When I see how little success most countries are having in increasing agricultural production, I can see why one might well believe that itis a rare and difficult art. Transforming Traditional Agriculture [theodore schultz] on aracer.mobi *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. T. W. Schultz's book, "Transforming Traditional Agriculture," is an early and enlightening look at the rise of agriculture in developing nations around the world .
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See details and download book: Ebooks Free Download Transforming Traditional Agriculture Pdf By Theodore W Schultz. Transforming traditional agriculture / Theodore W. Schultz. Author. Schultz, Theodore W. (Theodore William), Published. Chicago: University of Chicago. perspective based on traditional agriculture and conventional inputs; the pundits In Transforming Traditional Agriculture, T.W. Schultz () envisioned a Public%20Food%20and%20Ag%20Research%20in%20US-Apr%pdf.
He has further pointed out that natural calamities like Influenza affect farms of all types i. When hired workers die of an epidemic, production of farms on which disguised unemployment exists. So Sen feels that fall in production due to influenza should not be taken as a proof that disguised unemployment does not exist in traditional agriculture.
In fact, influenza was such a terrible disease that it unsettled the whole nation for quite sometimes and there was every possibility that even labourers with positive marginal productivity failed to attend to the agricultural operations.
Fall in production, due to influenza was thus a natural outcome. The fact that Influenza is not a good example to prove that disguised unemployment does not exist in traditional agriculture has again been brought to light by S. According to her after the epidemic subsided in , the agricultural production increased in the first half of the year as compared with the base year of while it was less in the 2nd half of If fall in production was due to loss of labour, it should have been so in the first half and not in the 2nd half of According to her, fall in production was due to some other causes.
Bhagwati and Chakravarti put forth another argument to show that agricultural production can fall even when, there is disguised unemployment, when some labour leaves the agricultural sector. They refer to a situation where both types of farms i.
Disguised unemployment exists on family farms only. Suppose from a farm with disguised unemployment, a family member leaves. Agricultural production will not suffer. However, share of each of the remaining in member will increase.
This rise in the share will also prompt those members of such a family who are already working as hired labourer on some other farms to demand higher wages. Demand for higher wages on farms using hired labour will mean less employment on farms using such labour and therefore there will be a fall in production. Thus our overall conclusion is that disguised unemployment exists in traditional agriculture that Schultz is not correct in holding the contrary view.
These are to: 1 Make use of un-utilised resources 2 Optimally reallocate the resources so as to take the production on to the production frontier and 3 Change the nature of factors namely replace all or some of the old factor by new ones with higher output-input ratios. For instance, by his very definition of traditional agriculture, he has concluded that there is no factor of production lying unused in traditional agriculture.
Land and labour and other capital assets are fully utilized in traditional agriculture.
In the same way he has concluded that resources in agriculture are always perfectly allocated. There is no misallocation of resources and therefore there is no possibility to increase production in a traditional agriculture, by further improving the resource allocation. So Schultz is left with only one way to increase production in a traditional agriculture i.
Before we discuss in detail. The farmers should be left free to decide whether to use a particular factor of production or not. Let them see for themselves the profitability of a given factor and decide about its adoption. The adoption in other words should be guided by the market forces.
The only responsibility of the government in this case should be to ensure that there is an easy availability of the factor of production and there is a good publicity about it and that necessary skills for the use of new inputs are properly developed. By command approach, Schultz means system on which the government supplies a new factor production to the farmers and that direct them to use it irrespective of its profitability.
Schultz prefers market approach to command approach, He feels that if a factor of production is voluntarily adopted by the farmer its adoption will be wide spread and with full enthusiasm. On the other hand forced adoption not only, in many cases, ignores the problems faced by the farmers at the local level, but also at times, spoils the skills and enthusiasm of the farmer, Schultz feels that the situation in a command approach can be compared to an absentee landlordism where the land lord knows nothing about the problems and difficulties of the actual cultivators but insists upon a good harvest.
The Process of Transformation: In a market approach, ultimately the supply and demand for the factors of production will govern the actual use. So Schultz discusses in detail the factors that influence the supply and demand for such factors.
We may in the first instance discuss the problems faced in the supply of new factors and the suggestion that Schultz, makes to overcome these problems. Supply of New Factors: According to Schultz three important steps are involved in the supply of new factors.
These are: 1 Research and Development of new factors. These steps are described in the paragraphs that follow: 1 Research and Development of New Factors by Suppliers: Science and Technology, according to Schultz, play a very important role in the transformation of traditional agriculture. As the art of cultivation in a traditional agriculture has been static for long time it may not be possible to develop technologically superior factors of production from within the country.
So what he suggests is that in the first instance, these factors may be imported from some foreign country and then this factor should be subjected to further scientific analysis so that it is finally adapted to the physical environments of the importing country. This will be least costly method of developing a new factor of production.
With regard to the provision of scientific facilities for research, development and adaptation of a new factor of production Schultz raises an important question. It is as to who should provide facilities for such a job: The Government or the Private persons?
According ta Schultz, a private person will hesitate to undertake this research work not only because it is costly but also because its results may appear after a long time and same times may even be totally disappointing.
Secondly, the benefits of a successful research are not gaing to accurue solely to the private person. Other members of the community will also benefit from this research. This may make the private person hesitate to take up the research wark. On the other hand, the concept of benefit or profit is totally different for the government. It is rather very broad when compared with that of a private individual. The Govt.
So, Schultz feels that so far as research and development of factors of production suitable for the agriculture of a country are concerned. It should invariably be undertaken by the Govt. Schultz himself answers this question. In the beginning when the new inputs are still untested by the farmers, no private person will take the risk of producing and distributing these inputs.
There is a cost of entry into the market and this may be quite high in the beginning. This cost consists of the following: a the cost of adaptation, though basically, the input has been adapted to the general condition of the country in the state owned laboratories or in the laboratories run by the non-profit making institution, still some modification in the nature of the inputs is required even at the local level.
This will involve some expenditure, b cost of providing information to the users about the availability as well as about the nature of the input. In a non-traditional agriculture where the level of literacy is generally high the print media like technical journal etc. However, the print media cannot be very useful in an illiterate society.
Here distributors will have to contact the farmers personally or in groups which may be beyond their capacity, c Other costs of entry e. People so far supplying the traditional input are vehemently oppose to the introduction of new inputs. Some expenses will have to be incurred to overcome their opposition.
Due to these difficulties faced by the private agencies in the beginning. Schultz, suggested that initially the job of production and distribution of new inputs should be carried on either by the Government agencies like Food Foundation etc. After sometime when the demand for the new inputs has been generated and has stabilized, the task of distribute n of new inputs can be passed on the private agencies, d Development of extension services.
Availability of new input is not sufficient. Necessary skills for its use are also to be developed. This may be done through well-developed extension services. Extension services are essential even when new agricultural practices are to be introduced. Here Schultz again feels that the cost of extension services is rather high and therefore, such services should be provided by the Government: Thus, on the whole, Schultz suggests that so far as the supply of new inputs are concerned the Govt.
However, at a later stage the government can offer to the private agencies, the task of production and distribution of new inputs. Demand for New Factors: Supply of new factors is of no use if the farmers do not demand them. Schultz, therefore analyses the factors which should be kept in view while trying to ensure that a demand is generated for the inputs. In the first instance, Schultz tries to dispel a few misconceptions about the attitude of the farmers in a traditional agriculture towards the new, inputs.
He points out that it is wrong to assume that a farmer in traditional agriculture is conservative and non-progressive and as such will refuse to adopt the new inputs. According to him, whether he is a farmer in traditional agriculture or a non-traditional one, he always goes by the economic motive.
In this case, the economic motive is governed by profitability of the new inputs over a long period. If the new inputs profitable the farmer will accept it and substitute it for an old input. Profitability of a factor, according to Schuitz depends upon two factor. These are a the prospective yield and b the supply price of the new input.
We describe these two factors in the paragraphs that follow. The inputs are totally new and how their yield behaves in the future is uncertain. The farmers are ignorant about the fluctuations in its future yield, but somehow or other this factor is to be considered by the farmers while deciding to accept the new input.
Schultz feels that if the present yield of the input is extremely high farmers are likely to accept the input even if they discount the future yield at a high rate. It is the supply price of the new input. The farmer will discount the yield from the inputs over its life span and then compare it with its supply price. If discounted value of the prospective yield is more than its supply price the farmers will consider it profitable to accept the input.
So Schultz suggests that whereas the prospective yield from the input should be quite high its supply price should be quite low. He in-fact suggests that in the initial stages, it may be desirable to subsidise the new inputs so that they appear profitable. In the same vein, he suggests that if the tenurial arrangements are good, acceptance of new-inputs will be easy.
For example, if a tenant shares the gross produce but bears will the costs himself, he will be more hesitant to accept the new input as compared with the situation when besides sharing the output He also share the costs on the same grounds he advocates peasant proprietorship as an arrangements conducive to transformation of traditional agriculture. Importance of Acquired Skills in Transformation of Agriculture: Supply of new inputs is essential for transformation of agriculture.
However additional knowledge and skill is also needed to use them. True, in some cases, special training may not be needed to use these inputs. However, if the new inputs are technically, far superior to the old input imparting of special knowledge to the farmers becomes very important. Schultz considers three methods which can be used for imparting such a knowledge. These are 1 trial and error method 2 on the job training through demonstration, short term courses etc.
According to him, the other two methods are slow and limited in effects. He feels that general education at the school level will equip the farmers with capabilities to handle all types of inputs involving technical intricacies. He considers this as an investment in human capital and quotes the examples of Israel and Japan to prove that schooling has contributed a lot to the Increase in agriculture production in these countries.
Critical Reviews of Schultzian Thesis: We have already critically examined the definition of traditional agriculture as given by Schultz and also its implications namely the poor but efficient hypothesis perfect allocation of resources and the non-existence of disguised unemployment in a traditional agriculture. Some of his other assertions also suffer from infirmities. For example, his too much emphasis on market approach is not correct. In a situation of shortages, too much emphasis on freedom to buy and sell can lead to an allocation of resources which may not be optimum from the social point of view.
Social interests are likely to be sacrificed in favour of private interests if a total market approach is followed. Further his suggestion -that only use of modern inputs will transform the traditional agriculture is inaccurate. Traditional inputs like conservation of soil, irrigation etc.
Further, Schultz has totally ignored the differences in factor endowment of different poor economies. These differences do effect the pace at which the new inputs can be used. Musabyemungu, A. Chapter: 4 Page no: 88 Development and evaluation of new sweetpotato varieties through farmer participatory breeding for high altitudes in Kenya. Author s : Karanja, L. Malinga, J. Ndung'u, J. Gichangi, A. Lelgut, D. Kamundia, J. Chapter: 5 Page no: 98 In vitro evaluation of orange-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes for drought tolerance using polyethylene glycol.
Author s : Agili, S. Aggrey, B. Ngamau, K. Masinde, W. Chapter: 6 Page no: Ex ante evaluation of improved potato varieties for sub-Saharan Africa. Author s : Kleinwechter, U. Hareau, G. Bonierbale, M. Gastelo, M. Harahagazwe, D. Chapter: 7 Page no: Durable cisgenic resistance to Phytophthora infestans in potato, and perspectives for applications in Africa.
Author s : Gheysen, G. Heremans, B. Droogenbroeck, B. Vossen, J.
Visser, R. Jacobsen, E. Hutten, R. Haverkort, A. Chapter: 8 Page no: Exhibition trial and farmer participatory selection of new late-blight resistant B3C1 potato genotypes for adaptation to Nigerian conditions.
Author s : Amadi, C.
Lang, A. Dung, E. Lenka, D. Dalyop, T. Landeo, J. Chapter: 9 Page no: Integrative breeding strategy for making climate-smart potato varieties for sub-Saharan Africa. Author s : Asfaw, A. Khan, M. Chapter: 10 Page no: New elite potato clones with heat tolerance, late blight and virus resistance to address climate change.
Author s : Gastelo, M. Diaz, L. Chapter: 11 Page no: Strategies to improve seed potato quality and supply in sub-Saharan Africa: experience from interventions in five countries. Author s : Demo, P. Lemaga, B. Kakuhenzire, R. Schulz, S. Borus, D. Barker, I.
Woldegiorgis, G. Parker, M. Schulte-Geldermann, E. Chapter: 12 Page no: Public-private partnership supporting women-driven seed potato multiplication in the Lumwana catchment area of North-Western Province of Zambia. Author s : Chalwe, A.
Bwembya, S. Kanema, H. Subakanya, D. Chapter: 13 Page no: Risk of uncontrolled importation of seed potato from Europe to East and Central Africa: what are the policy options? Author s : Kaguongo, W. Rwomushana, I.