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Pluralization defines the rules required between distinct languages to interoperate strings containing numbers and counters.
For instance, in English when you have only one item, it is singular, and anything different from that is called plural; plural in this language is indicated by adding an S after some words, and sometimes changes parts of it. In other languages, such as Russian or Serbian, there are two plural forms in addition to the singular - you may even find languages with a total of four, five or six forms, such as Slovenian, Irish or Arabic.
This way is, however, hardly recommended for serious projects, as it poses some maintenance issues along the road - some might appear in the very beginning, such as pluralization. The most classic way and often taken as reference for i18n and l10n is a Unix tool called gettext.
It dates back to and is still a complete implementation for translating software. It is easy enough to get running, while still sporting powerful supporting tools. It is about Gettext we will be talking here. Also, to help you not get messy over the command-line, we will be presenting a great GUI application that can be used to easily update your l10n source Other tools There are common libraries used that support Gettext and other implementations of i18n.
Some of them may seem easier to install or sport additional features or i18n file formats. It uses array formats for message. Does not provide a message extractor, but does provide advanced message formatting via the intl extension including pluralized messages.
However, it has no message extractor. Other frameworks also include i18n modules, but those are not available outside of their codebases: Laravel supports basic array files, has no automatic extractor but includes a lang helper for template files.
Yii supports array, Gettext, and database-based translation, and includes a messages extractor. It is backed by the Intl extension, available since PHP 5.
If you decide to go for one of the libraries that provide no extractors, you may want to use the gettext formats, so you can use the original gettext toolchain including Poedit as described in the rest of the chapter. Gettext Installation You might need to install Gettext and the related PHP library by using your package manager, like apt-get or yum.
Here we will also be using Poedit to create translation files. Structure Types of files There are three files you usually deal with while working with gettext. Domains There are some cases, in big projects, where you might need to separate translations when the same words convey different meaning given a context. In those cases, you split them into different domains. These scripts can also be used for simple text processing tasks. See the section about Command line usage of PHP for more information.
Writing desktop applications. PHP is probably not the very best language to create a desktop application with a graphical user interface, but if you know PHP very well, and would like to use some advanced PHP features in your client-side applications you can also use PHP-GTK to write such programs.
You also have the ability to write cross-platform applications this way. PHP also has support for most of the web servers today. This includes Apache, IIS, and many others. So with PHP, you have the freedom of choosing an operating system and a web server.
Furthermore, you also have the choice of using procedural programming or object oriented programming OOP , or a mixture of them both.
PHP can autogenerate these files, and save them in the file system, instead of printing it out, forming a server-side cache for your dynamic content.
One of the strongest and most significant features in PHP is its support for a wide range of databases. Writing a database-enabled web page is incredibly simple using one of the database specific extensions e. You can also open raw network sockets and interact using any other protocol.