By. Samuel Huntington Part III: A civilization-based world order is emerging: societies sharing . The bloody clashes of civilizations in Bosnia, the Caucasus. clash of civilizations? Foreign Affairs ; New York; Summer ; Huntington, Samuel P; .. The clash of civilizations thus occurs at two levels. $ I n the summer of Foreign Affairs published an article entitled "The Clash of Civilizations?" by Samuel Huntington. No article, according to the.
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Further reproduction prohibited without permission. The clash of civilizations? Huntington, Samuel P. Foreign Affairs; Summer ; 72, 3; ABI/INFORM Global. The Clash of Civilizations is a hypothesis that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. The American political scientist Samuel P. Huntington argued that future .. "Clash of Civilizations, or Realism and Liberalism Déjà Vu? Some Evidence" (PDF). Journal of. PDF | On Apr 1, , David Wilkinson and others published Samuel P. Huntington. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order.
Cultural characteristics and differences are less mutable and hence less easily compromised and resolved than political and economic ones. Economic regionalism is increasing.
Successful economic regionalism will reinforce civilization-consciousness. Economic regionalism may succeed only when it is rooted in a common civilization. The West versus the Rest[ edit ] Huntington suggests that in the future the central axis of world politics tends to be the conflict between Western and non-Western civilizations, in [Stuart Hall]'s phrase, the conflict between "the West and the Rest". He offers three forms of general actions that non-Western civilization can take in response to Western countries.
However, Huntington argues that the costs of this action are high and only a few states can pursue it. According to the theory of " band-wagoning " non-Western countries can join and accept Western values.
Non-Western countries can make an effort to balance Western power through modernization. They can develop economic, military power and cooperate with other non-Western countries against the West while still preserving their own values and institutions. Huntington believes that the increasing power of non-Western civilizations in international society will make the West begin to develop a better understanding of the cultural fundamentals underlying other civilizations.
Therefore, Western civilization will cease to be regarded as "universal" but different civilizations will learn to coexist and join to shape the future world. Core state and fault line conflicts[ edit ] In Huntington's view, intercivilizational conflict manifests itself in two forms: fault line conflicts and core state conflicts.
Fault line conflicts are on a local level and occur between adjacent states belonging to different civilizations or within states that are home to populations from different civilizations. Core state conflicts are on a global level between the major states of different civilizations.
Core state conflicts can arise out of fault line conflicts when core states become involved. Some of these countries have clashed with the West and some have not.
Perhaps the ultimate example of non-Western modernization is Russia, the core state of the Orthodox civilization. Huntington argues that Russia is primarily a non-Western state although he seems to agree that it shares a considerable amount of cultural ancestry with the modern West. According to Huntington, the West is distinguished from Orthodox Christian countries by its experience of the Renaissance , Reformation , the Enlightenment ; by overseas colonialism rather than contiguous expansion and colonialism; and by the infusion of Classical culture through ancient Greece rather than through the continuous trajectory of the Byzantine Empire.
Huntington refers to countries that are seeking to affiliate with another civilization as "torn countries". Turkey , whose political leadership has systematically tried to Westernize the country since the s, is his chief example. Mexico and Russia are also considered to be torn by Huntington. He also gives the example of Australia as a country torn between its Western civilizational heritage and its growing economic engagement with Asia.
According to Huntington, a torn country must meet three requirements to redefine its civilizational identity. Its political and economic elite must support the move. Second, the public must be willing to accept the redefinition. Third, the elites of the civilization that the torn country is trying to join must accept the country. Then, we will regain the Turkish public opinion support in one day.
Western civilization is no exception.
In the post-Cold War world flags count and so do other symbols of cultural identity, including crosses, crescents, and even head coverings, because culture counts, and cultural identity is what is most meaningful to most people. People are discovering new but often old identities and marching under new but often old flags which lead to wars with new but often old enemies.
Unless we hate what we are not, we cannot love what we are. These are the old truths we are painfully rediscovering after a century and more of sentimental cant. Those who deny them deny their family, their heritage, their culture, their birthright, their very selves!
They will not lightly be forgiven. The central theme of this book is that culture and cultural identities, which at the broadest level are civilization identities, are shaping the patterns of cohesion, disintegration, and conflict in the post-Cold War world. By A. Twentieth century relations among civilizations have moved beyond the unidirectional influence of the west on the rest. Instead, "multidirectional interactions among all civilization" has been maintained In other words, cultural influence is interdependent; western civilizations influence and are influenced by smaller, less powerful civilizations around the world.
Huntington then refutes the idea of a Western cultural hegemony and the concept of an established universal civilization. He states that "global communications are dominated by the West" and is "a major source of the resentment and hostility of non-Western peoples against the West" The notion of a single, universal culture is not helpful creating an explanation or a description of global political order. However, Huntington also argues that as modernization increases cross-cultural communication, the similarities among cultures also increase.
The key to this chapter is Huntington's severance of modernization from Westernization. While the world is becoming more modern, it is simultaneously becoming less Western, an idea he expands upon in part two of the book. There are contrasting views on the West's hold on power. One side argues that the West sill has a monopoly on technological research and development, military strength, and economic consumption.
The other side argues that the relative power and influence of Western countries is declining. Huntington adopts the latter view and describes three characteristics of the Western decline: The current Western decline is a very slow process and is not an immediate threat to World powers today. Decline of power does not occur in a straight line; it may reverse, speed up, or pause. The power of a state is controlled and influenced by the behavior and decisions of those holding power.
Also in this section, Huntington asserts the increased role and importance of religion in world politics. Religion is the societal factor that has filled the vacuum created by a loss of political ideology. Major religions around the world "experienced new surges in commitment, relevance and practice by erstwhile casual believers" Huntington goes on to say that replacing politics with religion was also the result of increased communication among societies and cultures.
People "need new sources of identity, new forms of stable community, and new sets of moral precepts to provide them with a sense of meaning and purpose" Religion is able to meet these needs. Huntington specifically focuses on Japan, the Four Tigers Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore , and China as countries, which asserted cultural relevance through economic successes.
The ability of Asian countries to successfully modernize and develop economically without adopting western values supports Huntington's assertion that the world is becoming more modernized, but less Westernized. Muslim societies, unlike Asian societies, have asserted cultural identity through the reaffirmation and resurgence of religion.
Huntington argues that the resurgence of Islam "embodies the acceptance of modernity, rejection of Western culture, and the recommitment to Islam as the guide to life in the modern world" Religion is the primary factor that distinguishes Muslim politics and society from other countries.