduations on the ring are clearly seen. Rotate the compass until the ranging rod at the station Q is bisected by the hair when looked through the slit above the prism.
The reading is noted after looking through the prism or direct in the compass that time the needle should be at rest. The reading is the required bearing of the line PQ. If the reading taken in the direction of the traverse then these bearings are called as Fore bearings. If the reading taken in the back or opposite direction of the traverse then these bearings are called as Back bearings.
The angle which a survey line makes with magnetic meridian is called a magnetic bearing of the line or simply a bearing of the line. Hence these readings are called as Whole circle bearing. The bearing of a line in the direction of the progress of the survey is called the fore or forward bearing F. Data and results of the test: All laboratory data shall be sub mitted Farid 11 Procedure : 1 Weigh gm of the sample. Material Testing Lab Manual In Civil Engineering The Internet has provided us with an opportunity to share all kinds of information, including music, movies, and, of course, books.
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You can not find this ebook anywhere online. Over 12, ASTM standards operate globally.
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