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PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . Tutorials on Computer programming, Pascal, C, C + +, Java, COBOL, VB, C # The materials for which you will get the PDF, DOC, PPT, RAR and ZIP files are. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Oct 1, , Usman Opeyemi Lateef and others published INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER PROGRAMMING (BASIC).

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Computer Programming Pdf File

This tutorial attempts to cover the basics of computer programming You can use this software to type your computer program and save it in a file at any. Tags: book; free book; ebook; e-book; programming; computer programming; generic methods; text files; streams; files; StreamReader; StreamWriter; data. edit, and print documents with your computer. Adobe Computer programming is an exciting and Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers and Programming.

Let us look at each of these categories. Machine Language Humans do not like to deal in numbers alone-they prefer letters and words. But, strictly speaking, numbers are what machine language is. This lowest level of language, machine language, represents data and program instructions as 1s and Os-binary digits corresponding to the on and off electrical states in the computer. Each type of computer has its own machine language. In the early days of computing, programmers had rudimentary systems for combining numbers to represent instructions such as add and compare. Primitive by today's standards, the programs were not convenient for people to read and use. The computer industry quickly moved to develop assembly languages. Assembly Languages Figure 2: Example Assembly Language Program Today, assembly languages are considered very low level-that is, they are not as convenient for people to use as more recent languages.

Because we lack intuition about the fundamental laws, we must remember a lot of rules. If we forget the rules, a file may vanish, or even worse, considerable inconvenience may result. Moreover, the rules change over time.

Computer Programming Education Using the Visual Programming Language Viscuit

Considering the ever-changing nature of software, operating systems, and computer hardware, it would be worthless to learn the rules by heart. Education about the fundamental laws of computerization is needed. Knowledge of these laws reduces the number of rules that must be learned to use a computer safely.

Because programming is the main characteristic of the computer, programming education will help learners grasp the fundamental laws of computers. Viscuit Viscuit [1]—[3] is a visual programming language for manipulating pictures on the basis of rules.

The interface was designed for small children there are no menus, right-mouse-button operations, or double clicks , but an adult can use it without stress. An example of how Viscuit is used is shown in Fig. When we draw a picture, the picture becomes something that can be used by a program. We represent a program by a pair of eyeglasses. First, we drag several parts e. Then, we drag a pair of glasses and drag two parts into its lenses.

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The change from the left lens to the right lens represents a temporal change for the parts on the stage. The scene in the left lens is replaced by the scene in the right lens. Since the fishes in the left and right lenses are in different relative locations, this program causes the parts on stage to move.

The fish on stage is replaced by one slightly further to the left, so it appears to move ahead from right to left. Basic screen of Viscuit. In the glasses in Fig. This means that a straight worm turns into a bent one. The straight worm on the stage becomes a bent one. What happens when we add other worms onto the stage. When we drag a straight worm onto the stage, it immediately changes into a bent one. But when we drag a bent worm onto the stage, it does not change.

So there are many bent worms and no straight ones on the stage. Picture drawing 1. When I ask children what we can do to straighten the bent worm, many get the idea of exchanging the right and left parts in the glasses. In Fig. Sure enough, the bent worms immediately become straight. Next, I change the left and right parts of the glasses again and the straight worms become bent. Sometimes, I repeat this. Changing the left and right parts in the glasses causes the worms to change shape: bent or straight.

Picture drawing 2.

Computer programming - Wikipedia

At this point, I ask what I should do so that the worm stretches out and contracts continuously? Several children can arrive at the correct answer after about five minutes of trial and error. Moreover, with a hint I show them two pairs of glasses , most children can get it. The correct answer is to arrange two pairs glasses, as shown in Fig. The worms are animated by stretching and contracting.

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When other worms are added, they are also animated. I think that there is a barrier between the case of one pair of glasses and the case of two pairs.

The former is just a command for controlling the computer. Children familiar with machines and devices know that pressing a switch will activate it e.

When we operate such devices, something moves or changes in response to the operation. In other words, the operator is issuing an order. When children arrive at the correct answer, the worms begin to animate. This means that they have programmed their computers.

Picture drawing 3. This is the first programming experience for these children. Next, they learn about improving a program.

In fact, the worm cannot move forward properly, but merely stretches on the spot. They need to adjust the relative positions in the lenses. They can make a worm to go forwards or backwards by adjusting the relative positions of its pictures.

Some children who understood this concept undertook the challenge of making a three-frame animation.

In the three-frame animation with three pairs of glasses, the three parts e. The children guessed the movement that the three frames would produce without learning it and they succeeded in making an animation.

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