PDF | Alcalase, dispase, trypsin, and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze the extracted Ginkgo biloba seeds protein isolate (GPI). The Ginkgo. PDF | Pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays a role not only in drug metabolism and transport but. Antioxidant Protein from Ginkgo biloba Seeds In the present study, a novel antioxidant protein named GBSP was purified .. using the Mascot search algorithm; the peptide sequencing was performed by manual calculation.
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Alcalase, dispase, trypsin, and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze the extracted Ginkgo biloba seeds protein isolate (GPI). The Ginkgo protein. A Novel Topical Spray Formulation for Ginkgo Biloba for Antifungal Activity View PDF Download PDF Topical spray; In vitro release; Ginkgo biloba. Pregnane × receptor (PXR; NR1I2) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays a role not only in drug metabolism and transport but also in various other.
Western Blot Analysis Protein extract was applied to western blot analysis. For this purpose, the hippocampus was homogenized in lysis buffer containing complete protease inhibitor cocktail 1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.
For the quantification of AChM1 receptor protein, these polyvinylidene fluoride membranes were thereafter incubated with primary antibodies as rabbit anti-rat-M1 polyclonal antibody at a 1 : dilution Abcam, UK and then incubated with a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody at a 1 : dilution. The membranes were put into chemiluminescence ECL reagent and exposed to film.
Band densities were determined with image densitometer software. GAPDH was used as a housekeeping protein to normalize the protein load. The data were analyzed using ABI software. Statistical differences of were considered to be significant.
Results 3. Firstly, we observed that the escape latency of all groups became shorter from day 1 to day 7, which is consistent with the fact that the learning and memory abilities of rats for the location of platform were gradually consolidated Figure 1 a.
From day 3, the escape latency of these two groups was significantly shorter than that of model group. For EGbL group, a similar trend was observed from day 5. Figure 1 b shows the schematic trails of search patterns in the MWM on day 7 of escape acquisition.
EGbtreated rats displayed superior search patterns with shorter latencies and distances to find the platform, which was similar to the control group. Figure 1: a Effects of EGb on escape latency of water maze test in rats.
This was also verified by the percentage of time in the target annulus and the number of times crossed over the target annulus during the probe trial. In model group, both of these factors were significantly decreased compared with those of control group Figures 2 a and 2 b ,. However, EGb administration can release the decrease of these two factors. EGb increased the number of platform crossings and time in target annulus in a dose-dependent manner and rats in EGbM and EGbH groups spent more time in the target annulus than those in control group.
Figure 2: a Effects of EGb on the number of platform crossings of water maze test in rats. As is shown in Figure 3 a , the content of ACh in model group was lower than that of control group. However, EGbtreated group exhibited higher content of ACh than that of the model group ,. In addition, EGb can significantly reverse these enzyme activities , ; Figures 3 b and 3 c. When inferring from the report on gradual growth in production, it is expected that the prevalence of sheath blight is likely to increase in the future In contemporary society, production and consumption of eco-friendly agricultural materials increase continually.
Among them, the plant-derived and the oriental herbal medicinal materials contain antifungal substances that are produced for protection against pathogenic microbes. These antifungal substances are made up mainly of organic acids, fatty acids, phenolic compounds such as flavonoids as well as glycoside.
To this end, researches on the extract components of natural materials are actively implemented to be used for studies of antifungal materials even in the fields of food, pharmaceutical industry and biotechnology industry, and researches to separate and apply substances identified with excellent antifungal activities and good stability Han, ; Park et al.
A large number of Ginkgo trees had been planted for landscape in Korea. Its leaves are being utilized as the raw material of pharmaceutical product, while the Ginkgo biloba seeds are used a lot as a food the outer seedcoat, which is usually discarded, causes environment problems due to its foul odor.
However, the outer seedcoat being disposed has been known to have strong effects on insect pest and fungal pathogens, and Choi has reported that the extract of G. Therefore, this study was conducted to test the possibility of utilizing the wasted Ginkgo outer seedcoat as resources of antifungal agent for rice sheath blight. The isolated G. The outcome of this process was used as the test sample for extract. We had mixed the powdered test sample of G.
Subsequent to this process, we filtrated using filter paper Whatman, No. When we screened subfractions for the activity, Fr. This fraction was then divided into two fractions by performing a C18 column chromatography. The formation of these hydrogen bonds greatly stabilized the enzyme-peptide complex. Discussion In recent years, food- derived ACE inhibitory peptides from plant protein have attracted more and more attention due to their fewer side effects.
In this study, alcalase, dispase, trypsin, and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze Ginkgo protein. The DH and ACE inhibitory activity of the Ginkgo protein hydrolyzate obtained by hydrolysis of alcalase were reported as the highest.
The hydrolysis process took place rapidly during the initial stage which resulted in hydrolysis of many peptide bonds, then after, the rate of hydrolysis was slowed down due to the gradual reduction of the substrates availability for hydrolysis Ketnawa et al. These findings were consistent with the previous report of rapeseed protein hydrolyzates with effective ACE inhibitory action when hydrolyzed with alcalase He et al. Angiotensin converting enzyme is a multifunctional extracellular dipeptidase present in different tissues.
The inhibitory activity of ACE lowers the blood pressure by reducing the production of angiotensin II and reducing the destruction of kinins Zheng et al. The ACE inhibitory activity of the hydrolyzate was related to the molecular weight distribution.
The ultrafiltration was used to separate the Ginkgo hydrolyzate into five components. This observation was in accordance with previous studies reporting the higher ACE activity of low MW polypeptides Wang et al. Moreover, Silvestre et al.
In addition, the activity of the ACE-inhibiting peptide was strongly related to the presence of its C-terminal amino acid, aromatic amino acid, and hydrophobic amino acid.
For instance, the presence of the aromatic amino acid Tyr, Phe, and Trp significantly enhanced the activity of the ACE inhibitory peptide.
In addition, Arg is also known to play an important role in the inhibitory peptide. Toopcham et al. Furthermore, Liu et al.
Similar results were also reported by Lee and Hur Above all, the peptide fragments corresponded with the structural characteristics of ACE-inhibiting peptides. The mode of inhibition of ACE-inhibiting peptides was observed generally non-competitive, competitive, and mixed. For short peptides 2—12 amino acids , most of them were competitive inhibitors and they attached to the ACE enzyme in order to prevent the binding of the substrate HHL.
A similar study by Lin et al.
However, for non-competitive inhibitors, they bind to sites other than the substrate binding site of the enzyme and ultimately affect the binding of the substrate to the enzyme. In this competitive mode, ACE, substrate, and peptide formed an enzyme-substrate-inhibitor complex, which prevented further release of the product and resulted in a decrease in Vmax Barbana and Boye, Studying the molecular interaction mechanism between ACE and inhibitory peptides is helpful for screening and designing new ACE inhibitory peptides.