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The Rainwater harvesting is the simple collection or storing of water through The method of rain water harvesting has been into practice since ancient times. It is .. In thane in the year Rain water Harvesting project was done in VIKAS . rainwater Evs - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read online. project on rainwater harvesting. In the past, many homes in cities had a cistern to capture and utilize rainfall for household The simple way to start harvesting rainwater is to install a rain barrel .
The collected rainwater is a valuablesupplement that would otherwise be lost by surface run-off or evaporation. During the past decade, RWH has been actively reintroduced by localorganizations as an option for increasing access to water in currentlyunderserved areas rural or urban.
Unfortunately decision-makers,planners, engineers and builders often overlook this action. The reason thatRWH is rarely considered is often simply due to lack of informalintroductionon feasibility both technical and otherwise. During the past decade thetechnology has, however, quickly regained popularity as users realize thebenefits of a relatively clean, reliable and affordable water source at home.
In many areas RWH has now been introduced as part of an integratedwater supply, where the town water supply is unreliable, or where localwater sources dry up for a part of the year. But RWH can also beintroduced as the sole water source for communities or households. The technology is flexible and adaptable to a very wide variety ofconditions. It is used in the richest and the poorest societies, as well as inthe wettest and the driest regions on our planet.
Need for rainwater harvesting Due to pollution of both groundwater and surface waters, and theoverall increased demand for water resources due to population growth,many communities all over the world are approaching the limits of theirtraditional water resources. Rainwater harvestinghas regained importance as a valuable alternative or supplementary waterresource. RWH has proven to be of great value for arid and semi-arid countries orregions, small coral and volcanic islands, and remote and scattered humansettlements.
Rainwater harvesting has been used for ages and examples can be found inall the great civilisations throughout history. The technology can be verysimple or complex depending on the specific localcircumstances. Traditionally, in Uganda and in Sri Lanka rainwater iscollected from trees, using banana leaves or stems as gutters; up to 9. With theincreasing availability of corrugated iron roofing in many developingcountries, people often place a small container under their leaves to collectrainwater.
One litre container of clean water capturedfrom the roof can save a walk of many kilometres to the nearestclean water source. Besides small containers, larger sub-surface andsurfacetanks are used for collecting larger amounts of rainwater. Reasons for rainwater harvestingThe reasons for collecting and using rainwater for domestic use areplentiful and varied: Many piped water supply systems fail. The use ofrainwater is an useful alternative.
Variations in water availabilityThe availability of water from sources such as lakes, rivers andshallow groundwater can fluctuate strongly. Collecting and storingrainwater can provide water for domestic use in periods of water shortage. Rainwater may also provide a solution when the water quality is low orvaries during the rainy season in rivers and other surface water resources for example in Bangladesh. Advantage of collection and storage near the place of useTraditional sources are located at some distance from the community.
Collecting and storing water close to households improves theaccessibility and convenience of water supplies and has a positiveimpact on health. It can also strengthen a sense of ownership. Quality of water suppliesWater supplies can become polluted either through industrial orhuman wastes or by intrusion of minerals such as arsenic, salt coastal area or fluoride.
Rainwater is generally of good quality. Advantages and disadvantagesWhen considering the possibility of using rainwater catchment systems fordomestic supply, it is important to consider both the advantages anddisadvantages and to compare these with other available options.
RWH isa popular household option as the water source is close by, convenient andrequires a minimum of energy to collect. Since almostall roofing material is acceptable for collecting water for householdpurposes, worldwide many RWH systems have been implementedsuccessfully. However, RWH has some disadvantages. The main disadvantage of RWHis that one can never be sure how much rain will fall. Other disadvantages,like the relatively high investment costs and the importance ofmaintenance, can largely be overcome through proper design,ownership and by using as much locally available material as possible toensure sustainability and cost recovery.
The involvement of the localprivate sector and local authorities can facilitate upscaling of RWH. Someadvantages and disadvantages are given. Advantages of rainwater harvesting: Construction of RWH systems is simple and local people can easily be trained to build these themselves. This reduces costs and encourages moreparticipation, ownership and sustainability at community level.
As such, this is a good alternative to poor maintenance and monitoring of a centralized piped water supply. Rainwater is better than other available or traditional sources groundwater may be unusable due to fluoride, salinity or arsenic.
Rainwater is a renewable resource and no damage is done to the environment. Rainwater collection always provides an alternative wherever rain falls.
Disadvantages of rainwater harvesting: The cost of rainwater catchment systems is almost fully incurred during initial construction. Costs can be reduced by simple construction and the use of local materials. Proper operation and regular maintenance is a very important factor that is often neglected.
Regular inspection, cleaning, and occasional repairs are essential for the success of a system.
Rainwater quality may be affected by air pollution, animal or bird droppings, insects, dirt and organic matter. Occurrence of long dry spells and droughts can cause water supply problems.
The supply is limited by the amount of rainfall and the size of the catchment area and storage reservoir. Objectives of Rainwater Harvesting Rainwater harvesting is a way of capturing andstoring water during rainy periods for use intimes when there is little or no rain available. Incertain regions of the world, rainwaterharvesting can be the difference between havinga plentiful crop and dried up vines.
There areseveral objectives behind rainwater harvesting. Because the dry seasons canconsist of weeks or months of little to no rain, it is important to captureduring the rainy season and have it available for use during the dry season.
Rainwater harvesting enables you to store rain when it is prevalent to beused when there is no rain. By capturing rainwater you are basically reducing the Many municipalitiesrely upon aquifers deep below the ground for this water supply.
The problemis it takes a long time to replenish an aquifer if it is quickly drained. Byharvesting rainwater for later use, the demand on aquifers is reduced, whichenables them to remain full.
It is estimated that for every one meter rise in water level, there is areduction of 0. So by having water closer to thesurface, or at the surface in reservoirs, less electricity is needed to pump it so Methods of Rainwater Harvesting Catchment: Any surface or the paved areas can be treated as catchment.
Even the footpaths and roads can act as the catchment, as these areas too receive the direct rainfall. Rooftops are the best among them because of the large coefficient of run off generated from them and there are less chances of contamination of water.
Conveyance system basically includes rain gutters and down pipes whichcollects the rain water from catchment to the storage tank.
These raingutters are usually built during the time of construction. They need to bedesigned appropriately as to avoid the loss of water during the conveyanceprocess. The most important part of the rain water harvesting is the storage system. The storage system is designed according to the amount of water that is tobe stored. The design and site location of the storage or the rechargesystem should be properly chosen.
The areas which receives the rainfallfrequently, there a simple storage system could be constructed, to meet thedaily water requirements. Otherwise the areas which receive the lesserrainfall, there the storage systems are quite essential.
Rain barrels,underground or open slumps are mostly used to collect rain water. Makesure that the storage system is properly sealed and does nor leak. UseChlorine from time to time to keep the water clean. Current StatusCurrently in China and Brazil, rooftop rainwater harvesting is beingpracticed for providing drinking water, domestic water, water forlivestock, water for small irrigation and a way to replenish ground waterlevels. Gansu province in China and semi-arid north east Brazil have thelargest rooftop rainwater harvesting projects ongoing.
Virgin Islands have a similar law. Some of these ponds are centuries old and are treated with great reverence and respect. Now, residential well owners that meet certain criteria may obtain a permit to install a rooftop precipitation collection system SB Up to 10 large scale pilot studies may also be permitted HB Chandrababu Naidu.
This rule increased the ground water level in good phase. After his term as Chief Minister, the next leaders neglected this system.
It proved excellent results within five years, and every other state took it as role model. Since its implementation, Chennai saw a 50 percent rise in water level in five years and the water quality significantly improved.
So, what are the advantages and disadvantages of rainwater harvesting? Advantages 1. Water can be used to flush toilets, wash clothes and dishes, and to water gardens.
On a bigger scale, rainwater harvesting can lead to major savings for households or small businesses. Great for Irrigation Rainwater is not subjected to any chemicals found in ground water and therefore is ideal for irrigation as well as for watering plants in the garden. Reduces Ground Water Demand As our population increases, so does the demand for water.
In many areas, ground water is extracted to keep up with demand and this has lead to low levels of ground water being left over. Reduces Soil Erosion and Floods By keeping rainwater from reaching the ground, it is possible to prevent flooding if carried out on a large-enough scale. Rainwater harvesting also reduces soil erosion and keeps surface water from being contaminated with pesticides and fertilizers from rainwater run-off.
Multi-Purpose Rainwater can be used for all sorts of things from flushing toilets, to washing clothes, cars, and dishes, to keeping the garden freshly watered.