Editorial Reviews. About the Author. William Golding was born in Cornwall in and was educated at Brasenose College, Oxford. He joined the Royal Navy . of the chapters on Lord of the Flies, The Inheritors, Pincher. Martin, and Free Fall originally appeared under the title. "Four Passages from William Golding's. Author of Lord of the Flies, Pincher Martin, Free fall, The inheritors, The The winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, William Golding is.
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In checking out The Inheritors By William Golding By William Golding, now you may not also do conventionally. In this contemporary age, device as well as. Sixty years after William Golding's vivid novel of evolutionary nemesis was published, his daughter finds it full of clues to his own guilt, naivety. mentality than one can regard William Golding's novel The Inheritors as a dramatized documentary study of life in a Neanderthal tribe, whose people.
As a boy, his favorite authors included H. Since the age of seven, Golding had been writing stories, and at the age of twelve he attempted to write a novel.
Golding remained an enthusiastic writer and, upon entering Brasenose College of Oxford University, abandoned his plans to study science, preferring to read English literature. At twenty-two, a year before taking his degree in English, Golding saw his first literary work published—a poetry collection simply titled Poems.
After graduating from Oxford in , Golding continued the family tradition by becoming a schoolmaster in Salisbury, Wiltshire. His teaching career was interrupted in , however, with the outbreak of World War II — Lieutenant Golding served five years in the British Royal Navy and saw active duty in the North Atlantic, commanding a rocket launching craft.
Lord of the Flies Golding had enhanced his knowledge of Greek history and mythology by reading while at sea, and when he returned to his post at Bishop Wordsworth's School in , he began furthering his writing career. He wrote three novels, all of which went unpublished. But his frustration would not last long, when, in , Golding created The Lord of the Flies. Initially, the tale of a group of schoolboys stranded on an island during their escape from war received mixed reviews and sold only modestly in its hardcover edition.
But when the paperback edition was published in , thus making the book more accessible to students, the novel began to sell briskly. Teachers, aware of the student interest and impressed by the strong theme and symbolism of the work, began assigning Lord of the Flies to their literature classes.
As the novel's reputation grew, critics reacted by drawing scholarly reviews out of what was previously dismissed as just another adventure story. The author's extremely productive output—five novels in ten years—and the high quality of his work established him as one of the late twentieth-century's most distinguished writers. This view of Golding was cemented in , when the author was named a Commander of the British Empire.
The author's creative output then dropped drastically. He produced no novels and only a handful of novellas short novels , short stories, and other occasional pieces. In Golding returned with the publi cation of Darkness Visible which received mixed reviews. The author faced his harshest criticism to date with the publication of his novel The Paper Men, a drama about an aging, suc cessful novelist's conflicts with his pushy, over-bearing biographer.
Departing briefly from fic tion, Golding wrote a book containing essays, reviews, and lectures. There is nonetheless a tragical irony that underlies the reconstruction: indeed through his aesthetic choices, Golding both makes possible the reconstruction of a pre-symbolical Neanderthalian perception of the world and inescapably condemns the transparent communicative mode that characterises the primitive tribe.
A Lesson in Linguistic History 3In his second novel, Golding seems to give us a fictional course in linguistic anthropology. He acquaints us with the Neanderthal world of presence and transparency in which comprehension is tacit and immediate.
The primitive tribe uses gestures or telepathy to communicate. Language is perceived as an artificial supplement hindering the union of the souls.
The primitive picture seems to occupy an intermediary position between the thing and its representation. It does not re-present life, it grasps it.
Able to process what they experience, the Homo sapiens have reached the conceptual level. Being dependent on the world, the image is always particular: it thus lacks the generality and transferability of concepts.
If the language of pictures or gestures is more faithful to the thing represented, it is deprived of the freedom that makes spoken language so powerful: the picture does not allow any displacing or transferring of signifiers from one situation to another. Symbolic language allows its speakers to distance themselves from specific situations and, in so doing, it opens up space, broadening perception.
Golding seems to illustrate here how symbolical language has freed man from the determinism he was condemned to.
Because the Homo sapiens are not limited to immediacy through imitative pictures, they can talk about something in its absence and thus develop a form of memory 1. The image indeed often stems from a situation they have already encountered, serving as a reference point to deal with a new difficulty. Golding seems indeed to have well perceived the pragmatic dimension of language.
In the Homo sapiens tribe, language has become a weapon designed to master the world and to manipulate the others. It is not solely a liberating force, it is also a mastering, enslaving device used by the new civilisation. The language of the Homo sapiens is indeed described as inherently violent to world and man. It seems responsible for the establishment of a hierarchical society dominated by the old man Marlan. The orders he gives linguistically subordinate the new people who reluctantly obey him.
In the Homo sapiens world, language seems to have condemned any harmonious communion between human beings. They are naturally accepted because they are not the expression of some power exercised at the expense of the other. Reconstructing the history of language acquisition and development, Golding brings our attention to the fact that the language we have inherited probably ensured our survival over the Neanderthals but it has estranged us both from nature and from one another.
Language Narrates Itself 6In the very act of reading, we unknowingly operate the transition from a pre- linguistic world to a symbolic one.
We indeed play an active part in the reconstruction of this linguistic history. Language adapts itself to the context and atmosphere it depicts. The narrative does not simply describe the evolution of language: it linguistically stages it.
The author had to deter readers from their familiar perception of the world by dissociating them from their usual reference points. The primitive world had to be expressed by a language that defied classical linguistic norms. In The Inheritors, the linguistic frontiers that delimit the beings and objects in our world have indeed been dissolved. The Neanderthal tribe for instance makes no difference between animate and inanimate beings. In this minorization 2 of the standard ideological language, the reader is forced to relinquish her usual way of perceiving things.
The new semantic distribution brings about modifications at the syntactic level as well, through the associations of categories that we would normally keep separate.
The syntactic leveling of elements traditionally belonging to different spheres is a linguistic rendering of the symbiosis that exists between man and nature in the Neanderthal world. If metaphor is usually based on a tension-torsion of meaning in which the thing both is and is not what the metaphor refers to 4 , in The Inheritors this tension disappears: literal and figurative meaning cannot be distinguished.
The more the Neanderthal people approach the other tribe the more indeed we recognize ourselves in the Homo sapiens. This projection into the familiar world of civilized man through innocent primitive eyes and language tends to push us to interpretation: it makes us inevitably resort to symbolical language.