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One study showed that there is an increasing frequency of itraconazole-resistant Aspergillus, in which the resistance developed in the bodies of the patients because of the treatment failure [ 21 ].
Moreover, triazole-resistant A. Agricultural triazoles are also a concern because they create selective pressures for environmental fungi resistant to triazoles [ 25 ].
One study showed a cross-resistance between medical and agricultural triazoles in A. Accumulating evidence has shown that there is an emerging A. In South Korea, residual triazole fungicides e. Thus, vigilance is needed in terms of the emergence of fungal strains in the environment with resistance to agricultural and medical triazoles.
The aim of this study was to investigate the level of triazole susceptibility in fungal isolates from ambient outdoor air in the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. This study particularly focused on thermotolerant fungi because they are more likely to be infectious than that of other mesophilic fungi [ 30 ].
The testing of susceptibility to triazoles was done with the standard broth dilution method. We tested the triazoles itraconazole and tebuconazole because cross-resistance to both medical and agricultural triazoles is of great concern [ 26 ].
At present, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne thermotolerant fungi [ 22 — 24 ].
This study provides insight into how triazole resistance is prevalent in thermotolerant fungi in ambient outdoor air. The test farm is located On the test farm, the apple and rice fields are separated by a distance of 1. Typically, air sampling was conducted bimonthly at each location alternating between either the university campus or the test farm. A total of 21 sets of air sampling were collected: nine sets at the university campus and twelve sets at the test farm six sets each for the apple and rice fields.
Prior to conducting the field studies, all the necessary permits were obtained from the managers at each site. SDAC plates containing 0. To quantify the susceptibility of thermotolerant fungi to triazoles, 0, 0.
Airborne fungi were collected on each agar plate for 2 or 5 min with an air flow rate of For each set of air sampling, twelve consecutive air samplings were performed using agar plates containing each concentration of the triazoles. Typically, a duration of 2 min was chosen for air sampling with the SDAC plates because a large number of total culturable fungi was expected in the spring, summer, and fall.
A shorter sampling duration was used to avoid overloading the plates with fungal particles. Meanwhile, a duration of 5 min was used for the air sampling with the RPMI plates because a smaller number of thermotolerant fungi were expected, thus requiring a longer sampling duration. The exposed plates were transported to the laboratory within 8 h from the start of the air sampling and incubated so that the fungal colony-forming units CFU could be counted.
Positive-hole corrections were made for all reported airborne fungal concentrations to correct for the possibility that multiple viable particles passed through the same sampling hole of the multi-jet impactor and were deposited together at the same point on the collection substrate [ 32 ].
These isolates from the pure cultures were used for DNA sequence-based analyses and standard susceptibility testing. DNA was extracted from pure culture colonies from an area approximately 0. Briefly, fungal tissues were grinded with the grinding resin of the kit and zirconia beads.
The resultant cellular debris and proteins were removed by precipitation using the included reagents of the kit. The lengths of the sequenced amplicons were from to bp for the ITS sequences and from to bp for the benA sequences. To identify the isolates at the species level, the ITS and benA sequences of each isolate were compared with the sequences of type strains downloaded from GenBank.
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Ilana Tan ,. Ika Natassa Goodreads Author. Series by Ilana Tan. Season Series 4 books by Ilana Tan. Upcoming Events. No scheduled events. Add an event. Quotes by Ilana Tan. Aku tahu. Hidup ini sungguh aneh, juga tidak adil.
Suatu kali hidup melambungkanmu setinggi langit, kali lainnya hidup menghempaskanmu begitu keras ke bumi.
Ketika aku menyadari dialah satu-satunya yang paling kubutuhkan dalam hidup ini, kenyataan berteriak di telingaku dia juga satu-satunya orang yang tidak boleh kudapatkan. Sesederhana itu. What will you be reading?
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