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The operating system makes sure that different programs, and users running at the same time, do not interfere with one another. The owner or owners of a computer interacts with the operating system through a set of commands.
All application programs need an operating system. Most of the work that is involved in the operating system is unnoticed because it does the work behind the scenes. Considering all the new technology out, operating systems must be uploaded in order to support the new technology being uploaded to computers.
All in all, the operating system is the core of all computers. Operating system architecture Multitasking and Multithreading[ edit ] Multitasking is a computer's ability to seemingly run multiple tasks or processes at the same time. For example, you might have an Internet browser open to read this page while also having a word processor open to take notes and a media player open to stream music.
In reality, however, the computer is not actually able to process multiple tasks simultaneously; rather, it switches between them at incredibly quick speeds to give the appearance of working on them simultaneously. CPUs have become faster over time, which allows computers to increasingly run more applications at the same time and switch between them more quickly and seamlessly.
If computers could not do this, a user would have to painstakingly close an application any time he or she wanted to do anything in another application. Continuity is a new form of multitasking. It lets you seamlessly move between your compatible Apple devices or use them all simultaneously. Handoff is a feature wherein you can start work from one device then continue on another.
For example, you may be working on a document on your Mac but then suddenly you have to leave the desktop.
With Handoff, you can simply continue your work on the iPad while you are away from the desktop. Phone Calling is simply phone calls on your computer or tablet when they are connected to your phone through the same Wi-Fi network.
This allows for instant responses to calls without having the need to use your phone.
Instant Hotspot is where your iPhone can provide internet access to your other devices. Finally, SMS allows you to send and receive text messages to and from your computer or tablet. This allows for you to seamlessly answer messages without even lifting your phone. Continuity is basically taking the concept of multitasking and simplifying it by using multiple devices instead of using multiple CPUS. Again, the processor is not actually able to do multiple things simultaneously, but it is able to switch between different actions so quickly that, for all intents and purposes as far as the user is concerned, it is doing them simultaneously.
Process Management[ edit ] A process is a program in execution. User interfaces can be based on text, such as the original DOS that was used in the s and s, or it can be based on graphics.
Most personal computers and mobile devices today use a graphical user interface, also known as GUI, which uses visuals such as icons, desktops, pointers, and menus for users to utilize. Basic forms of graphical user interface include the use of checkboxes, lists, and other fundamental forms of input.
Examples of graphical user interfaces include Windows, Mac OS, and many other modern operating systems. The user interface "UI" refers to the part of an operating system, program, or device that allows a user to enter and receive information. The BIOS chip tells the computer to look for the boot loader.
It does this by finding the kernel, which contains the operating system, and loading it into the memory . The POST ensures that all the functions and components of the computer are properly working before startup.
Operating Systems for Personal Computers[ edit ] Printed spool half Buffering and Spooling[ edit ] The part of the operating system used mostly with printers is buffering.
This area is meant to hold the input and the output during their way out of the system . Although many people are familiar with buffering having to do with loading while streaming videos and music, it can also be referred to as a temporary form of memory . While a buffer is doing its job, the CPU can change data before relocating to any other devices.
When items are placed into a buffer waiting to be regained, this is called spooling. Along with buffers being used with printers, spooling often refers to print spooling. Many college campuses have print spooling, which enables one printer to have multiple print jobs sent to it at one time.
These multiple documents can be sent all from the same computer or more than one. While this spooling occurs, there is a print queue that all documents waiting can be stored until they are printed. Spooling is a very useful tool because while one device may not run as fast, it provides documents with a waiting area in the meantime.
DOS is a rather simple operating system but it does not utilize a graphical user interface and it does not support modern processors, which is why it is no longer used . Some computers can still run the DOS commands but the user needs to know how to input the commands using the Command Prompt window. This non-graphical operating system was originally written by Tim Paterson and was introduced in August The DOS system used a command line, instead of a GUI graphical user interface , to allow the user to navigate, open files, and perform other functions .
Today, people use a mouse to navigate the computer and carry out commands, but with the DOS there was a command-line interface which had specific commands put in a prompt, which then brought up whatever file or program was prompted. Later, software programs with menu-based or icon-based interfaces were created for convenience.
While the DOS systems are not used anymore, the command shell, now called the Windows command line, is still used today . It is expected that as these operating systems gain market share, DOS will eventually disappear.
In the meantime, Caldera, Inc. The first two versions of the Windows operating system, introduced in and respectively, were primitive. Windows 1. Windows did not become popular until its third release in Windows 3.
This version was so popular that it stayed on the market for eleven years. The next big improvement came with Windows 95, which expanded from bit to bit short for binary digit.
Windows was known for its increase in plug-in devices that were congruent with the operating system. Windows XP, or Windows , included a comprehensive help center to allow users to utilize different types of media and was designed mostly for user ease and convenience .
The main feature of Windows Vista is the Instant Search at the bottom of the start menu. Then Windows 7 came out and the improvements were mainly to make it faster and easier to use.
The most recent version of Windows is Windows Windows 10 came out late July The new Windows will allow you do to more than one thing at once. It also allows for a new way to search and there is a way to open the Windows store from your home page.
Screenshot of Microsoft Windows 1. There are many different branches stemming from the Mac OS X family. It was primarily based off of UNIX because of its standard interface and graphics look. Mac OS has capabilities of multithreading and multitasking. It also has a bit processor that runs with applications used with bit software.
The many great features of Mac OS X creates an easy working environment for students, teachers, and parents to easily access many files.
Mac OS is also known for its great graphic features that are popular to artsy users. Apple launched a new operating system in titled OS X Yosemite, which features a redesigned interface as well as multiple ways for users to perform activities across their Apple devices .
UNIX can support systems ranging from microcomputers to mainframes, along with various devices. Because UNIX is used for an assortment of categories of computers, this is a great advantage. However, it is more expensive than most operating systems, and is very difficult to maintain upgrades.
It allowed for one open consensus specification that is the requirement for the UNIX systems. UNIX was one of the first operating systems to be written in a high-level programming language and could possibly be installed on any computer.
This high-level programming language was also developed by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Labs, which allows a more flexible language to be used in various applications thus being very beneficial for businesses.
It being inexpensive allowed for many people to be a big fan of UNIX and actually many universities use it for that reason. It never really took off in the home computer business but for workstations it tends to be the number one choice.
The source language was open so if anyone got a hold of it they could change it to fit their own needs the best. It is very similar to other operating systems, such as Windows and OS X  and a source is available to the public, to which users can download Linux via the Internet and have the capability to run another operating system on their PC or Mac.
To learn how to read and understand sales ads describing different computer systems. Keep this is your class folder so you know what activities you have already done and still need to do.
Complete the 5 assignments in the order listed. All 5 assignments are graded. How do I learn about the topic and complete the activities??? Your username and password is the same as it is on the school network.
Complete questions on Part I of the notesheet. Complete Question and Activity Sheet. The level of difficulty of each type of upgrade varies, but hardware replacement is not rocket science. It will require a bit of preparation, and you'll need to take safety precautions like turning off your machine and discharging static by wearing an anti-static wrist strap or regularly touching a piece of grounded metal.
But with a little manual reading and online research, you can figure out what parts and tools you need, learn how to do your hardware upgrade of choice and give yourself an ego boost to boot. Each part of the computer has an important role to play in the complete computer system. Knowing what each component does individually and the part it plays in the computer system is important when undertaking any kind of repair or upgrade.
Case All about computer cases, the housing for the internal computer hardware. Floppy Drive All about the floppy drive, the obsolete computer hardware that reads and writes information on floppy diskettes. Hard Disk Drive All about a computer hard disk drive, the hardware that stores your files and programs. Keyboard All about the computer keyboard, the device used to enter text into a computer.
Monitor All about the computer monitor, the hardware that produces the images created by the computer and outputted by the video card.
Motherboard All about a computer motherboard, the central piece of hardware that connects in some way to every other device. Mouse All about the computer mouse, one of the major input devices used on a computers.
Optical Disc Drive All about optical drives like a DVD drive , the computer hardware that reads and writes information with lasers. Power Supply Unit All about the power supply unit, the device in a desktop computer that supplies power to the internal hardware. Router All about routers, the network hardware that exchanges data between local networks and the Internet.