people that the lottery took two days and had to be started on June 2th. but in this were only about three hundred people, the whole lottery took less than two. The Lottery by Shirley Jackson - Full Text. Mr. Beers. Posted: September 20, PDF icon aracer.mobi, KB. The Lottery. 24 Chapter 1 The Persuasive Principle. THE LOTTERY. Shirley Jackson. 1 The morning of June 27th was clear and sunny, with the fresh warmth of.
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Ivan Dmitritch had no faith in lottery luck, and would not, as a rule, have consented to look at the lists of winning numbers, but now, as he had nothing else to do. humanities Article Shirley Jackson's “The Lottery” and Holocaust Literature Michael Robinson Writing and Rhetoric Department, Harrington School of. PDF | This paper examines a cross-cultural concern in Shirley Jackson's The Lottery, underlining the story's striking allusions to Islam which can be categorically.
Therefore, the village and by extension, the reader is made to see Tessie as less brave than a man would be under the same circumstances.
This is a very misogynistic bias. Taken on its own, this passage at first presents no imbalance in favoritism of men over women.
However, closer analysis reveals a few telling descriptors: the women follow the men into both the square and the passage thus, they are described second. This imbalance of careful omission makes the women seem shoddier than the men, though this may not be the case. Thus, though it is certainly subtle, this sentence structure is built upon a predilection for misogynistic perspective.
Further even than this extent, however, lies the fact that even when the men are given first names, eventually only Tessie is granted a first name.
All the other women of this story, by contrast, are known only by the surname their husbands have given them Mrs. Adams, Delacroix, Dunbar, and Harburt, for instance. Joe Summers seems very capable though perhaps unwittingly so of an ingrained prejudice against women. Summers greets each member of the village cheerfully, including Tessie; however, when Tessie is revealed to carry the damning paper, the ambivalence with which he reacts is jarring. This pattern, according to Stark, also encourages the perception of stratified gender Sheldon 8 values.
Summers enters the square and calls out for help with the old, faded black box: The original paraphernalia for the lottery had been lost long ago, and the black box now resting on the stool had been put into use even before Old Man Warner, the oldest man in town, was born. Tessie makes a joke, and the villagers chuckle. Jack Watson, on the other hand, is old enough this year to draw on behalf of himself and his mother. Summers reads the names and the men come forward when their names are called to draw a slip of paper from the box.
Everyone holds his paper without looking at it. As the drawing progresses, Mrs.
Delacroix and Mrs. The women watch as their husbands draw from the black box, and when Janey Dunbar steps forward for her turn, they encourage her. Adams strikes up a conversation with Old Man Warner about the north village, which is talking of giving up the lottery.
Tessie Hutchinson suddenly shouts at Mr. But Mr. The Hutchinsons have three children: Bill Jr. The children, Bill, and Tessie each draw another slip of paper from the black box.
Graves helps little Davy draw and holds his paper for him. Tessie appeals to the people around her and looks around defiantly, but draws a slip of paper. When Mr. Nor is it the result of intentional manipulation of the masses by authorities. The Dialectic of Enlightenment was not widely read initially upon publication, and its influence was not broad in the s Horkheimer and Adorno  b.
Nonetheless, its perspective on anti-Semitic violence, which I describe in more detail below, illustrates not only the use of the concept of scapegoating but also the high level of abstraction from the specific targeting of Jewish people that discussion of anti-Semitism could reach in the middle part of the century. The piece illustrates this attitude with a quote from a speech given by Adolf Hitler: Quoting a scholar named Jones, Hobman writes that fear circulating within a sexually repressive culture has led sexually free or dissatisfied women to become targets of aggression.
Hobman writes: Where can this be focused most conveniently, where else but on the Jew? The only difference between anti-Semitism and misogynistic violence, according to Hobman, is the risk to the persecutor in the time of the witch trials, when shared hysteria threatened all women, meaning that accusers could and did find their own loved ones charged as witches.
An overarching sense of the whole piece by Hobman is a tension between barbarism and civilization, on the one hand, and appearance and reality, on the other.
Specifically, the selection of Tessie is the product of an institutionalization of misogyny—the result of a seemingly random selection process that nonetheless happens to punish a misbehaving woman. Also, details of the administration of the rite support the view that Tessie is targeted. As Oehlschlaeger and Whittier have shown, the patriarchal structure of this world is clear.
Tessie can be seen as an undesirable for multiple reasons. Whittier has observed the ways she fails to conform to patriarchal expectations and, consequently, looks like the recipient of a punishment.
Tessie arrives late, insults both the ritual and the labor that has kept her at home, and tries to send her own daughter to death in her place. Adding to this the fact that she is an older woman means one has many reasons to see her as a social outcast who also flouts her resistance to patriarchal imperatives for women Whittier , p.
Sadistic cruelty appears in the intricacy of the process, for example, which is ultimately deceptive. The male heads of families draw lots first, which determines which family will draw in the second round. Mathematically this makes no actual difference for the men or women: From another perspective, this ritualism acts as a red herring. The sophistication masks a blunter violence and, at the same time, adds an element of manufactured suspense that serves no purpose—other than to put drama in the service of terror.
Like violence in the Nazi death camps, a seemingly sophisticated process of death selection obscures a simpler and more inevitable one.
This speaks to a general tension between progress and traditionalism in the practice of the rite. Adams echoes him: The names of these isolated resistors are significant: Tellingly, a superfluity that remains, the drawing order within the family, serves no purpose other than to add horror to the personal experience of the selection process.
Hence, the appearance of progress in the society is illusory: For Warner, the young people are ignorant and, consequently, regressive; for Mr. This dialectic helps explain the many seemingly trivial details provided about the society. The regressive qualities of the lottery may overwhelm these aspects, making the broader culture seem more old-fashioned than the story actually describes it and the story less focused on the particularities of time and place than it is—hence, perhaps, the amenability of the story to feminist readings emphasizing the patriarchal institutions reflected in the rite.
The first paragraph establishes the setting as a modern town square framed by a post office and a bank. The children go to school they have recently been let out for the summer recess. Tellingly, the man who leads the ritual, Mr. The setting is not simply modernity; it is also, pointedly, industrial modernity. In addition, the detail about Summers creates a clear link to the Nazi genocide and death camps.
Coal and the infrastructure of coal mining were central to the machinery of mass death in Nazi-occupied territories. Coal was the fuel for the crematoria at Auschwitz Dwork and Van Pelt Although Tessie is a scapegoat, the townspeople make no show of animus against her and offer no reason for her selection; unlike scapegoats famously described by James Frazer in The Golden Bough Frazer  , Tessie poses no false threat.
Jackson, incidentally, had an interest in folklore going back to her high school years when she first read Frazer Franklin The seeming randomness of the violence is key to seeing the theme of intersectional scapegoating in the ritual. The cynical randomness of the violence and lack of authentic investment of the community in the ritual abstract the targeting from specific vulnerable populations whose identities are nonetheless clear from their names—those of the resistors Mr.
Adams, that of Tessie to a scapegoat acknowledged as such. On the one hand, this abstraction takes the meaning of the story to a plane of insight into collective human psychology and modernity—the plane of abstraction where Rousset, as I argue below, reflects on his experiences in the camps.
On the other hand, the enlightened barbarism of the village resembles complicity. Collectively, the townspeople could rebel and end the ritual, but they do not.
On an individual level, the knowing complicity of the townspeople is still plainer. When Tessie resists, illustrating a loss of dignity in keeping with the events Rousset witnessed among his fellow prisoners, her neighbors respond with silence or support of the selection process: Delacroix called, and Mrs.
Jackson , p. Hence, the design of the lottery has effectively appealed to the self-interest of potential victims to promote infighting and direct aggression away from authority.
In his articulation of scapegoat theory, Fenichel attributes the success of modern scapegoating to the fostering of submissiveness to authority by the state for Fenichel, education is the means. Rather than the product of displacement, the scapegoating here more clearly recalls the mechanism described by Horkheimer and Adorno Horkheimer and Adorno  a , who describe anti-Semitism as an irrational phenomenon and a form of free-floating aggression lacking a stable object.
Repeating the terms of their critique of the culture industry elsewhere in the text, the authors go on to cast anti-Semitic violence in terms of meaningless and thoughtless repetition: Anti-Semitism is a well-rehearsed pattern, indeed, a ritual of civilization, and the pogroms are the true ritual murders.
They demonstrate the impotence of what might have restrained them—reflection, meaning, ultimately truth. Horkheimer and Adorno  a, p. Horkheimer and Adorno write: The blindness of anti-Semitism, its lack of intention, lends a degree of truth to the explanation of the movement as a release valve. Rage is vented on those who are both conspicuous and unprotected. And just as, depending on the constellation, the victims are interchangeable: Such broad yet consistently abstract resonances as these suggestively point to an irony of intellectual history: David Rousset, the Shoah, and Identity Although less well-known currently, Rousset has in the past exerted a degree of influence such that prominent commentators including Theodor Adorno and Hannah Arendt refer to his books.
These particular writers draw on his accounts of Nazi camps either to challenge the utility of identity in responding to the Holocaust or to draw the conclusion that genocide in modernity exposes identity—religious or otherwise—as an illusion. Due to the relative obscurity of Rousset, the present section discusses his work in some detail and attempts to reveal his somewhat broad influence on academic and intellectual discourse about the Shoah during the s and subsequently, the purpose being to demonstrate the fact and some specific ways that midcentury discourse on the Holocaust in some cases avoided the subject of Judeocide.
Rousset appears in Eichmann in Jerusalem, where Arendt infamously bemoans the stubborn persistence of anti-Semitic tropes in the prosecution not the defense of a Nazi war criminal. It may be unsurprising that the author of On Revolution, where Arendt critiques the persistence of religion in modern politics and models their future secularization on revolutionary America Moyn , would lament the influence of religious thinking on a war crimes trial.
More notable is the fact that in making this point in Eichmann in Jerusalem, Arendt relies on Rousset. In fact, this is a radically indecent question, asked as it so often is by people who remained silent during the massacre. Steiner  , p. For Arendt, this spurious line of questioning rests on an anti-Semitic trope.
The real reason their victims did not rebel in large numbers, Arendt says, is that the Nazis excelled at the process of systemic enslavement. Arendt offers the example of the brutal arrest and torture—for months on end until their deaths—of Dutch Jews who had participated in an assault on a German security contingent. Rousset proves helpful to Arendt in arguing, on the one hand, that a focus on religious identity can lead to precisely this kind of ignorance and, on the other, in making the point that the exceptional cruelty of the Nazis reflected nothing exceptional about their Jewish victims.
Such accounts verify the explosion of the myth of humanity as such, which Kafka had predicted. A casualty of this disillusionment is the realization that individuality—or individual difference—is as much of a myth as human difference.
Rousset helps lead Adorno to the conclusion that modernity has rendered identity, along with everything else allegedly distinctive about humanity, superfluous. It is also impressionistic and wry. As Rousset observes in the introduction to his English translation The Other Kingdom , an influence was Alfred Jarry, whose character Ubu Roi is a thread running through the book.
Sections of the book devoted to describing the inmate populations reflect this restricted focus. Political prisoners were the first targets and allowed the Nazis to refine their instruments and methods of torture: Rousset , pp.
Rousset , p. Enfin, proches des politiques, les objecteurs de conscience, les hommes de la Bible. At Neuengamme, prisoners have for a time been ordered to sing during executions, and at Helmstedt the executions take place in the barracks. Here, one perceives an effort to find common ground between the experiences of prisoners in the death camps and those of political prisoners like himself.
Hence, the tendency towards generalization and analogy employed in such passages is a feature of the style that effectively minimizes the targeting of Jewish people and other ethnic minorities for death.
Within this perspective offering a synthesis of particular experiences across different camps and populations, the descriptions of daily life highlight the deceptiveness, randomness, and cruel playfulness of the violence. In the passage, Rousset recalls how desperation made some prisoners act as spies for the SS: Les espions des S. At Helmstedt, a Russian and a German hanged the prisoners, women or men.
For each hanging they received an extra ration of soup. And how many stool pigeons could be bought for a can of soup or a hunk of bread! In this case, the double standard applies to sexuality. This broadly pessimistic view locates evil in a specific exploitation of shared human weakness that encompasses and transcends ethnic differences while exploiting gender differences. Summers, who leads the ritual, does not have a monopoly on cruelty.
Instead, the townspeople are complicit, and even Tessie Hutchinson, the scapegoat, behaves cruelly when she attempts to make her married daughter draw with the Hutchinson family. In this passage, Rousset abstracts the evil of the Holocaust from not only the camps but also the Germans who constructed them, addressing an evil that the structure built by the SS allowed to flourish.
Self-interest and greed personified, the green men represent but also transcend the SS and their victims. In Ecologies of Witnessing, Pollin-Galay has explored ways that even Holocaust testimony can share features with forms of communication traditionally considered imaginative or creative and, furthermore, has observed inter-cultural variations among these features.
These variations have led to conflict between interviewer and subject during the process of recording testimony, as illustrated in the case of a Lithuanian survivor whose recorded testimony reveals her resisting efforts by her interviewer to frame her experiences using certain narrative modes Pollin-Galay , p.
These cultural dimensions of testimony also reflect the socially embedded and shared nature of memory for Pollin-Gray, who draws on the ideas of Maurice Halbwachs along with more recent research from other fields on the social aspects of witnessing. Discussing the testimony of a survivor named Gita Taitz, Pollin-Galay writes, The most prominent mode of testimony that emerges from the English-American ecology is personal-allegorical. That is, one important way that Gita Taitz draws truth from the events she has witnessed is through recreating personal experience in narrative.
Her testimony is also openly allegorical in that she enables the distant listener to derive lessons from her memories, applicable anywhere.
Pollin-Galay , p. A brief passage can illustrate the different manner and approach used by Borowski We march fast, almost at a run. There are guards all around, young men with automatics.