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There are two main functional types: volatile, which lose their set position if power is removed, and are usually designed to initialise at the minimum position, and non-volatile, which retain their set position using a storage mechanism similar to flash memory or EEPROM. Usage of a digipot is far more complex than that of a simple mechanical potentiometer, and there are many limitations to observe; nevertheless they are widely used, often for factory adjustment and calibration of equipment, especially where the limitations of mechanical potentiometers are problematic.
A digipot is generally immune to the effects of moderate long-term mechanical vibration or environmental contamination, to the same extent as other semiconductor devices, and can be secured electronically against unauthorised tampering by protecting the access to its programming inputs by various means.
In equipment which has a microprocessor , FPGA or other functional logic which can store settings and reload them to the "potentiometer" every time the equipment is powered up, a multiplying DAC can be used in place of a digipot, and this can offer higher setting resolution, less drift with temperature, and more operational flexibility.
Membrane potentiometers[ edit ] A membrane potentiometer uses a conductive membrane that is deformed by a sliding element to contact a resistor voltage divider.
Linearity can range from 0. The repeat accuracy is typically between 0. The service life of these types of potentiometers is typically 1 million to 20 million cycles depending on the materials used during manufacturing and the actuation method; contact and contactless magnetic methods are available to sense position.
Membrane potentiometer manufacturers offer linear, rotary, and application-specific variations.
Membrane potentiometers can be used for position sensing. The top layer is thin glass spaced close to a neighboring inner layer. The underside of the top layer has a transparent conductive coating; the surface of the layer beneath it has a transparent resistive coating.
A finger or stylus deforms the glass to contact the underlying layer.
Edges of the resistive layer have conductive contacts. Locating the contact point is done by applying a voltage to opposite edges, leaving the other two edges temporarily unconnected. The voltage of the top layer provides one coordinate. Disconnecting those two edges, and applying voltage to the other two, formerly unconnected, provides the other coordinate.
Alternating rapidly between pairs of edges provides frequent position updates. An analog-to digital converter provides output data. Advantages of such sensors are that only five connections to the sensor are needed, and the associated electronics is comparatively simple. Another is that any material that depresses the top layer over a small area works well.
A disadvantage is that sufficient force must be applied to make contact. Another is that the sensor requires occasional calibration to match touch location to the underlying display. Capacitive sensors require no calibration or contact force, only proximity of a finger or other conductive object. However, they are significantly more complex.
Applications[ edit ] Potentiometers are rarely used to directly control significant amounts of power more than a watt or so. Instead they are used to adjust the level of analog signals for example volume controls on audio equipment , and as control inputs for electronic circuits.
For example, a light dimmer uses a potentiometer to control the switching of a TRIAC and so indirectly to control the brightness of lamps.
Preset potentiometers are widely used throughout electronics wherever adjustments must be made during manufacturing or servicing.
Most of the remaining energy is absorbed at the surface of Earth. Because the Earth's surface is colder than the Sun, it radiates at wavelengths that are much longer than the wavelengths that were absorbed. Most of this thermal radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere and warms it. The atmosphere also gains heat by sensible and latent heat fluxes from the surface. The atmosphere radiates energy both upwards and downwards; the part radiated downwards is absorbed by the surface of Earth.
This leads to a higher equilibrium temperature than if the atmosphere did not radiate.
An ideal thermally conductive blackbody at the same distance from the Sun as Earth would have a temperature of about 5. The greenhouse effect is the contribution of greenhouse gases to this difference. Mechanism The basic mechanism can be qualified in a number of ways, none of which affect the fundamental process.
The atmosphere near the surface is largely opaque to thermal radiation with important exceptions for "window" bands , and most heat loss from the surface is by sensible heat and latent heat transport. Radiative energy losses become increasingly important higher in the atmosphere, largely because of the decreasing concentration of water vapor, an important greenhouse gas.
It is more realistic to think of the greenhouse effect as applying to a layer in the mid- troposphere , which is effectively coupled to the surface by a lapse rate.