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This study estimates the sensitivity and specificity of the social communication questionnaire (SCQ) for autistic spectrum disorders in preschool children at high risk for developmental problems referred to a tertiary centre and compares the predictions of the SCQ and the. Purpose of Review The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a screener for Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) validated for age +. There is a clinical need for an ASD screener for children beyond the month age limit of the M-CHAT-R/F. Recent Findings Recent studies have. autism IDEA eligibility classification (U.S. Department of. Education, ). .. 37 . Modified Checklist for Autism in. Toddlers aracer.mobi aracer.mobi The mean SCQ score of children with autism was , whereas.

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Scq Autism Pdf

The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ; Rutter, Bailey, Lord, & Berument , ) is an instrument for screening for autism in individuals over the age of 4. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a screener for Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) validated for age +. There is a clinical. THE SOCIAL COMMUNICATON QUESTIONNAIRE (SCQ) AS A SCREENER FOR AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS: ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE AND.

The study describes a new technique that allows automated coding of non-verbal mode of communication gestures and offers the possibility of objective, evaluation of gestures, independent of human judgment. All children were assessed during two demonstration activities of Module 3 of ADOS-2, administered in Polish, and coded using Polish codes. Children were also assessed with Polish versions of the Eyes and Faces Tests. Results Girls with autism tended to use gestures more vividly as compared to boys with autism during two demonstration activities of ADOS Girls with autism made significantly more mistakes than boys with autism on the Faces Test. All children with autism had high scores in AQ Child, which confirmed the presence of autistic traits in this group. The current communication skills of boys with autism reported by parents in SCQ were significantly better than those of girls with autism. However, both girls with autism and boys with autism improved in the social and communication abilities over the lifetime.

As outlined, parents of our participants were also a part of the study. They participated in the assessments regarding their children which are referred to in the subsequent part of the paper.

Informed written consent was obtained for all participants in accordance with procedures approved by the above Research Ethics Committees.

Measures In this study, we focused on two demonstration activities of ADOS-2 [ 28 ] to collect automated, computerized data on gestures, independent of human judgment.

Thirty-three high-functioning children with autism were tested during two demonstration activities of Module 3 of the author-reviewed Polish research translation ADOS Automated measurement of gestures was performed during the Demonstration Task and the Cartoons Task Fig.

The Cartoons Task provide an opportunity to observe the way in which a participant narrates a story, uses gestures to enact events and integrates gestures with gaze and language. EyesWeb software platform supports the design and development of real-time multimodal systems and applications, integrating a wide number of fully synchronized input devices including motion capture systems, various types of professional and low cost video cameras, game interfaces e.

Kinect, Wii , multichannel audio input e. EyesWeb outputs include multichannel audio, video, analog devices and robotic platforms. Particularly useful features of EyesWeb include the support of real-time synchronized recordings of multimodal channels and the software libraries for non-verbal expressive gesture analysis and non-verbal social signals analysis. In this specific application, we used the Microsoft Kinect sensor for the automated gesture analysis task.

The Kinect and the video camera were placed in front of the table where an ADOS-2 session was administered to each child. Every tested child was facing the Kinect.

Three researchers were present in a testing room: researcher 1 who was administrating ADOS-2 to a child, researcher 2 who was recording two demonstration activities with the Kinect connected to the computer application and researcher 3 who was recording the whole ADOS-2 session with a video camera.

(SCQ) Social Communication Questionnaire | WPS

It marked the start and the end of each demonstration activity. All the recordings were double checked by the researchers after each session to make sure that the start and the end of the demonstration activities were recorded correctly for further analysis. In the output, the application we used returns with coordinates in the X, Y, and Z dimensions of ten characteristic points of a child being recorded head, neck, left shoulder, right shoulder, left elbow, right elbow, left wrist, right wrist, left palm with the fingers and right palm with the fingers.

Each point is shown in Fig. The numerical data from the recordings of each point was calculated. The results of all 10 points, for each demonstration activity individually and as a sum of two activities together were presented for each gender separately and also compared between two genders.

If any of the coordinates were missing or incomplete on the Kinect recordings, we did not take this data to the final analysis and the comparison.

The computer application summed all the gestures together during two ADOS-2 activities. During a typical, standard ADOS-2 assessment—not computerized—all noted gestures are also summed up, and then, a code is provided to the final algorithm. Second, gestures are coded under the communication section of ADOS-2 algorithm.

The better an individual performs on gesturing, the lower the autism score he or she receives under this item on the algorithm.

Between a ROC and a hard place: decision making and making decisions about using the SCQ.

The recent gender differences on the scores in ADOS-2 under this non-verbal communication domain in a Polish sample of high functioning adolescents with autism [ 22 ] require further investigation of this dimension. Since Polish diagnostic and screening measures tap the symptomatology associated with autism, and since the intensity of autistic traits and the emotional competence of Polish children with autism are not widely described in the international literature, we also present the results obtained on these measures with particular focus on parent-report screening measurements as they include the questions on the communication of a child, both verbal and non-verbal gestures as well.

The primary aim of this study is to present an innovative computerized technique to objectively evaluate the non-verbal modality of communication gestures during two demonstration tasks of ADOS-2 Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition.

This GI was compared between males and females with autism.

The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ)

The authors tested if females with autism had a higher GI compared to males with autism. To our best knowledge, no such studies have been carried out so far. This gap in the literature is filled in with the study described below. Participants The study group consisted of 33 high-functioning Polish girls and boys with formal diagnosis of autism or Asperger syndrome who were recruited into the autism spectrum conditions ASC -Inclusion project [ 23 ]. For the purpose of this study and to meet the inclusion criteria, it was sufficient that the IQ of a child was previously tested; this fact was documented in the medical records and the IQ results were average or above, provided either as a numerical score or as a written form which is a standard in Polish medical records.

As outlined, parents of our participants were also a part of the study. They participated in the assessments regarding their children which are referred to in the subsequent part of the paper.

Informed written consent was obtained for all participants in accordance with procedures approved by the above Research Ethics Committees. Measures In this study, we focused on two demonstration activities of ADOS-2 [ 28 ] to collect automated, computerized data on gestures, independent of human judgment. Thirty-three high-functioning children with autism were tested during two demonstration activities of Module 3 of the author-reviewed Polish research translation ADOS Automated measurement of gestures was performed during the Demonstration Task and the Cartoons Task Fig.

The Cartoons Task provide an opportunity to observe the way in which a participant narrates a story, uses gestures to enact events and integrates gestures with gaze and language. EyesWeb software platform supports the design and development of real-time multimodal systems and applications, integrating a wide number of fully synchronized input devices including motion capture systems, various types of professional and low cost video cameras, game interfaces e.

Kinect, Wii , multichannel audio input e. EyesWeb outputs include multichannel audio, video, analog devices and robotic platforms. Particularly useful features of EyesWeb include the support of real-time synchronized recordings of multimodal channels and the software libraries for non-verbal expressive gesture analysis and non-verbal social signals analysis. In this specific application, we used the Microsoft Kinect sensor for the automated gesture analysis task.

The Kinect and the video camera were placed in front of the table where an ADOS-2 session was administered to each child. A key goal of ROC curve analysis is the select an optimal cutoff; however, there are likely to be different optimal cutoffs dependent on the purpose of the researcher or clinician. Likelihood ratios LR , below, have been calculated by the current authors from researcher-reported sensitivity and specificity data.

LR provide a statistic about test reliability, that is the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results, that is independent of ASD prevalence in the population tested.

By contrast, positive predictive value PPV and negative predictive value NPV are measures of reliability that, indeed, are affected by disease prevalence. It gives equal weight to sensitivity and specificity. A value of 0 indicates that the measure has no value [ 31 ]. Five studies [ 20 , 22 — 25 ] included children who had been referred for assessment, while one [ 21 ] included children receiving preschool special education services; thus, children are generally categorized into ASD diagnosis vs.

Samples sizes for these early studies were small, and focused on the use of receiver operating characteristic ROC analyses to determine the ability of the SCQ to distinguish between the presence or absence of ASD at the recommended SCQ threshold of 15 and at other cutoff points. The three current studies — which are the main focus of this paper—Barnard-Brak et al.

Wei et al.

Day et al. This broadens the external validity of the SCQ and allows generalizability to populations beyond those with developmental concerns. Have large sample sizes: Day et al. Both Barnard-Brak et al.

Barnard-Brak et al. Sensitivity was 0.

Marvin et al. Parental report of professional diagnosis of ASD has been verified by medical records [ 36 ].

The results of the analyses on the subset data were improved, but generally comparable to the score on the full dataset. Studies generally recommended a cutoff below the threshold of 15 for children under age 4. Most studies advised selecting a cutoff to emphasize sensitivity or specificity depending on need because the balance between sensitivity and specificity was generally poor.

For example, a cutoff score that provided high sensitivity would generally have low specificity, resulting in a large false positive rate. Rather than use the SCQ as a screener, Marvin et al. The researchers differentiated between children with ASD and their generally typically developing siblings although siblings are at higher risk of ASD than the general population , rather than children with non-ASD concerns. The lower performance for the non-verbal children is likely due to the association between non-verbal status and intellectual disability and, thus, the mental age of the non-verbal children might not be at the 2.

Concluding Remarks Recent studies of the use of the SCQ in younger children have focused on the following: the use of large samples, including secondary data analysis from large research datasets; the inclusion of typically developing children in analyses, rather than limiting analyses to children with ASD and non-ASD concerns; comparative psychometric analysis of the SCQ Lifetime and Current versions; and the increased scrutiny of internal validity, which has led to development of abbreviated versions of the SCQ.

Those interested in using the SCQ in children younger than the recommended age of 4.

The sensitivity-specificity balance is poor in a population where children have a diagnosis, whether ASD or non-ASD; thus, development of an abbreviated version may be useful for high-risk children for differentiating between those with ASD and those with another developmental diagnosis. The sensitivity-specificity balance was better in a general population comparing children with ASD to generally typically developing children. In addition to showing potential as a screening tool for ASD in children younger than 4.

Screening for ASD in young children is complex. Given the strong potential of using the SCQ Lifetime for screening higher-functioning children below age 4. Compliance with Ethical Standards A.

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