An earthquake is a natural phenomenon like rain. Earthquakes have occurred for billions of years. Descriptions as old as recorded history show. Earthquakes-causes and effects. Prof. D Chandrasekharam. Department of Earth Sciences. Head, Centre of Studies in Resources Engineering. Indian Institute. The earthquake caused far more deaths and demage than people thought. Describe the experience and the terrible scenes you have seen. Do you think there is.
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An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth. Earthquakes can be extremely violent. They are caused by weird movements of the Earth's tectonic. Free Essay: Earthquakes Earthquakes, one of the most destructive natural phenomena, consist of rapid vibrations of rock near the earth's surface. Because of. We have provided below essay on earthquake under two categories named short essay on earthquake and long essay on earthquake. We are.
The main cause is when tectonic plates ride one over the other, causing orogeny mountain building , and severe earthquakes. The boundaries between moving plates form the largest fault surfaces on Earth.
When they stick, motion between the plates leads to increasing stress. This continues until the stress rises and breaks, suddenly allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault. This releases the stored energy as shock wave s.
However, these are confined to areas of active volcanoes. These are called collapse earthquakes. Earthquake fault types[ change change source ] Replica of ancient seismometer with pendulum sensitive to ground tremors.
Image by H. Wilshire, U. Geological Survey. Below is an image from the Marina District in San Francisco. This fill both underwent liquefaction see below and considerably amplified ground shaking from the Loma Prieta earthquake. These factors together led to the collapse of many houses and apartment buildings in the Marina District.
Image by J. Nakata, U.
Ground Rupture Ground rupture is another important effect of earthquakes which occurs when the earthquake movement along a fault actually breaks the Earth's surface. While active ground rupture is comparatively rare, there have been cases of it in California -- for example, during the earthquake, fences near Pt.
Reyes were offset by as much as 7 meters. And in the Owens Valley earthquake in , a fault scarp as much as 8 meters high broke the ground near Lone Pine. Rupture causes problems for humans by, well, rupturing things; pipelines, tunnels, aqueducts, railway lines, roads, and airport runways which cross an area of active rupture can easily be destroyed or severely damaged.
Below is a classic picture of a scarp formed by the 16 December Dixie Valley earthquake magnitude 6. The miner's shack next to the scarp was relatively undamaged, despite being only a few meters from the two- to three-meter offset.
Image by Karl V. Landslides Landslides are caused by earthquakes both by direct rupture and by sustained shaking of unstable slopes. They can easily destroy buildings in their path, or block roads and railroad lines, or take hilltop homes with them as they tumble.
They even can dam rivers on occasion, like in the 17 August Hebgen Lake earthquake magnitude 7. Below is an image of a large landslide which fell across Highway 17 in the Santa Cruz Mountains after the Loma Prieta earthquake. The concrete blocks in the foreground are broken chunks of the center divider on the highway. The road, which is a major commute route from Santa Cruz to the Silicon Valley, was closed for several weeks after the earthquake.
Image by C. Meyer, U. Keep pushing and pulling smoothly. Soon a little bit of foam rubber along the crack the fault will break and the two pieces will suddenly slip past each other. That sudden breaking of the foam rubber is the earthquake. That's just what happens along a strike-slip fault.
Earthquake-like seismic waves can also be caused by explosions underground. These explosions may be set off to break rock while making tunnels for roads, railroads, subways, or mines. These explosions, however, don't cause very strong seismic waves.
You may not even feel them. Sometimes seismic waves occur when the roof or walls of a mine collapse.