Das Schwarze Reich Geheimgesellschaften Templerorden Thule Gesellschaft Das Dritte Reich Cia Discover them is layout of ppt, kindle, pdf, word, txt, rar. PDF Das schwarze Reich. Geheimgesellschaften: Templerorden, Thule- Gesellschaft. Das dritte Reich. CIA Download. Book Download, PDF Download, Read. Das Schwarze Korps - Jahrgang (, 8 S., Scan, Fraktur) IN COLLECTIONS. Community Texts. Uploaded by Reichsbibliothek on September 10,
|Language:||English, Spanish, Hindi|
|Genre:||Fiction & Literature|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration needed]|
Das Schwarze Korps - Jahrgang (, 12 S., Scan, Fraktur) COLLECTIONS. Community Texts. Uploaded by Reichsbibliothek on September 10, The black sun (German: Schwarze Sonne) is a symbol employed in a post-Third Reich context by neo-Nazis and some occult subcultures, such as Satanism. eBook (PDF): Reprint Publication Date: January ; Copyright year: This volume is a study of the weekly SS newspaper»Das Schwarze Korps« »Das Schwarze Korps«in the overall journalistic landscape of the Third Reich.
The message contained in them is exemplified by the following quote from the Forces website referring to a paper by Davey Smith et al. Had we removed the references to the Nazis, the reader would think that this is contemporary material…The resurgence of fascism under the guise of health is not new, and we better learn the lesson of history once and for all, or the price to pay for our ignorance will be dear indeed.
It should, however, be noted that these references are overwhelmingly in websites from the USA or the UK, and where they appear on German sites, it is almost always to express curiosity or surprise about their use.
While some senior Nazis, including Hitler, were strongly opposed to smoking and some Nazi policies did seek to discourage smoking, the authors concur with Proctor that the reality was more complex than is often portrayed and, in reality, there was considerable ambivalence at the highest political levels; an argument also advanced cogently in a recent paper by Lewy. Methods The starting point was the seminal research by Davey Smith et al.
Deutsche Arbeitsfront that may describe anti-smoking campaigns or guidelines on health behaviour, and a sample of major party newspapers and magazines e.
In a follow-up search, specific issues of the Deutscher Reichsanzeiger und Preussischer Staatsanzeiger were searched for orders or decrees on tobacco control. The documentation obtained was used to examine the nature of and attitudes to tobacco control during the Third Reich. In particular, it was examined whether the anti-tobacco activities undertaken were driven by individuals at lower levels within the system or whether they were part of a Reich-wide campaign, enjoying high-level political support.
In addition, the authors assessed the extent of high-level support within the party for the more extreme campaigns run in some magazines e. Reine Luft published by tobacco control activists and dedicated to the smoking issue and for the activities of the Institute for the Struggle Against Tobacco Hazards at Jena University.
An accompanying paper describes Nazi policies on tobacco in Austria. The restrictions were primarily designed to reduce the risk of fire but there was also a strong undercurrent of morality, with smoking by women seen as socially unacceptable.
However, in , the Prussian authorities re-instated a ban on smoking in public places. Thus, state restrictions on tobacco long predated the Nazi era. In the s, several German studies suggested a link between smoking and lung cancer. Indeed, Fritz Lickint, one of the leading advocates of anti-smoking campaigns, was a social democrat who was vilified and denied promotion under the Nazis. Thus, actions against smoking were often linked to similar actions against the wearing of cosmetics.
Furthermore, even when national laws were enacted, they were seldom enforced, such as the ban on smoking in trains. For example, there was no Reich-wide media campaign against smoking, and while the content of tobacco advertisements was restricted in December , 3 advertisements were not banned. Interestingly, tobacco advertising in the mass media e.
This ambivalent approach to tobacco control policy reflected tensions within the Nazi hierarchy. While some senior representatives of the party were in favour of a wide-ranging media campaign e. Moreover, the continued presence of tobacco advertising in the press, non-compliance by doctors and continued public smoking by high-ranking party members also made it difficult.
On 5 April , the Scientific Institute for the Research into the Hazards of Tobacco was founded in Jena; the first of its kind worldwide. The research undertaken was clearly linked to Nazi ideology. The documents obtained by the authors suggest that Thuringia was not typical of the Third Reich.
In , Sauckel and Reichsorganisationsleiter Dr Robert Ley, also from Thuringia, pressed for an extension of the actions being taken there to the rest of Germany. A short series of meetings at the highest political level followed in May of that year to discuss the scope for a national anti-smoking campaign but these ended after 2 weeks.
Minutes of these meetings provide important insights into the thinking among senior Nazis, so a chronological summary is reported in Box 1. Although this meeting reached agreement about the need for information about the dangers of nicotine, problems in convincing doctors, many of whom were smokers who played down the dangers of smoking, were anticipated. It was therefore determined that a campaign would face many obstacles. Simultaneously, Goebbels banned the anti-smoking brochure recently published by Jena University.
Goebbels agreed on the importance of reducing smoking among women and youth, but in a controlled and cautious way. He viewed the fiercely anti-smoking propaganda in the magazine Reine Luft published by tobacco control activists as ineffective, and wartime as an inappropriate time for an anti-smoking campaign.
It was emphasized that all campaign material was to be approved by propaganda offices. However, if a campaign was to be launched, it should be in no way aggressive, insulting or abusive towards smokers. He expressed willingness to ban advertisements by cigarette manufacturers. However, Reichsminister Goebbels blocked such a move, arguing that such measures should be delayed, at least until the end of the war. However, it was stressed repeatedly that even internal campaigns should be handled very cautiously.
Thus, on 5 July , an urgent letter was sent by telex from the Reich Propaganda Office in agreement with the Party Chancellery to all chief administrators of districts, members of the National Socialist Organization for Propaganda and People's Enlightenment, and liaison officers in important organizations, establishing guidelines on Reich-consistent anti-tobacco propaganda.
These guidelines, which demonstrate a somewhat tolerant view of smoking, were summarized in nine bullet points 25 Box 2. Box 2 Reich Propaganda Department guidelines on anti-smoking campaigns, issued on 5 July The magazine Reine Luft must give up its combative character and its polemic tenor. It should become the organ for scientific research and public education about the dangers of tobacco.
Physicians must give consistent messages to the population.
All anti-tobacco propaganda directed at the public must be approved. A very careful campaign should be directed at women, in particular addressing those who are pregnant or breast-feeding Magazines for young people, women, physicians and sports may be used more extensively for health education. There are no objections to propaganda in support of a further ban on smoking in work places, assemblies, meetings, sports fields and similar. Tobacco advertising by the manufacturers will be reduced incrementally.
Campaigns at district level are only permitted within the framework of these guidelines. It specified that proposals to use the press for anti-smoking campaigns, to ban women from smoking in restaurants, and to restrict tobacco adverts to statements of manufacturer, brand name and price were not approved by the party.
The major newspapers had their own representatives at the conferences and thus obtained the information directly. Smaller newspapers had to be content with a short summary, the so-called daily paroles Tagesparolen. Gallhuber, personal communication. Thuringia and other local actions Interestingly, only Thuringia, with its tobacco research institute in Jena, was explicitly excluded from these regulations, being subject to special provisions.
Robert Ley, head of the German Labour Front, who had trained in chemistry at Jena or organizations e. Again, many initiatives had more to do with the status of women than with smoking as such. For example, members of the police force in the town of Erfurt were instructed to remind women smoking in public of their duties as German women and mothers, which echoed the verbal abuse of women in Berlin who wore cosmetics.
Koonz, Claudia The Nazi Conscience.
Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Longerich, Peter The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. Heinrich Himmler. Oxford and New York: Manvell, Roger; Fraenkel, Heinrich Skyhorse Publishing. Moorhouse, Roger The Devil's Alliance: Hitler's Pact with Stalin, — Basic Books. Overy, Richard The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia.
London and New York: Rees, Laurence The Holocaust: Snyder, Louis L Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. Robert Hale. Stone, Dan Patterns of Prejudice.
Wistrich, Robert Hitler and the Holocaust. Modern Library Chronicles. Zeck, Mario Das Schwarze Korps: Niemeyer Verlag. The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. Macmillan Publishing. Schutzstaffel SS. Sturmbrigade R. Finnish Volunteer Battalion. Definitions Economics Fascism and ideology Fascism worldwide Symbolism.
The mythical is still there, but now referring to the self-image of the SS, not our own post-war conception of them. An explanation, Schulte proposed, might be that the book in fact functioned as a catalyst for a major shift of paradigm concerning the view of the SS in official memory culture.
As scholars we are of course part of the rest of society, and it would be highly mistaken to believe that we are immune to all kinds of influences, including those that we later might rather wish we had been able to avoid. Although he is not concerned with the SS, the text still deserves to mentioned, as it shows how occultural elements enter academic discourse even in a peer- review journal. Although there is a consensus in most scholarly research that this is an entirely false assumption — especially as it is well documented that Hitler looked upon Norse religion with a certain contempt — this does not seem to bother Sickinger, who instead uses a good number of rather dubious sources to confirm his ideas.
There are certain media products that belong to popular history in that they are not officially sanctioned by academia or institutions such as museums, but still express a strong claim for authenticity and accuracy by using an authoritative mode of communication.
They also frequently use references from historians and other authorities, be it academics or laymen that are well known within the field, in order to further establish an image of seriosity. I have already mentioned some authors in the cryptohistory genre, but it is also noteworthy that this is an area where two discourse strands meet and create discursive bridges between them.
Thus, a tv documentary like Nazis: The Occult Conspiracy made by Discovery Channel can include renowned historians like George L Mosse among its interviewed experts and still be highly speculative and sensationalistic. This means that those who are seriously interested in the esoteric aspects of Nazi Germany are faced with a huge amount of work, including reading and critically evaluating everything they can find on the topic.
Although this kind of media criticism is by no means confined only to those with an academic training, such a background is certainly an asset.
This becomes visible in the next part, when we go to the Temple of Set. Aquino and Stephen E. Flowers, two leading members of the Order. LaVey was fascinated by Nazi Germany, especially the idea of Nazi occultism and its potential for magical work, which led to rumours connecting the COS to Nazism. Aquino ; Flowers However, there is also a renouncement regarding racism, anti- Semitism and xenophobia. Said Heinrich Himmler on April 21, "We have made serious mistakes.
If I could have a fresh start, I would do many things differently now. But it is too late. We wanted greatness and security for Germany, and we are leaving behind us a pile of ruins, a fallen world The Germanic tradition is also part of the legacy of the Prince of Darkness, hence is appropriate to an Order within the Temple of Set, which embraces all manifestations of the Powers of Darkness in the world.
Aquino 13 E-mail from Dr Aquino to this author, His visit to the Wewelsburg, including that which became known as his Wewelsburg Working on 19th October , is not only in famous see for example Goodrick-Clarke ; Levenda but also well documented. Detailed descriptions of the working and of its purposes are in fact found in all three parts of the discourse studied here: available through the Temple of Set itself, as a more general occultural resource on the web, and in official memory culture through the aforementioned article by Siepe All this was most helpful when he in connection to a duty travel in Europe had the opportunity to take a trip to Wewelsburg.
So, why the Wewelsburg, and why the SS? However, it is a mixture of both scholarly work and cryptohistory, which is of course most informative had it not been for a certain lack of critical distance to some of the titles.
We should take interesting and stimulating ideas and go forward with them, not backward. The scholarly attitude is also prevalent in the writings of Flowers. The most valuable secondary studies have been provided by Klaus Vondung , Michael Kater and Ulrich Hunger Flowers The three studies mentioned are all PhD dissertations and would certainly be obligatory reading if there were ever to be a basic course in Nazi occultism.
To those unfamiliar with the works of Aquino and Flowers it might be something of a surprise to learn that their knowledge about the esoteric aspects of Nazi Germany is in fact much more well founded than some authors within official memory culture.