Percy brown indian architecture pdf

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Brown, Percy () Indian Architecture (Islamic Period). D B Taraporevala Sons & Co. Bombay. Percy Brown-Islamic - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File P. however. and is therefore entitled "INDIAN ARCHITECTURE. and the. Indian Architecture (Buddhist and Hindu Period) - Percy Brown. state. In the same way the outstanding quality of the architecture of India is its spiritual content .

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Percy Brown Indian Architecture Pdf

INDIAN ARCHITECTURE (ISLAMIC PERIOD) ' BY PERCY BROWN M. B. E., A. R. C. A., F. R.A. • D. B. TARAPOREVALA SONS &: CO. Indian Architecture book. Read 3 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Few countries possess a richer architectural heritage than India. Indian Architecture: Vol. I, Buddhist and Hindu; Vol. II, Islamic Period. 2-vol. set ( Complete). Brown, Percy. Bombay, India: D. B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Private .

Dadabhai Naoroji Road, Bombay 00 I. Seventh Reprint Thia book caD be exported from India only by the publilben, D. TaraporevaJa Sons It Co. Private Ltd. UIIi J. Taraporevala Sons It Co.

While the Dravida style flourished in that part of the country lying between the Krishna river and cape Kanyakumari. The temples erected in this region are sharply distinguished from each other, both in respect of ground plan and elevation.

The plan is square with a number of gradual projections in the middle of each side which imparts it a cruciform shape. Thus, there is a strong emphasis on vertical lines in elevation. As a result, there are local variations and ramifications in the formal development of the style in the different regions.

Such variations are cause by local conditions, by different directions in development as well as assimilation of unrelated trends. The storey in the later period became more and more compressed so much so that they are almost hidden under a profusion of details which became characteristic of the subsequent evolution of the style.

According to S. According to Henry Cousens the most significant temples of this style is the Kashivishveshvara at Lakhundi. Specimens of this style may be seen in Kashmir; Lalitaditya Muktapida AD inaugurated an era of building activity in the Kashmir valley. The typical Brahmanical temple in Kashmir has a distinction of its own.

It is peripteral in composition having a single row of pillars on all sides in the style of the temples of ancient Greek. It is situated within a quadrangular court enclosed by a peristyle of cells and approached by one or three porticoes. It has a double pyramidal roof obviously derived from the usual wooden roofs common in Kashmir.

The pillars are fluted and surmounted with capitals of quasi-Doric order. One of the earliest and most impressive monuments is the sun-temple of Martand, built by Lalitaditya and this appears to be the modeled for the subsequent ones. The building activity centred round the sacred city of Bhuvaneshvara, a temple town which alone contains hundreds of temples, large and small.

They remain nearest to the original archetype model. One important feature which imparts distinction to the Orissan temple is the fact that Orissa had its own canon of architecture conformed by the local craftsmen.

The temple is designed in the form of a chariot, drawn on exquisitely carved wheels drawn by a team of seven spirited horses.

At Konarka the extraordinary genius of the architect and sculptor were combined. There is a profusion of carving. The intricate treatment of the walls with figures and decorative motifs of varied nature create the effect of sculptural magnificence. Central India: Temples in this region present significant varieties in contrast to the unilateral Orissan type. Roofs are supported on pillars which are usually worked with exquisite carvings providing a richly ornamented look to the interiors.

These halls stand on high terrace. The Kandaria mahadeo temple at Khajuraho represents the most notable creation of this style. The Khajuraho temples, 30 temples in all large and small dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu, and Jain tirthankaras, were constructed between Ad and In plan and elevation they are all alike and distinguished by certain details.

Plate III. And in front of the as a whole. In this instance it is obvious that the screen was an attempt to For two years after its hasty improvisation the mosque reproduce the facade of the mosque desisn as it had been remained in this condition.

There was however and elaborated into a series of bays with Shallow domed little attempt at articulation of the mosque composition ceilings. Ingenuously graceful is a border of spiral form. Of the latter. Apart from the zsthetic improvement produced b: Accordingly in II99 arrangements agee curves producing that effect of lightness necessary were made for an expansive arched facade to be in such a massive volume.

For it is raising these structures.

To provide the arches to screen the Hindu pillars of the sanctuary at considerable quantity of stonework such a scheme Delhi. As a matter of fact it provides an Then.

Hindu or low pillared sanctuary at its rear. On the west or Mecca side of the court. Had there been an Islamic first Mohammedan governor must be given the credit master builder present. Most of these are built of brick or rubble. This was an immense and lofty tower. Accordingly in the last year of the the rock-cut facades of the Barabar hills m Bihar of twelfth century. This notch or peak this stupendous production did not mark the terrestrial in the pointed arch of Indo-Islamic buildings.

Qutb-ud-din laid the foundations of a the second century B. Throughout the architectural schemes of all of the stones were engraved verses of the Koran in such these historical movements. The Hindu fortress of Qal'a-i-Rai Pithaura. Converted by enlarge. He had already desig- this date.

I and Plate IV. In its decorative duced. To this arches have been formed. None of these however century. In their tum the Arabs the nearest site from Delhi. Its development can be readily traced. For some centunes before the key position of the country. Increased height was 'Obtained by super- for their support. In a further effort to obtain reign from A. As this facade was added ture of several Islamic styles.

When first built. On as it covers more than twice the space occupied by the the northern side it is entered by a doorway. Khorsabad B. In this it followed an ancient Arabian tradi. The three lower shortly after its occupation by the Muslims. The second great building monarch of the Slave enced by the cusped tracery in the indigenous designs dynasty was Sbams-ud-din Iltutmisb.

Then the taper- that at Samarra in Iraq. That this Tower of Victory also served an work of mouth. Plate VI. In plan the tower is jlrlmtJwtl hut of two-and-a-half-days. Each of its four in the same manner as that at Delhi. Such is produce an effect of marked vitality. The result is a finishing with a platform on the uppermost storey. On a terrace levelled structure. Owing to its position on high round it showing the pattern still survives as an ornamentation was possible to include in the scheme some appearance over the doorway.

Shams-ud- found is of a special kind. Seen from any point of as it formed the minar of the mosque which lay at its view the 20tb Minar as a whole is a most JDlpressive feet. Renovations at later dates have produced out of the sandstone hill-side. Even more original luted minaret at each end.

As the mosque plan developed. Such a building was made with a network like honey-combing.

Situated at it was outside the original mosque en. They are. Here it is represented by din Iltutmish. Prepared to a width of 10 feet at the summit.

Tughlaqabad I Delhi: Tomb of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq Fig. XI Fig. Of these. So incomplete a central the entire conception. But it is in the character of the surface decoration that the There now appears in the architecture of India a type principal chaDge is seen.

The outlines of the main separclted by a generation. This is in an underground chamber. Its free there are the smaller side arches. Qutb-ud-din whose similar pointed arch of the Decorated Gothic style appearing addition to the mosque at Delhi. Such a cUstom seven arches extending over a width of feet. Standing as they do in juxtaposition. Privacy on these in the ancient mosques of Arabia. As in the other style. From such evidence alone it feature can only be explained by the fact that this plat- seems fairly clear that the Islamic population of the fonn was designed to support a superstructure.

But the character of the plastic art invariably found in the later Indo-Islamic style. In the temporary. But immediately the gateway is passed barred by the strict tenets of his creed from demolishing this impression ceases. Within the walled enclo- with retaining the Original StrUcture. That the arrangements of nothing specially notable in the remains of Iltutmisb's the courtyard were of a singularly attractive and great extension.

Built in the manner of a walled enclosure. Plate VII. None- seems 'not unlikely this building was regarded as a shrine to which the members of the family could repair theless the A mir screen is a line work of art. These consist of two pillared arcades on the l.

Then records no marked progress. Except for its size there is of which has disappeared. In construction they are still built on finished in The alteration in curved in contour. Gone is the exquisitely modelled of building. ThJs solved. In the which the circular rim of the dome was supported at arcaded cloisters around the quadrangle. During the course of the tems corresponding to those on the facade screen of the development of the dome in India it will be shown that Arhai-din-ka Jbompra at Ajmir.

This miniature place for famous city. The three buildings are the Hauz-i-Shamsi. In the upper comers of the in- its archway. Formed of temple spoils into a mosque side. This problem is Another building of much the same date but more known teclmicaJly as the "phase of transitioo. Bayana in Bharatpur State. Curved fragments lying in Mohammed Tughlak.

Extracts from the names it is clear that they owe their construction to the Koran in Kufri. It is the mosque principal motifs. With the exception of the milwab. Here is the earliest. As in the case of the DlO!

IClue at Budaun it has been restored. It is regrettable that in the last restoration the excessive span it was unable to carry its own weight. Of the lesser known doorways. Jodhpur State. As a contrast however. Owing to repeated restorations at different intervals it is now an illustration of a combination of Not a little of the interest in this building lies in the several architectural styles but there is still some of the principles employed in the construction of its roof..

It marked a positive planned on the traditional procedure of overlapping step forward in socio-political evolution under the courses. Islamic regime. The exception emerges during the rule of the artificers prepared to introduce the procedure and "House of Balban: No longer was the movement towards vides an example of a singularly effective and artistic India confined to military adventurers desirous of solution.

In this instance the squinch takes the eight feet across. Delhi Memoir. IIemoir 19 11 In its narrow aspect it meant a represented is a typically Indianized Vers1on. For it definite advance in structural practice. With the tomb of Iltutmish the story of Indo-Islamic of wealth and infiuence.

In spite of the coarse nature of the masonry. Among them were master craftsmen and other trained duced.. Dating from about prefigure the beginning of a short but brilliant phase of IaBo it is now a ruined and unattractive edifice on the the bui!

For in this building for the first time in the angle of the square hall. Such uncommon in the early Islamic buildings of several an mnovatiDn was a clear intellectual gain. From the DeJhi was thus enabled to give shelter to the refucees. Then there arose to power this derived? The architectural culture which found its decislve advance in the field of architecture took place. Although there may be little tbis forceful but relentless monarch may be e. It is to the discernible.. FOI" in its compoaition the Indian capital..

The process And the manner in which this portion has. Ala-ud-din The answer is implied in almost rtvf!! Y part of its Khalji. So For nearly three quarters of a century. It must have been obvious to anyone The domination of the Saljuqs. Within this spacious northern area he skilful architects.

As their perimeter the two mosques already erected by his mosques and other buildings prove. Plate IX. As the their architectural activities spread throughout the foundations and main walls of the mosque are still whole of this region and even beyond. This ruler's most important building project consisted was an offshoot of that prevailing in Asia Kinor during of a sclleme to construct an immense congregational the first centuries of the second millennium.

A similar system of construction is ob.. Either the execution of the doorway was specially of the Khaljis.

Below IS a plinth.. Then the outer. All this It the skilful fusion of the best of the two modes that is intelligibly executed in a combination of red sandstone has produced in this building such an outstanding work and white marble. Seeing that a period of more than a finished. Yet certain In the middle of each side is a doorway flanked by a elements belonging to this movement persisted and may perforated stone window. For its chief characteristic. Referring more specifically to the edifice which is the particula1"ly of the central opening which.

In any case it can be stated with certainty that had the remainder of the project matured in the style of this example. Yet the outstanding gnicefulness of its lacades lies in the shape of the arches. Whatever its origin. But it is by the con1ident ODe factor noticeable in the Alai Darwaza is that manner in which its parts are architecturally co-ordi- daaIe responsible for its desip and execution were by nated that the experienced hand of the master is visible.

But although some of the qualities of this finish to the composition. IDeaDs committed to working in one established In design the three outer faces are much alike. What now remains is the estern Asian culture may be detected in the building main central hall only of this gatehouse.

But it should be work. And what aIIo important is that it was a structural system which In spite. The only one completed is this '. In some of the c hers as its treatment 1S formal and conventional. That in a very short time the portico.

Supporting the arch are slender nook. The character of this from them to see that constructional practice was decoration is a study in itseH. It has not that delicate exercising very actively the minds of the builders.

But the construction. The three exterior archwa: Moreover the system of its construction dome is conveyed to the ground. On the other hand shafts. This is shown by the shape of the arch. In this "pbase inscription above. Yet it is possible cloying or fatiguing to the eye. A building at Delhi. It seems contrary to Islamic convention. Alai Darwaza. Around its outlines is a band of inscription carved in white marble. The arched pen- is that of radiating voussoirs. Another has been identified all the surfaces are most intricately carved.

So skilfully ings erected during this monarch's reign. Another example of the architecture of the been imposed between the walls of the hall and the time may be seen in the Ukha Kasjid at Bayana in bile of the dome. In the middle of each style.. But the most striking features of Gamberi river.. These two buildings may be studied and struction. Plate X. In all other Bharatpur State. This mosque was built pu: Originally standing within an artificial evolved during the Crwiades. Until fresh principles were personal prestige.

Every part is built of stone The first of the dynasty. In contrast to the ruined conditions of this ruler's After the Roman fashion. Owing at its rear. These were way. This method of entry and exit architectural significance. This portion was evidently a of savage splendour Plate XI. When it is forated by innumerable ovlets for archers. Standing now on the highest point of the comprising the city. Ghiyas-ud-din Tugh1aq. It is recor- understood that. At close intervals throughout the entire circuit I the lounder of the dynasty.

That some sun-dried brick. Plate XI. Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq I of its walls of over four miles. So bare and fortress and palace combined. There is also a long underground corridor with masses of broken masonry.

As It is. Islamic style. A soldier more than a statesman.

Firoz Shah Tughlaq Mohammed Shah Tughlaq bastions. Kalan-Masjid Fig. Tomb of Mubarak Shah Sayyid dec. XVI Fig. Plate XXII. At the same time that Ghiyas-ud-din was of this opening the two principles of support. One important fact in the desip of this mausoleum. Yet the source of such an first time. Owing largely to the requirements of this archways of this tomb.

Percy Brown (art historian)

Although on account of its of the outer walls. In the centre bays framing the archways. But the however. II Jato a state of defence. Not only is the enceinte so designed. The courtyard within was by means of headers and stretchers of marble is of the same unsymmetrical outline. A compromise was then eftected in architectural mode not QDassociated with a Perso- the form of a fusion of the two systems. The process of construction was built.

Thus 15 explained. It is a single dome. It is possible these were prod. The fabric of this tomb. Its square base is sixty-one expressiveness. Then the rectangular marble panels tend to side. Whatever the motive. This dome has a building is of red sandstone with certain portions. Then within its courtyard are several The interior of this tomb is a single chamber thirty IOIidly built underground vaults. Yet in the capable hands of the Indian ception of Ghiyas-ud-din's last resting place at TughJa.

This city already contained.

Indian Architecture (Buddhist and Hindu Period)

The sloping wall of this tower. The economic position there- ment. Its importance as a Jandmark During the reign of Mohammed Tughlaq. His contribution to the capitals of this area area that his predecessors had endeavoured for one consisted in enclosing the space between the first and hundred and fifty years to make beautiful.

Mohammed hundred miles away.. Only through the regulate the supply of water to an artifidallake. Another cessor. Jy experienced work- seen the enclosed courtyard. Deserted and desolate as the pannah. Tnere will be skilled stone-masons and. This style is suificiently dissimilar from any- is a type of structure.. The secular architecture of India is are ibed some explanation of their deviation from mainly represented by fortresses and palaces of the the normal coarse of development seems called for.

Locally known as the Bar. It is a form of ardIitecture that cannot be mistaken. For he himself vicinity. Firoz Shah. An inner staircase leads from being put into eftect that required special technical know- this groand-ftoor to the large flat roof. A scarcity of restoration of it is shown in Plate:. As this it is.

Indian Architecture (Buddhist and Hindu Period) by Percy Brown - Read Online

The annea. In certain parts of the building T abaci. Yet in the Multan verandah for the transaction of official and political examples the architecture was enriched by a consider. The main entrance to this enclosure was on the this loosely knit order. Vaned for many centuries anover the then-known world. As it was aban- colour-wash. For in its the river. Towards the centre. This is a. On really! Structurally necessary. Among the Roman and B. DiocIetian at SpaJato.

Occupying a rectangle less than half a mile long by a quarter broad. Architecture produced on these terms resolves taining all the amenities and necessities of a self-con- itself into a somewhat dull and featureless form of expres.

This etlect of slope is em. The site of the Kotla Firuz although it is true some of the lack of effect now obser. It has been already shown that work. Thus it will be the suppression. In the remainder was a great variety of struct- able amount of surface decoration in the form of carved ures such as pavilions for difterent purposes. One monument in the Kotla is how- its kind waS his capital at Delhi on the banks of the ever unique. Yet it 18 possible at least four fortress cities.

Plate XIV. Dtine empires. Plate XII. Of the other. Above the parapet earlier. Jj Elliot's Rist. In accor- on a cruciform plan. In installing this Buddhist column as a dominating or screen of arches. Plate XV.

Two of them not unlike in their general appearance and and now known as the Hauz-i-Khas. The tall facade. Square in plan. Chief architectural significance. Plate thrown out from each comer. A contemporary historian has recorded. Amidst the crumb- on a lahkhana. There is something appropriately solemn in the shaded corridors of the An unpretentious building in itself but of considerable Khirki masjid. PS of of inscribed arabesque ornamentation which.

But where the exteriors differ from side being relieved by a projecting surface. Extending in front of the southern side is a low plat- though efficient nature of the masonry throughout.

In their out. Firuz was endeavouring to emulate quoins creating that sloping appearance. Both in the interior between. The an arch-and-beam doorway. The extensive range of buildings of Masjid at Shahjahanabad c. Moth-ki-Masjid eir. XVII Fig. Jamala Masjid Fig. XIX Fig. Tomb of Muhammad Ghaus eir. Tomb of Adham Khan dec. Tomb of Isa Khan lS XXI Fig. XXII Fig. Tomb of Rukn-i-Alam cir. Tomb of Shah Yusuf Gardizi eir.

That in this particular original. In its outer tions. Each side of its octagonal verandah the conqueror. But for the moment its high time arches. The intention the most sacred monuments of Islam. Another innovation was should be set apart for my own especial purpose to the imposition of a range of eight cupolas on the roof await my commands.

For I had determined to build a rising above the embrasures of the parapet. It is the production of this essentially Moslem feature. Pl'efiRure the mode that subsequen prevailed under the 5ayyids and the Lodis. As was not uncommonly the custom. Delhi was sacked The devastating invasion of Timur toOt in the all of which are reproduced in the example at Delhi. In it. Its main interest lies in the fact while on this expedition.

Delhi was left desolate "and no mausoleums of octagonal conformation which imparted craftsman. Hitherto the tomb struc. It is illustrated by the fundamentally the style of tomb-building as this deve. EXcept for the centre and focus of the Faith in India.

The outline of its 8rches. For this historical shrine is octagonal in plan. This perfection had been achieved through centuries of experience in temple-building. These workmen played grandly and magnificently with their material, but treated their temples rather in the light of backgrounds on which to express their plastic genius, than as efforts of building construction, so that they present an appear- ance more sculpturesque than architectural.

How this manipulative skill was adapted and directed to the production of scientific d well as artistic architecture. Kuch of this need for baste and immediate attainment, had ceased by the time the movement reached India. There wu how- ever another important and also external hI1lueDce which might have aftected the technique of the Indian style at this juncture.

BeyODd the western frontiers of the country. It was to such countries however that the Indian workmen under Islamic dictation had to look for guidance in their building schemes, as there Jay the main sources of inspiralion, but it is remarkable This bepn with nctaDplar On the right side of the """'lib stands the An elevated plat- form from which the ffHUUi.

Plate I. ThiS desipation isgiven to the principal or congregational mosque in which the Faithful assemble for the Friday Uum'ah prayer.

Above are the main elements comprising the mo: Porticos and similar entrance halls could be added to the exterior, but the treatment of the interior with its outstanding essen- tial of a large open space. To produce the necessary structural eftect of a house of prayer two important elements were imposed on to the exterior 01 the sanctu- ary, on the one hand a screen was thrown across its front to form a facade, and on the other, above the central space or nave corresponding to the "high place" of the Christian church.

It was in the task of co-ordinating these two dominating features, the facadeand thedome, soas to form a unified architectural composition. For nearly every phase of mosque architecture in India illustrates in the front elevation a con8ict between these two essential constituents of the conceptioD.

As a rule. TCcause of this lack of coberenc: In the mosques of Gu rat and of the IOl1th-west the design of the Ajmir froIltap undoubtedly shows its influence. The other class of buiIdiDg of a religious order, the tomb. Many of these noble piles consist of an imposing composition of vaulted halls and towering domes, and eDCloaed within a spacious garden, aU on a graM scale, yet eDShriDiDg in the centre a mere handful of d1St, laid in a plain mouDd of earth to be seen in the mortuary clwnber below.

In the western wall of the tomb-chamber there is generally a fIfiInb, but some of the larger mausoJeuma alia includea mosque asa separatebuilding, the whole beiDg contaiDed within one enclosure, called a , Occasionally im- portant tombs are drsipated lM'r. I1KlCe8ve ezpen The first of these prevailed for caly a 1iIDitea pedod. Il1aber of. VI, Part I. It was duriDg this phase that the temple baildiDp su1Iered most. It was in theie 1atter' cireum- stances that Islamic architecture in India arrived at its true character and achieved its greatest splen- dour.

Two of them were of Turkish extraction, one was Khalji, aud one was of Arab delceDt. The aa: For, just as Rome had a "clMsic " art of the capital city, difIerinc patty from that of the. What may be termed the "pivotal year" of this movement was A. II It be uderstood that these provincial manifestations baiIdiDg art in most instances prevailed for a contemporary with that maintained by power at Delhi, and partly with that of the.. Previous to this, two instances of penetration by the Moslems are recorded in which buildings accord- ing to Islamic needs were erected.

The earliest took place in the 8th century. Among other crafts, these intruders introduced into this region the glazed tile decoration imported from the Babylonian cities of the plains. The second and much later event occurred when. In this instance however there are some definite records. Wooden doors and doorways may be found of a decidedly foreign charaeter having projecting bosses and orna- mental niches imposed in the centre of their spandrels, relating these.

These ornamental elements persisted and were incorporated not infrequently in the Indo-Islclmic art which developed shortly afterwards. Then, under the vigorous rule of the founder of the Slave dynasty, Qutb-ud-din Aibak.

This ruler's first effort was the creation of the Qutb Mosque in II Such a compilation had little architec- tural significance. Almost contemporary with this building arose one of the most stupendous architectural achievements ever conceived by the Mohammedans, the Qutb Minar, a monumental tower to form F of the Qutb Mosque scheme and of such proportIonS that it took several years to complete.

ThiS was followed very shortly after cir. These three build- ings form a group, executed approximately between the rears to A detailed account of the design and execution of these commanding examples of the builders' art will be found in the next chapter.

From a study of the general character displayed throughout this grouP. This was the building art of the Saljuqs, an empire with the centre of its activities in Asia Minor. In view of this r. Some time in the twelfth century, a horde of nomads from the steppes of Central Asia, moved by an instinc- tive urge.

In the course of a progress marked by pillage and devastation, during which they wrested Syria from the Arabian Caliphate. Endowed with a flair for an artistic emironment. How these relatively wa: Not that the 6aljuqs were unaware of the fundamental principles which the arts of Islam were governed, these inherited when they accepted this belief, but nature was such that I they infused a fresh- and inventiveness into the older procedure, Bvesting it with a new vigour and life. Equally taand was their constructional usage and choice of material.

To the former it GftS its rich decorative treatment obtained by a judi-. It is sipificant that these colonnades of massives piers imposing pointed arches are contemporary with vaulted aisles of the Gothic cathedrals to which 6ey bear a strange resemblance. Such was the appear- ace of much of the architecture in western Asia, when advance of the Mongols, and the devastation that -.

Among tbaie refugees who survived this wide-spread holocaust were certaiD individuals learned in the arts and sciences who by some means evaded the chaos, and eventually aoceeded in making their way to those countries which lay. DeJhi fortunately escaped, and it seems fairly clear that artizans trained in the practice and traditions of the building art as evolved under the Saljuq rule, came and settled in the rising capital to find ready patronage at a time when by its architectural productions and other enlightened activities the Sultanate was aspiring to the position of a leading cultural power.

Such is the story written in the stones of Old Delhi, preserved in those monuments which still remain of that early period of Islamic architecture in India.

It may be read in the design and decoration of the Qutb Mosque facade, in the surface. This may be defined as derived from the prevailing art of Pema, as it assumed form under the Timurid rulers of the 15th and 16th centuries. An indication of this fresh stream of art is revealed by the shape and treatment of that indispensable element in building construction-the arch. Deco- ratively attractive, as the pointed horse-shoe arch of the Saljuqians proved to be, its narrow compass was not sufficiently satisfying when wider spaces were to be spanned.

Something providing a more ample interval between the jambs, or side-posts, of the open- ings, was called for, and the application of what is known as the four-centred or "Tudor" arch, a shape by this time almost universally used in the building of the Timurids, solved the problem.

But neverthe- less the introduction of this feature into the architec- ture of northern India was hesitant, and in certain aspects of its use experimental. Apparently the Indian masons were not altogether convinced of its bearing capacities, and in order to make their construction doubly sure, reinforced this arch with a supporting beam-the system of bridging a space in the indigenous manner by means of a lintel, died hard with those steeped in the Hindu tradition.

The combination of arch and beam, weD-illustrated in the buildings of the Tughlaqs 14th century , is however a negation of reasonably scientific construction, and soon after this short-lived digression, the true-four-centred arch, with- out the additional support, began to be generally used, as in the tombs and mosques of the Sayyids and Lodis 15th and 16th centuries. But it is instructive to note the uncertainty, when first employed, of the lines of its curves and mouldings, as maybe seen, for instance, in the facade arches of the Moth-ki-Masjid.

Masjid dr. Before this stage however was reached it will have become evident that the inAuence of the national art of Persia wasintrinsicallyincreasiogin the style of buildings being erected in the Delhi region, due on the one hand, to tlie marked strengthening of tl: But, it may be asked, why should this current from the closely associated empire of Persia, where at the time a notable develop- ment of all the arts, particularly that of architecture, have taken so long in stimulating the building art of India when this stimulus appeared to be so urgently required?

The reasons for this time-lag are two in number, firstly difterences in racial temperament, and secondly a divergence in techtonic ideals. As regards the former it has been remarked that the Cenius of the Persian craftsman is of a special order, and lies in his ability for sustained effort in handling tractile media, as proved by his marvellous textiles and lustrous earthenware, while in the sphere of architecture he obtains his effects by the facile manipulation of plastic materials, such as brick and glazed tiles, so much so that his arts tend to aim at lavish and brilliant colour rather than at structural form.

Handicrafts of this kind made little appeal to the Indian master-mason, who in his bui1c: It will be seen, therefore, that inspiration from a peo:: But it was not long.

As the cOntrol of the country passOO. Later, under the direct patronage of Shah Jaban VII Fig. Detail on facade, Qutb Mosque VIII Delhi: Tomb of Dtutmish Altumsh IX Fig. Alai Darwaza I30S Begin- nihg in the Jast years of the twelfth century,five Moham- medan dynasties, one after the other, held sway, with the city of Delhi as the focal point of their domination and each has left substantial' evidences of its archi- tectural proclivities.

Moreover, if apart from its buildings, certain historical relics are included, the city', or group of cities, may claim to illustrate Indian architecture from the time of the Maury'8. But the solitary records of ancient handiwork previous to the present millennium did not originate in Delhi itself, they were brought from distant parts, and erected in one or other of the eight cities as trophies by later rulers.

Such are the shafts of two of Asoka's monoliths of B. As pointed out, however, they are exceptional, for the actual architectural remains at Delhi were aU executed within the period of the second millennium. These examples of Indo-Islamic architecture at the capital of India illustrate every stage of the deve- lopment of the style, from the initial conversion of temple materials into mosques and tombs by the first governors of the twelfth century, to the vast com- positions of the Mughul emperors, and e"eJt the anti- climaxofits dissolution as reptaented by the mausoleum of one of the rulers of Oude in the eighteenth century.

To the student of this important manifestation of the building art in India. Delhi provides material and opportunities of an unusual nature. The earliest appearance of Islamic architecture in India, and referred to as the Imperial style, may be divided into five phases corresponding to the five Mohammedan dynasties which prevailed in Hindustan from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries.

They are designated 1 Slave A. Sayyid ; and 5 Lodi In some of 9 these dynasties there were one or more rulers who had a marked passiOll f. None of the building activities of these rulers affected more materially the character of the subsequent archi- tecture than those of the first dynasty, known as the Slave Kings of Delhi. This name has been given to the earliest Moslf'm rule ill India, as its members were not of royal blood, but belonged to a system of slavery which at the time was an accepted practice with the majority of Mohammedans ofhigh rank.

No stigma was attached to this form of servitude, as such slaves often possessed great individual character and intelligence, so that it was not unusual for them to attain to positions of trust and power. Aibak, whom. Of this dynasty, Qutb-ud-din himself, and his son-in-law Shams-ud-din Iltutmish Altumish , who ruled from A.

Qutb-ud-din lost no time in consolidating his power by proceeding to erect monumental buildings of stone on the site of the captured Hindu stronghold of Qal'a-i- Rai Pithaura, which he converted into the Moslem capital of Delhi. According to his chronicler "the conqueror entered the city, and its vicinity was freed from idols and idol worship, and in the sanctuaries of the images of the gods, mosques were raised by the worshippers of one God.

Maintaining the ancient tradition of the Arabs, who, on founding their ""iI'. In the centre of the Hindu citadel was a large temple, which he ordered to be dismantled. Then, summoning to his presence the local workmen, he expounded to them the plan of the mosque, its extent and general character.

To provide the considerable quantity of stonework such a scheme demanded, it is recorded that the materials of as many as twenty-seven temples within the neighbourhood were utilized, so that the same community of artizans, who probably some time before had been employed in raising these structures, now found themselves compelled to supervise the demolition of their own handiwork and to undertake its re-erection in another place, under entirely different conditions, and for a widely different purpose.

It will be realized that in such circumstances the first Islamic building in India of dressed stone was at its best mainly a patch work of older materials, beautiful in detail, as its arcaded aisles were composed of pillars carved in the most perfect Hindu style, but as a whole a confused and somewhat.

Briefly, this mosque consisted of a courtyard some feet by feet surrounded by pillared cloisters, three aisles deep, the short pillars from the temples being placed one above the other in order to secure the neces- sary height. On the west or Mecca side of the court- yard, the arrangement of pillars was made more spacious and elaborated into a series of bays with Shallow domed ceilings, to fonn the sanctuary.

And in front of the centre of the sanctuary was erected the famous Iron Pillar, but deprived of its crowning figure of Garuda, this remarkable example of indigenous craftsmanship having been tom from its original setting near Muttra, where it had already stood for over six hundred years. Then, as now, the interior structure of the 20tb mosque, although an assembly of elegantly carved stonework had more the character of an archaeological miscellany than a considered work of architecture.

For two years after its hasty improvisation the mosque remained in this condition, when some idea of the shortcomings in its appearance occurred to those in authority, and that its inapPfOpriateness could be overcome by the introduction of some important architectUral element, more directly expressive of the mosque design.

Accordingly in II99 arrangements were made for an expansive arched facade to be projected across the entire front of the sanctuary on the west.

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