Material development in Language Teaching (2 nd. Ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Material developers might write textbooks, tell stories, bring. Developing Materials for Language Teaching Also AvAilAble from bloomsbury Advances in Language and Education, edited by Anne McCabe, Mick O'Donnell . Materials development in language teaching / edited by Brian Tomlinson. – 2nd ed. Over the years since I entered language teaching, ELT publishing has.
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by learning and teaching principles rather than developed ad hoc or in imitation of principles for materials development which derive from second language. Materials Development for Language Learning and Teaching - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Developing of Material for language teaching - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf ), Text File .txt) or read book online. Tomlinson's new edition about Developing.
Utilizing Breen and Candlins notion of process competence, Littlejohn is interested in what learners are precisely asked to do by drawing upon their knowledge, abilities and skills and the modes of classroom participation the activities foster. An extremely useful aspect is his ability to show how it works in practice as one moves through the different levels of analysis, from a consideration of the more easily identifiable aspects to the more abstract and complex.
Finally, Tomlinsons Introduction to Materials Development in Language Teaching provides an overview of many of the tenets and basic principles of second language acquisition that are currently relevant to an understanding of what good materials, as well as principled judgements about them, should contain.
The value of materials for Tomlinson lies in their effectiveness in encouraging learners to make discoveries for themselves through self-investment, through intel- 44 lectual, aesthetic and emotional engagement with authentic input, through a sensitivity to learners readiness to learn, supported by opportunities for genuine interaction and purposeful communication. Although there is no general consensus on how languages are learned, most teachers would agree that many of these principles are precisely those which are widely believed to contribute to successful learning.
A principal problem with checklists and questionnaires of the kind discussed above is that they frequently involve making general, impressionistic judgements about materials rather than providing an in-depth and systematic investigation of what they contain.
Secondly, as Sheldon argues, the discursive format in which they are presented often makes it difficult to separate description, guidance and criticism Sheldon, A useful suggestion put forward by him is to build a compendium of reviews culled from various sources, including studentgenerated and teacher-consensus reviews, so that teachers can access what has been thought and said about various books over a period of time instead of having to reinvent the wheel anew.
Then again, as coursebook criteria are emphatically local, no one is really certain what criteria and constraints are actually operative in ELT contexts worldwide. Any culturally restricted global list of criteria produced cannot therefore hope to be definitive. Nor is it possible for all the criteria identified to be deployed simultaneously. Obviously, factors that relate specifically to each consumers unique situation will get selected and even these might not be applicable in most local environments without considerable modifications.
This is true as much for any framework of evaluative criteria proposed as it is in expecting a perfect fit for any set of materials produced for a wide market. Sheldon says it correctly, It is clear that coursebook assessment is fundamentally a subjective, rule-of-thumb activity and that no neat formula, grid or system will ever provide a definitive yardstick Sheldon, The survey guides that have been proposed, although of practical use to teachers, raise many questions relating to how the materials should be considered and, crucially, how one aspect should be weighted in relation to another.
Ellis observes, for instance, how many of the guides specifically ask whether the materials contain authentic texts, ignoring the complexity of the whole question of authenticity in language teaching as pointed out by Widdowson He also points out how a positive rating on a criterion of authenticity i. It is not clear how the materials evaluator is to reconcile these conflicting ratings. Such a composite of variables, it is hoped, will help teachers plot out a more coherent and complete picture of the potential that a set 2.
Selection of Materials 45 of materials holds for language learning and assess their suitability to the particular circumstances of a given context, without losing a sense of their complexity. A Framework for the Selection of Coursebooks What aspects of materials we focus on in evaluating them will largely depend upon the purposes one has in looking at the materials. It is possible to describe materials in terms of the quality of the paper and binding, pricing, layout, size, typeface and so on, but a more pedagogic focus, rather than simply a pragmatic one, would lead one to examine those aspects of materials that more directly aid the teachinglearning process Littlejohn, , and this is what will be aimed at here.
If we consider the selection of materials as involving two stages of analysis, as conventional wisdom suggests, the first stage would consist of assessing the content of the book in relation to its professed aims. Coursebooks: The roaring in the chimney. Modern English Teacher, 10 3 , 11— Google Scholar Tomlinson, B. Managing change in Indonesian high schools. ELT Journal, 44 1 , 25— Materials development in language teaching. Materials development. Nunan Eds. Developing materials for language teaching.
London: Continuum Press. Language acquisition and development: Studies of first and other language learners. London: Continuum. English language teaching materials: A critical review.
What do teachers think about English coursebooks? Modern English Teacher, 19 4 , 5—9. Materials development in language teaching 2nd ed. Materials development for language learning and teaching. Language Teaching, 45 2 , — Applied linguistics and materials development. Developing materials for language teaching 2nd ed. Materials evaluation. Then she brushes her teeth and takes a shower.
The activity lacks kinaesthetic and auditory sensory input. On Saturday and Sunday she usually wakes up at 9: This group of students needs more exposure to a wide and rich range of language input in a variety of contexts. On Saturday she usually plays tennis or runs in the park.
The activity on page 50 provides limited opportunities for analysing the input. The coursebook used for this class is New Horizon 1 Tokyo Shoseki. The students currently spend five hours a week in English class. She puts on her clothes and eats her breakfast. The input is also limited and impoverished. Learners also have an opportunity to attend to the input globally and interpret meaning before analysing the input to understand its form.
Sometimes she likes to sing in the shower. After breakfast. Students are not given a choice about how they learn nor are they given an opportunity to personalize the input. The materials could be expanded by adding a TPR phase at the beginning of this unit of study to provide kinaesthetic and auditory input as well as richer.
Ten of the students are women and six are men. The students range from 18 to 46 years old. It also provides a choice between visual. Teacher gives students written version of script. Scenario Two A class of sixteen private language school students in Spain. Or In small groups. Students put verbs in two columns. Regular plays works likes Irregular goes The following expansion activity provides students with a choice about how they would like to continue processing the input analytically or globally.
She She She She plays tennis well. This group of students needs more opportunities to use English and activities which engage their interest. The majority of the students are professional business people but five are undergraduates at the local university.
The students attend the private language school for three hours a week in the evening and they are in the middle of their third year of study at the school.
Adapting Classroom Materials 95 Students underline the verbs in the sentences about Becky. Students change script to make it true for themselves. They have been classified at a lower-intermediate level of proficiency and have difficulty in communicating more than simple personal information. Rationale for Adaptation The topic. Daily Life. Draw a floor plan of your favourite room and label the furniture and other features. They are classified as having upper-intermediate and advanced level proficiency.
The coursebook they are using is Interchange 3 CUP. A series of brief questions about dreams would prepare students for the listening as well as offer further opportunity for spoken interaction.
Ask a partner: How many rooms do you have in your house or apartment? Which room do you use most? Which room do you use least? Which is your favourite room? Replace question 3 in Daily Life with the following: They are currently attending 20 hours of ESL classes a week. Costa Rican. There are seven women and five men in the class and their nationalities are Saudi Arabian. The students range in age from 18 to The vocabulary activities. See Figure 5. My favourite room is my bedroom.
I spend a lot of time in my bedroom. The walls are blue and the curtains are. My computer is on a desk next to my bed. Describe the room to your partner. They are all trying to matriculate as undergraduate students in different academic departments of the university. The bed is next to the window. I study in my room. This group of students needs interesting and thought-provoking content that naturally encourages the use of higher-level cognitive skills.
Adapting Classroom Materials 97 students. Russian and Venezuelan. The window looks out onto the backyard. The listening section of this unit could be expanded by adding a discussion activity before the listening on page Ask a partner about his or her dreams: Do you remember your dreams?
Do you have any recurring dreams the same dream again and again? Have you ever had a nightmare a bad, scary dream? Have you ever kept a dream journal written down your dreams? Can you remember the dreams you had last night? The post-listening group work activity 3 does not become redundant, rather the activity offers a further chance for students to review or develop their ideas. However, as it stands the activity does not offer any language support and might leave students unsure how to start or finish their explanations.
The following prompts could be added to activity 3, Group work, on page Finish like this: The listening activity could be replaced with a reading activity that encourages higher-order cognitive skills, or a choice could be offered between the listening activity or the reading activity below.
Begin with the schema-raising questions in activity 1 above but add the following questions: After students have asked the schema-raising questions, poll the class to see if anyone believes dreams have a special meaning. Elicit answers. Read the following paragraph about dreams. Tell a partner if you have had any dreams like these.
Dreams and their Meanings We all have dreams and they all mean something, even though we may not remember them. At least that is what many psychologists believe. Here is a list of dream topics and the possible interpretations: Many of these dreams are anxiety dreams but, as you know, we dream about different things and the meanings may not always be clear. A Dream When I was at high school, I often had the same dream. At that moment I always woke up sweating and breathing hard.
After students have talked about their dreams and their possible meaning, ask some students to retell their dream to the class. Provide further opportunities for using higher-order cognitive skills by expanding this activity. Ask students to visit the following websites to read more about dreams and their meanings. Conclusion Classroom materials need to be adapted in a principled manner to reflect needs within particular teaching contexts, current understanding of second language acquisition and good teaching practices.
The three scenarios above exemplify a wide range of possible teacher choices for adapting published materials and demonstrate the flexibility and creativity of adaptation. References Candlin, C. Practical Papers in English Language Education.
Madsen, K. Newbury House. McDonough, J. Reid, J.
Heinle and Heinle. Richards, R. Soars, L. Tokyo Shoseki New Horizon 1. Tokyo Shoseki. The links describe associations between nodes. The pathways between the nodes can vary between tightly controlled or open-ended In this chapter we will be referring to three major.
A link may be. Multimedia While the nodes were originally restricted to pieces of text. What contribution can electronic materials make to the learning process? What insights does this provide for materials developers? We will look first at how electronic materials can enhance the experience of learning to read in a second language.
Finally we will look at how developers can create learning environments that integrate all the previously discussed attributes of electronic materials. Communication Media With the advent of widespread use of local area networking and the World Wide Web. What do current theories of language learning tell us about learning to read and write in a second language?
The acronym IT information technology has now been extended to ICT information and communication technology. This chapter will address the following broad questions: We will then consider how such materials can support the learning of L2 writing.
Communications can take several forms: They can take place in real time synchronous or with a delay asynchronous. Beverly Derewianka sound voice still graphics photos. To conclude. Contributions to Language Learning In this chapter it will be argued that all of the above resources are currently making a contribution to the language learning enterprise in various ways.
The L2 learner needs to develop automatic recognition of a certain number of high frequency lexical items. L2 readers tend to give more attention to lowerlevel skills such as sounding out words.
Fluent readers automatically recognize the majority of frequently used words without resorting to phonic analysis or contextual information. By using computers to develop these skills.
Readers will be able to find out more about programs and projects mentioned by referring to the website addresses included in Appendix One thing that computers can do well is to help develop automaticity. The reader operates at many levels at once.
Text animation e. Enhancing Reading through Electronic Media Reading is a highly complex activity that plays a critical role in the process of learning another language. While poorly designed materials can be unproductive and boring.
Developing Electronic Materials directions in the development of electronic materials. More powerful programs e. Throughout the chapter. Because learner involvement is important in the learning process.
A major contribution made by well-designed software in teaching these lowerlevel skills includes 1. Store the word in the internal lexicon in networks of relationships that correspond to the properties described in i.
Consolidate the storage described in ii by means of further exposure to the word in a variety of contexts which illustrate its various properties. These devices. Making Reading Easier Hypermedia makes it possible to build into a single page a number of clickable options to support the L2 reader. With a printed page in a book. Notice the various properties of the new word: In particular.
The provision of L1 glosses leads to better comprehension and retention than when such support is not available Hulstijn et al. The interaction of these is of particular interest in understanding and supporting the process of reading in a second language. It also provides an audio option so that the entire passage may be read aloud to students. With a hypermedia page. Glossaries are sometimes provided at the end of traditional books. Using hypermedia links.
On-the-spot Help Computers can make life much easier for the second language reader. The reader can simply type in any unknown word and be provided with the dictionary definition in either L1 or L2.
The materials developer can insert a variety of tools that make the process of reading much smoother. Developing Electronic Materials see is what you get.
At some sites. In the following section we will look at these features of electronic materials in terms of how they can: This type of unobtrusive teaching tool expands the amount of information available to students. The reader might be provided with a photo. This may or may not be accompanied by written or spoken text. Multimedia provides the reader with information in a variety of modalities. More efficient are glosses that have been written specifically to explain key words in a particular text.
Larsen-Freeman and Long. Sharwood Smith. Schema theory e. The sitemap acts as the contents page of a traditional book and the search function can do the job of an index. The design of the various interfaces and navigation devices are critical in preventing reader disorientation. Certain SLA theorists e Such modifications could be available by clicking on buttons.
Beyond the immediate page. In a well-designed electronic text. Of greater significance. With a hypermedia text. Practice in recognizing text organization can be provided through electronic text reconstruction tools such as Text Tangler and NewReader. When the page is lengthy. In a traditional text. These might take the form of an example or an elaboration.
Chapelle suggests that the designer of electronic materials could include modifications in the form of repetition. L2 readers in particular need the support of very user-friendly architecture Plass.
The contribution of the technology is limited to convenience and speed. In hypertext. The more the reader knows about the topic and sociocultural assumptions. Chun and Plass. Is the information provided by the text and graphics mutually supportive? This is particularly important for L2 learners who look to the graphic for confirmation of their meaning-making efforts.
Developing Electronic Materials In addition to text. When might it be productive to create incongruence between text and graphics? The creation of dissonance through unlikely juxtapositions. The use of multimedia should be motivated by considerations such as: Does the combination of media result in excessive cognitive load? If the reader has to grapple simultaneously with text. Animated graphics are useful for explaining how something works. Unlike vocabulary glosses which draw attention to a single element of the text..
The designer of electronic materials therefore needs to have a good understanding of the nature of the various multimedia elements. Astorga Illustrations are. Which medium is best suited to a particular job? It has been suggested. This encourages multimodal processing. Are the graphics too much of a distraction? Younger learners in particular suffer from split attention. While multichannel communication theory e.
Mayer and Sims. Do the graphics make the text redundant? If the reader can gain all the necessary information by viewing the graphic. Might the use of multimedia in fact lead to poorer learning if it supplants key cognitive skills which could otherwise be exercised e. By clicking on an icon accompanying the word. Clicking on one of these words can highlight those portions of the preceding text that give a clue to the meaning of the word.
A number of computer programs have been developed to teach the above strategies explicitly to L2 students. These include 1. Jiminez and Gamez. And so on. When presenting information in more than one medium. To teach this strategy explicitly. The goal of the REAL Text Units is to enable the learners of English as a foreign language to develop a range of reading strategies prediction.
And an audio text accompanying a visual diagram was superior to purely visually based instructions. When a learner comes across an unfamiliar word. Which combinations of media are optimal for comprehension?
Kalyuga Developing Comprehension Strategies While the above uses of hypertext and multimedia can facilitate comprehension of text by providing timely support. Proficient readers have a wide range of strategies that they deploy strategically depending on their reading purpose. Delayed presentation of a source of information may reduce working memory load and act as a form of revision or confirmation.
While instructional designers might well benefit from examining such programs as the above. A program that provided reminders to the students about monitoring comprehension strategies summarizing. Adaptive advice is offered at different points in the reading process Carlson and Larralde. Based on such an analysis. Singhal R-WISE is another program that helps students develop a repertoire of problem-solving heuristics by promoting three different types of activities and modelling each of these for the student: Singhal suggests that designers of electronic reading programs should take into account such factors as: Developing Electronic Materials Carrasquillo and Nunez investigated the effects of computer-assisted metacognitive strategies on the reading skills and comprehension of a group of primary ESL students.
Modelling the Genre When writing a text. The TeleNex project.
The purpose of recounts. Electronic media can be used to introduce L2 writers to the genres of the target culture and language. The organization of the text. There are a number of recursive phases in this process: Depending on the purpose for writing. Beverly Derewianka identifying an authentic reading goal providing a meaningful context introducing different genres and registers catering for individualization e.
Carlson and Larralde Developing Electronic Materials with an orientation stage and then a recounting of a series of events. For novice learners. These ideas can come from brainstorming. Demonstrating the Process Before writing a text. One file. By rolling over a list of pronoun types. As the students contribute ideas. Some of these programs encourage students to organize their notes according to the demands of the genre e.
This could be done on the computer through an animated tutorial. If done in pairs or a group. Finding websites appropriate to the language level and age of the students is not straightforward. The process of researching is made much simpler by the accessibility of information on the Internet.
In this case. If they want to know more about any particular grammatical feature. These activities might include the development of research strategies and critical thinking skills. This is illustrated by the use of rollovers — when the cursor rolls over each stage of the text it is highlighted in colour and a window appears providing information about the function of that stage.
Once the students are taking notes. They can see how such a text is structured and they can be reminded of key grammatical resources in context. Electronic materials designed to teach writing should include information on how to find. In this way the learners are receiving input on the nature of the type of text they are being asked to write before they have a go at writing one themselves.
Brainstorming and Researching Before writing. Subsequent files deal systematically with the grammatical features of the genre. It is difficult. Using a word processor. Alongside the draft. The availability of aids such as an on-line thesaurus and dictionary also contribute to the success of the draft and extend the language of the student.
Connected to this might be a grammar chat room with students and tutors who discuss and answer questions about grammar Tanguay. Writers are able to seek help from their teacher. It is in the process of developing. In some programs it is possible for the student then to click on a comment. And yet it is still surprisingly underexploited in the L2 classroom. The Longman Multimedia Dictionary. Some sites build in interpersonal feedback facilities as a major feature.
The articles are available on the site in various stages of publication. The Journal of Interactive Media in Education. Conferencing and Revising An important element of the writing process is receiving feedback from others during the drafting stage.
This is where the computer comes into its own as a medium for communication. Drafting Once the student starts to draft a text. The ability to jot down embryonic ideas. The advent of word processing has revolutionized the writing of text. Students writing a recipe for making pizza.
There is often interaction between reviewers and between the author and the reviewers.
Developing Electronic Materials It is not only in the receiving of feedback that the learner benefits from such interaction. Lamy and Goodfellow argue that there is a place for conscious reflection on language during asynchronous computer-mediated exchanges. The concordancer provides data showing how a particular vocabulary item is used in context.
Building an Electronic Learning Environment We have seen above how hypermedia. For more advanced learners a concordancing tool can be useful at this stage. In this way. It is generally spontaneous. More helpful. Such interaction and reflection is an important factor in second language acquisition. Power Edit.. The teacher is able to track class or individual student progress. There are a number of commercial multimedia packages that allow students to work through units of work at their own pace.
Cantonese speakers Brock. Feedback from grammar checkers is usually in the form of an underlining of an error. The Grammatik parsing engine. Editing Tools such as spell-checkers.
The type of communicative writing that surrounds the completion of a task is highly conducive to learning. Even more helpful is the ability to modify such programs to respond to the common errors of a particular group e. A concordancer can be requested to supply examples of specified vocabulary items.
Right Writer. Chen found that supplying students with detailed. Correct Grammar. Jacobson et al. Based on the belief that knowledge is socially constructed. In another study. They also tend to focus on the sort of exercises that can be handled by the computer rather than the more openended language activities that involve human judgement and interaction.
At the other end of the spectrum are electronic learning environments that rely very little on pre-packaged content but use computer-mediated communication CMC as the basis for language learning.
The study looked at two groups of students: The environment included provision for: Most of these packages. These are usually project-based. Software to support such projects includes tools like WebGuide. The materials would be easily accessible and organized so that they could be retrievable according to various criteria e. Packages might range from task-based units of work such as a project through to one-off activities.
A challenge for the designer of electronic materials is to create an electronic learning environment that combines the best of all worlds Berberich.
Student reflection on their own learning would be integrated into the materials. Learning Materials. They found that the modelling and scaffolding support helped the students to acquire and flexibly use complex knowledge. Multimedia would be used judiciously in ways that enhance the learning pro-.
WebGuide provides an electronic and persistent workspace for individuals and teams to develop and share distinctive points of view on a topic. The materials could be used as a coherent. Opportunities for practice of lower-level skills would be built in at appropriate points. Materials might be produced by different developers private and commercial — or combinations but would only be accepted into the database after being reviewed and approved.
Such packages would conform to a predetermined standard in terms of technical requirements and quality of the materials.
A comprehensive database of multimedia materials packages for various target groups of learners would be available that could be continuously added to. Developing Electronic Materials provided. If teachers of L2 learners were to create a wish-list to guide developers of such sites. A unit of work would foster authentic language use but would provide scaffolding e. There would be a balanced coverage of all the macroskills — listening.
Authoring tools.. Other tools would be available for use at the point of need e. Material would be filtered and distributed in ways that fostered recursive exploration and revisiting from different angles. The design of the architecture would encourage students to perceive relationships.
Pathways for Learning Using hypermedia links. Apart from providing information. Spaces would be provided where students could engage in knowledge construction.