The archetypes and the collective unconscious pdf

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VOLUME 9, 1, OF THE COLLECTED WORKS OF UNG THE ARCHETYPES AND THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS SECOND EDITION BOLUNGEN SERIES. Editorial Reviews. Review. "This book must be considered a fundamental work among Jung's writings and deserves to be read by Jungians and non-Jungians. Adamski S., Archetypes, collective unconscious and quantum psychology Key Words: collective unconscious, archetypes, psychology, quantum psychology.

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The Archetypes And The Collective Unconscious Pdf

constructs, p^che and unconscious, and a stetch of Jung's theoiy of mind. Then the various aspectsof the idea of the archetype are discussed treating such . PDF | All suppositions presented in this article have brought us to a better understanding of contents of the unconscious sphere of human. Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. “ the mind has grown to its present state of consciousness as an acorn grows into an oak or as saurians.

By Saul McLeod , published Carl Jung was an early supporter of Freud because of their shared interest in the unconscious. When the International Psychoanalytical Association formed in Jung became president at the request of Freud. The following year this led to an irrevocable split between them and Jung went on to develop his own version of psychoanalytic theory. Most of Jung's assumptions of his analytical psychology reflect his theoretical differences with Freud. Differences between Jung and Freud Theory of the Libido Jung disagreed with Freud regarding the role of sexuality. He believed the libido was not just sexual energy, but instead generalized psychic energy. For Jung the purpose of psychic energy was to motivate the individual in a number of important ways, including spiritually, intellectually, and creatively. It was also an individual's motivational source for seeking pleasure and reducing conflict Theory of the Unconscious Like Freud and Erikson Jung regarded the psyche as made up of a number of separate but interacting systems. The three main ones were the ego, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious. According to Jung, the ego represents the conscious mind as it comprises the thoughts, memories, and emotions a person is aware of. The ego is largely responsible for feelings of identity and continuity. Like Freud, Jung , emphasized the importance of the unconscious in relation to personality. However, he proposed that the unconscious consists of two layers.

Natural transformation is evidenced in dreams symbolizing rebirth and in the intercourse between consciousness and some inner voice. Natural transformation individuation. Instead of the transformation occuring through an individual's participation in a sacred rite. Magical procedures.

An ab t transition follows. A fairy tale illustrates how spontaneous transformations are replaced by formalized techniques designed to reproduce the original transformation by imitating the procedure. Magical transformation techniques of primitive societies usually involve some physical procedure such as pulling a sick person through hole in the wall or through a leather cow.

Technical transformation. The inner voice is generally regarded as nonsense or as the voice of God. A typical set of symbols illustrating the process of transformation. Nonmagical techniques designed to produce psychic changes are exemplified by the practice of yoga.

The cave which appears in this text is seen as a symbol of the unconscious. In addition to technical processes of personality transformation..

IL Subjective transformation. Moral observations which follow the legend are considered as counsel to those who will not achieve transformation and who must substitute adherence to the law for true rebirth. In alchemy. It is concluded that the Khidr figure's significance in Islamic mysticism is due to this legend's complete expression of the archetype of individuation.

It is felt that if this psychic partner is recognized by the ego consciousness. An example of the symbolism of transformation is found in the Khidr myth of Islamic mysticism which appears in the Eighteenth Sura of the Koran. Princeton University Press Two further forms of personality transformation beyond identification with a cult hero are suggested.. Archetypes are described as living psychic forces which can promote human growth and which.

The function of the child archetype in regard to modern man is outlined. The difficulty of completely explaining the meaning of an archetype. The child archetype is cited as an example of such a primordial image.

The function of the archetype. Symptoms of compensation. Here preconscious processes gradually pass into the conscious mind through dreams or through the active imagination. The preoccupation of the primitive mentality with magic.

The archetype as a link with the past. It is felt that the explanation of the archetype should be such that an adequate and meaningful connection between the conscious mind and the archetypes is assured. The archetype's role in the psychic structure is described as representing or personsifying certain instinctive data from the unconscious. The archetype of the child god appears to be widespread: The child archetype is defined as a representation of the preconscious childhood aspect of the collective psyche.

Compensation through the still exist. Thus if the childhood state of the collective psyche is suppressed. In modem man. In dream analysis. It is explained that unconscious material can enter the consciousness during a state of reduced conscious intensity such as in dream. The purpose of the child archetype is seen as the compensation or correction of the inevitable onesidedness and extravagance of the conscious mind.

This second category is given the name collective unconscious. Collected Works of C.. Dissociation of consciousness is seen to facilitate a separation of one part of the psyche from the rest.

The most significant manifestation of the child motif in psychotherapy is described as ocurring in the maturation process of personality induced by analysis of the unconscious or the individuation process. A brief history of psychological philosophy is given to explain the long obscurity in regard to the unconscious as the essential nature of the psyche.

Due to the undeveloped nature of primitive man. Modem man's developed will is described as affording human freedom. The special phenomenology of the child archetype. Child god and child hero.. The child motif is explained as a symbol that unites the opposites in one's personality. The child as mediator of transformation is represented in numerous symbols.

The symbol of the child anticipates a new higher state of consciousness which may remain only a mythological projection if it is not actually integrated in the being of the individual. When a number of children appear with no individual characteristics. The child motif as an archetypal image is noted to manifest itself as unity or plurality. The child god is seen as a symbol of the unintegrated unconscious.

One example of this unknown content is the symbolic emergence of the child figure. Danger to and abandonment of the archetypal child figure are interpreted in psychological terms.

The abandonment of the child. Moments of psychic conflict from which there is no conscious means of escape are described as causing the unconscious to create a third presence of an irrational nature. Unity and plurality of the child motif. The appearance of the child may be in the form of a god or hero.

In the same manner. The invincibility of the child. The psychological significance of the seemingly paradoxical invincibility of the child in myth is examined. The futurity of the archetype. It is noted that the moral conflict unique to modem man. Since the child figure represents a moving towards psychic independence. The universal themes of the child's insignificant beginnings and miraculous birth are interpreted as psychic experiences whose object is the emergence of a new and as yet unknown content.

The individuation process is concluded to exist in the child in a preconscious state. The typical fates of the child figures are interpreted as symbols of psychic events which occur during the entelechy genesis of the self as the psyche struggles toward wholeness..

Since the child is essentially a potential being. The child as beginning and end. Hindu thought is noted to recognize the psychological necessity of detachment and confrontation with the unconscious to make the progress of consciousness possible.

The hermaphroditic nature of the child archetype and the majority of cosmogonic gods is interpreted as a symbol of the creative union of opposites. The study of the nature and function of the archetype is described as inexact.

The association of the child archetype with both the beginning and end of life is interpreted psychologically in terms of the preconscious and postconscious essence of man. It is considered necessary for modem medicine to realize that the archetypes underlying these fantasies cannot be dismissed as unreal.

The hermaphroditism of the child. The development of the power of the child is traced through ancient myth and alchemical symbolism. The differentiation of conscious and unconscious processes through objective observation leads ideally to the synthesis of the two and to a shift in the center of the personality from the ego to the self. The continuous renewal of this symbol from pagan mythology through Christian tradition is considered to support its identity as a universal primordial figure.

This preexistent psychic whole is expressed in the symbol of the child. In light of the recent development of psychology. The evidence for this hypothesized psychic wholeness existing beyond the life of man is found in the analogous existence and activity of the unconscious beyond the conscious mind.

Psychology itself is seen as a mythology. The therapeutic function of archetypes is described in terms of the patient's gradual confrontation with the self through the understanding and demystification of fantasy. They arise from the depths of the psyche.. The spirit is conceived as originally external to man. The principal types of motifs of the human figure include the shadow.

The result of a phenomenological study of psychic structure. One such motif is the Kore figure. The spirit is considered to depend on the existence of an autonomous. The figure of the wise old man is observed to appear where insight is needed that the conscious is unable to supply.

The spirit in fairytales. It is contended that while spirit and matter may eventually be revealed as identical. The positive and negative manifestations of the archetypal figure of the wise old man are demonstrated in various myths and fairytales. The old man in fairytales. In the psychological sense.

Selfrepresentation of the spirit in dreams. Several dream visions described by men and women are analyzed in their manifestations of the Kore symbol as supraordinate personality and anima. Interpretations and implications of the psychic manifestations of the spirit in dreams are discussed. Images such as the Kore are considered to rise from an area of the personality which has an impersonal. The experience of these archetypal expressions has the effect of widening the scope of consciousness It is seen as autonomous and therefore capable of manifesting itself spontaneously in the conscious.

The moral character of spirits in dreams is considered impossible to establish. The great number of different definitions of the term in use today is considered to make it difficult to delimit any one concept. The contrasting materialistic view.

Concerning the word "spirit. A definition of the word "spirit" is proposed and a descniption of the historical and mythical characteristics of the spirit is presented. For example.. The interpretation of symbols in the fairytale in question is discovered to be extremely complex. The spirit archetype.

The manifestation of the good and evil aspects are often found combined in one fairytale. The methodology and results of a psychological investigation of the symbolism in a particular fairytale are discussed.

The old men in fairytales often ask questions of the hero or heroine for the purpose of mobilizing their moral forces. The complex relationships among these functions and their striving toward wholeness are seen to correspond admirably to the structure of the fairytale in question. The implication for psychology of triad and quaternity symbolism is discussed in terms of the four functions of consciousness.

The assumption of animal form is seen as significant in that it shows the psychic contents in question to be beyond human consciousness.

Rational connections among the irrational data of the fairytale are first assumed to exist. A final interpretation of the fairytale portrays it as a representation of the unconscious processes that compensates the conscious Christian perspective. Thus in many fairytales helpful animals appear with a knowledge superior to man's.

The picture of the spirit that appears in dreams and fairytales is distinguished from the conscious idea of. Even in fairytales the old man has a clear link with the psychic unconscious.

The old man figure is described as representing knowledge. Theriomorphic spirit symbolism in fairytales. The knowledge needed to overcome the hero's difficulties appears in the shape of a wise old man. A detailed analysis of one fairytale demonstrates the functioning of the animal figure in terms of its relationships with other archetypal symbols such as wholeness and polarity.

Carl Jung | Simply Psychology

There does not appear to be a ruling principle analogous to the ego in the unconscious. It is felt that mankind must escape from possession by the unconscious through a better understanding of it. The trickster figure is represented in normal man by countertendencies in the unconscious that appear whenever a man feels himself at the mercy of apparently malicious accidents..

The trickster is defined as a parallel to the individual shadow. This process is described as corresponding to alchemical symbols. Originally the spirit was conceived as a demon which came upon man from the outside. The unconscious contains not only elements of a primitive world of the past. In psychopathology the trickster figure is manifested in the split personality. The myth of the trickster is explained to have been preserved and developed for its therapeutic effect: Descriptions of the workings of the conscious.

Although the shadow appears negative. It is explained that many persons regard consciousness as the whole psychological individual. Although Christianity is credited with the understanding that man's inner nature is of prime importance. In his clearest manifestations the trickster figure is described as a faithful representation of the absolutely undifferentiated human psyche which has hardly left the animal level. Elements which exist in the unconscious are described as the anima.

These elements are seen to exist in deep levels of the unconscious and bring into mankind's personality a strange psychic life from the remote past. The conscious mind is easily influenced by the unconscious.. The advanced technology and science of modern man is described as placing mankind in danger of possession.

The conscious and unconcious may appear separate in that the conscious is unaware of the contents of the unconscious. Individuation denotes the process by which a person becomes a psychological unity or whole through conflict between the two fundamental psychic aspects. It is suggested that the human spirit is unaware of the demonism that still clings to him.

A definition and history of the trickster figure as he appears in myth and in emotional disturbance are illustrated by examples of it in American Indian myth. It is felt that superhuman positive and negative quafities that the primitive man assigned to the demons are now being ascribed to reason. The desired goal of harmony between conscious and.

The goal of psychotherapy is described as the development of the personality into a whole. It is emphasized that the way of liberation is an individual one and that. It is noted that drawing the picture was extremely difficult for the patient. She is umarried.

The first painting of a series. Considerable historical and mythological associations are noted for the flash of lightning.

Before coming to Zurich to see Jung. Miss X was beginning a landscape from memory when a fantasy image intruded: In contrast to the first picture. Jung appeared in the fantasy in the guise of a medieval sorcerer. The only advice given the patient was to use her imagination to circumvent technical difficulties.. Picture 2. Finding herself at an impasse.

On the day before she visited for the first time. The picture is showing an impersonal natural process: Biographical data are presented on a patient who achieved individuation through art therapy. A description and interpretation of the second of a series of paintings submitted by a female patient in the psychic individuation process of an art therapy program is given.

The significance of various aspects of the picture is interpreted in terms of the process of individuation. She is described as the daughter of an exceptional father.

Although a Freudian explanation of the picture would involve the concept of repression. Miss X had visited Denmark. The task of the analyst is defined as aiding in the interpretation of the symbols.

Picture The work of Bohme in particular is examined for its psychic and alchemical connections with lightning. This development of the animus was based on a positive father complex.

In at the age of fiftyfive. This painting was subsequentl'. Picture four is described by the patient as the most difficult of the series to execute. The division of the nucleus of the sphere falls into four parts. It is noted that later the will must protect itself in the midst of these opposites. Picture 4. The position of the snake on top of the picture is interpreted as representing the typical danger emanating from the spiritual sphere.

In the middle of the band around the planet is the number twelve. It is at this stage that the ego is temporarily set aside. The picture is interpreted sexually to show the female organ in the act of fecundation.

The number contained in the picture is discussed in terms of its connections to the concept of male and female in astrology and myth. The increase of light in the picture symbolizes conscious realization. The snake is sinking downward and seems to have lost its threatening power. The colors of the picture are discussed in their mythological and alchemical significance. Lines of force run through the whole nuclear body. To the right above the sphere floats a snake with golden rings.

A vortex is formed by the four divisions. The third picture in a series. Two dreams felt by the patient to be influencing the painting are detailed and interpreted as being of archetypal significance.

The fourth picture of a series. An analysis of the symbol of Mercury in the picture is also made various symbolic significances of the colors used together in the picture are proposed. A dark blue sphere is seen floating in space among clouds.

Picture 5. Picture 3. The circle is interpreted as a mandala. The sphere has divided into an outer membrane and an inner nucleus. The pryamids found in the first picture as rocks are seen again. The primary distinguishing characteristic of the third picture is its use of light colors. The snake is felt to represent the shadow.

The fifth picture of a series. The floating sphere represents the total personality. The wings of Mercury are seen as having undergone extensive transformation. The black snake has disappeared. The mandala is interpreted as moving towards the chthonic depths. A brief discussion is offered of the mandala as it is manifested in religious practices from ancient Egypt onward. Picture 7. This manifestation is interpreted as the penetration of the black snake from previous paintings of the series into the nucleus.

An inner undifferentiated quaternity is seen to be balanced by an outer. The swastika of the previous picture has been replaced by an equal armed cross formed by the golden rays. The colors assigned to each function are: An analysis is made of the sixth picture in a series of paintings done by a female patient during the process of psychic individuation as part of an art therapy program.

The picture is interpreted as portraying a mood of suffering and painful suspension over an abyss of inner loneliness. The colors are less bright but more intense.

This picture shows a mandala in bright colors against a grey background.. Alchemical symbols and biblical quotations are discussed in relation to the picture to demonstrate the universal nature of the ideas generated by the patient. The mandala is interpreted as an attempt to unite the opposites red and blue. The golden rays forming the cross produce an inner bond of consolidation as a defense against destructive influences.

Maternal significance is attributed to the tree. Picture 8. It is explained that real liberation does not come from glossing over or repressing painful states of feeling.

Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Volume 9 (Part 1)

The picture is associated with a dream the patient had several days before. The eighth picture of a series. After painting this picture. Only when she had recovered from these feelings could the patient paint again. Most of the interior of the picture is filled with darkness. It is contended. In the seventh picture of a series. Wings of Mercury reappear along with a striking swastika which is wheeling to the right.

The mandala is further described and interpreted as symbolizing the eye of God and having the purifying effect of consciousness. The union of opposites achieved by the patient is seen to be manifested in the use of firm and yielding lines in the hexagrams. Pictures The symbol of the crab in myth and astrological functioning is discussed. In the center a golden light in the form of a lamp is found. Picture 9.

The sign in the bottom right is "Sheng.. The three birds seen in picture nine have become two. Each quarter is again divided into three. The sign in the left top half. In an analysis of the ninth picture of a series.. The patient is deliberately stressing a connection with the East. The tenth picture of a series. It is concluded from this painting that the patient has accepted her own psychic darkness. The cortices expand into the darkness as golden rings. The cortices are pronounced.

An analysis of paintings 11 through The final hexagram is "ting. A dream reported by the patient integrates her concepts and progressive development regarding her animus. The dualities that run through the picture are always seen to be inwardly balanced. In the lower half of the mandala are rings of brown earth. Above are three white birds. The duplication motif is noted and explained as a phenomenon which occurs when unconscious contents are about to become conscious and differentiated.

The previous rejection of the tree as a symbol of the mother is now accepted and placed in the middle of the mandala. The black sky behind the three birds and the goat against the orange background are interpreted as indicating that there can be no white without black. They are then split into two halves. Two crabs appear in the lower chthonic hemisphere which represents the body.

The soul flower in the center still exists but is surrounded on all sides by a dark blue night sky. The symbol of the mandala is described and numerous examples of mandalas from various parts of the world are offered.

Patients are said to appreciate the soothing effects of these pictures. The initial paintings in the series illustrate the psychic processes set in motion when attention is given to a neglected area of the psyche.

Some of these archetypes are within the scope of personality and may acquire an individual stamp. The Sanskrit word mandala is defined as meaning "circle". The whole of civilization is felt to be faced with the same task. The development of fantasy through painting in her case viewed as the renewal of contact with the unconscious and of a consciousness that has far outdistanced it. Other religious mandalas and mandalas spontaneously produced by patients during the course of analysis are discussed.

The self is surrounded in the mandala by an area containing the paired opposites that make up personality. The production of mandalas in a therapeutic context is felt to occur in states of chaos or panic as a rearranging of the personality toward a new center.

The basic psychological motif of the mandala is of a center of personality to which everything is related. When contact is established. The energy of the central point is manifested in the compulsion to become what one is. The individuation process evidenced by a series of paintings submitted by a female patient in art therapy is discussed. The therapist's task is described as helping the patient to reach an adequate understanding of the new psychic material and to avoid dangerous misinterpretations.

The spontaneous production of mandala symbols by individuals and cultures is stressed as evidence that they are not created by man. Numerous mandalas drawn by patients are reproduced and described. Caution is advised in the excessive consolidation of psychic forces. The function of the mandala is described as a narrowing down of the psychic field of vision as an aid to intensification of concentration. Many of these.

Pictures 19 through 24 are not commented on due to lack of knowledge of the time and circumstances of their production. It is noted that the reality of the collective unconscious is often first impressed upon a patient by means of his mandala productions. This struggle is seen to be resolved in an enantiodromia which restores equilibrium. The goal of the Yogi in contemplating the processes depicted in the mandala is to become inwardly aware of the deity.

The Sanskrit word mandala. The meaning and function of the mandala is briefly described. Its characteristics are unique to each individual. The mandala in Tibetan Buddhism is called a Yantra and aids in meditation and concentration.. Three levels of content are posited in the unconscious: The somatic and psychic bases of the ego are said to contain both conscious and unconscious factors. Since these archetypes are of a gender opposite that of the conscious individual their projections are even more difficult to recognize than those of the shadow.

Whereas the ego is described as the point of reference for consciousness. Volume 9.

The therapeutic effect of mandalas is felt to consist in their spontaneous production. Often the mandala contains some figure in a multiple of four in the form of a cross or square.

Part 2. As psychological phenomena they appear spontaneously in dreams.. It is noted. From earlier discussions it is inferred that the ego is the center of consciousness but not the center of the personality.

The archetypes and the collective unconscious

The object of individual mandalas is described as locating the self. Its ability to change and develop in each person over a period of time is discussed. The concepts of self and unconscious as related to the ego are described. The shadow is described as composed of the dark elements of the personality. The most resistant elements are usually associated with certain emotionally toned projections. Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self The ego.

From the contents of the collective unconscious. In psychology. Since the material expressed in them is essentailly archetypal. The center of the personality is more properly labeled as "the self.. In extreme cases of projection. The archetype of the self as expressed in the image of Christ. It is explained that the self is motivated by the unconscious. A schema of the transcendental nature of Christ and the self is based upon a quaternion composed of opposites paired which apply to both.

It is noted that the realization of the shadow. The self is defined in its relationship to the ego and the instincts. Further analogies to. Please enter your name. The E-mail message field is required. Please enter the message. Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item?

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Write a review Rate this item: Preview this item Preview this item. The archetypes and the collective unconscious Author: C G Jung Publisher: New York: Bollingen series , English View all editions and formats Rating: Subjects Subconsciousness.

Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Collected Works Additional Physical Format: Print version: Jung, C. Carl Gustav , Archetypes and the collective unconscious. Document, Internet resource Document Type: C G Jung Find more information about: C G Jung.

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