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OjIv SOME BLUNDERS OF INDIAN HISTORICAL RESEARCH P. N. OAK, M A., LL., B. Pnildtnt, Initiate for BenritlDg World History HIND! N j Road, aracer.mobi " r. Some Blunders Of Indian Historical Research by P.N. Oak. The author, in this book incites some blunders of India historical Research. This is Oak's most popular. Historical Research P N Oak. Download Some Blunders of Indian Historical Research pdf · Read Online Some Blunders of Indian Historical Research pdf .
Prof Nizimi's conclusions are alto b- acconnti of British historians. But it does not go far enough. In that it still slicks to the type. He should have added that those chronicles have misrepre- w captured Hindu edifices and townships as having beer. That history must be coneoctco c u u n k. Mcbam cd and pre-Christian history of f '? H, D du. H l8 hscn.
TaimorUng confesses to this in his memoirs Autobiography. Sbardul meaning the sun and the tigcr-wbicb is exactly what Ihc sculpture depicts. India's alien rulers did not have ihc fabnJou necessary io order stupendous buildings, All the vnata"! Persians, Turks, Arabs. Kazaks, Uzbeks and Abvuimaiif, and of dtvtrse strata from princes to slaves caul rt all display the same vigour and the same penchant in order.
ThTwiU be nothing but quixotic because it will involve a huge f effort, liibe and money. Moreover even ibe hypothc'ical rebuilding of thc Kutub Mtntr from Ihe debris of the previous, dismantled towtsr would be an impossibility because most of the stones damaged and chipped off in thc process of dismantling would jiol fall into place as before.
It is common exptrteti"e that in the case of a shop- front shuttered up with wooden planks unless the planks are carefully numbered tbey do not fall into nlace. One very important consideration is that while India has had a very elaborate and masterly Sbilpashastra U. The invading Muslims had none. Wc musi. Another point to be noted is that all: PadmoraJ observes OI.
Diwakar ii is staled About the Whispering Gallery that M To the north is an octagonal chamber which lecrni to have not been used at all. Moreover the unused chamber is an indication that the use of the Whis- pering Gallery as a Muslim tomb was an afterthought in which no uk could be found for every chamber of the earlier Hindu building. Muslim architecture of one country differs from the Muslim architecture of another. If Mr. Research Director. He carried away Hindu masons from Mai hum to build hi j mosques and palaces at Ghazaj and the HiDda architect built the isolated manars at Gba?
Bendre a noted historian observed in the paper fta. Sholapur, an ancient city. They were thai " M ' 5rt? Patrick Geddes to say about Cooicevaram 'Here is not simply a city made monumental by great temples and rich and varied by innumerable minor ones ; what rejoices me is to find the realization of an exceptionally wtll'sroarwd and comprehensive town-plan ; and this upon a teak of spacious dignity ; combined with individual and artis- hc freedom to which I cannot name any equally surviving parallel..
No mediaeval s ccnic architecture exists in India and even abroad. Muslim captors only sertwj. For instances when a fancied grave in Shah i-jind nwcumem in Russia, was dug up it did not reveal any buraan 'mains. Similarly Tarnerlains grave inside a huge palace in Samsrcand if explored is likely 10 be a hoax.
Here are a few cut and dry hints to debunk the claims of fancied Muslim buildings. Muslim Muezzin's shouting towers. A mueixio 4! An Mamie building should not have generally more than Z minaret. II Buildings with three, five or similar symmetrically placed domes are never Islamic.
A building with irrelevant, frivolous Islamic overwriting is a usurped pre -Islamic edifice. A building studded with graves is captured property.
Palatial tombs of dead potentates without corresponding mansions. MIC g. Mudim origin, 2S. Fine arts can never prosper in an atmosphere surcharged with hate, tenure and massacres which were the hallmarks of Muslim rule in India.
The few artists who eked out a precari- ous livelihood by practising painting and sculpture continued an ancient art for which 'Mogul Art' U a blundering mis- nomer. Islam is the very antithesis of all art since the Koran forbids all decoration as well as the sketching of any living being. That is why there are no statues in Islam, Muslims do not toon how their Allah looks like or how their own prophet Mohamed looked like.
Muslims arc disallowed from seeing the face of any woman because of the feminine burqa. A doctor called in to attend a Muslim woman patient had to feci the Mie of the outstretched hand but was not allowed a glimpse 01 lw itck face, Can any art grow or thrive in such conditions. We notice in the Ramayana and JKStbhartii and id accounts of subsequeot Kshatriya Zm that dancing, painting, music, poetry and sculpture were considered as accomplishments and refinements befitting even mat warriors and scholars.
But in our own times we find parents reluctant to send their own daughters to music and pain- tmg classes. All this has no connection with Islam. Yet ufaeo many Murium practise and pursue music they de so in spite of Muslims. That is they are all of Hindu descent who were or terrorized to turn Muslim. Soon thereafter how- W ; r d the era of alien invasions and destruction started S. People had to flee to the forests for protection. Histories tell us that before the start of Muslim invasions of India there used to be a broad welt-maintained mile highway, almost an arcade with tall shady trees planted on either side of it.
As a result that great highway survives only in name- This is only atypical instance of how Indian civilization and prosperity got wrecked and ruined during the millennium of Muslim rule io Indiu beginning with Mohammad Kasira. Indians were driven from their majestic mansions to seek shelter in wild forests and fadttftcounm They were ruthlessly ferreted out of.
Both of ihcm were ignorant of the fact that when Babur referred u "my garden what he meant was the garden existing m imitofy captured by him, as Napoleon would refer to cmrrun by him during his Moscow campaign or as ttWtt overrunning Stalingrad would refer to gardens there as Hit gtrdenr. TZ man enormous amount of falsehood. Elliot's profound observation.
It Is ironical that Sir H. Sir HM Elliot himself was unwittingly cheated into believing ih. Sher Shah at Saaaram nS-r. Thai is why ihey are so spacious, massive and ornate In the Hindu style, ll is historically and academically.
It must be realized thai they were captured and occupied Rsjput palaces, mansions and temples. Thii should be clearly underttood. What we have said above should help us to formulate mother key principle in understanding mediaeval Muslim chronicles. The principle is that not a single extant mediaeval bridge canal, tomb, palace, fort, mosque, mansion or township to whih the tourist goes out of historical curiosity is built by alien Muslim invaders.
All mediaeval monuments extent in India are only an infinitesimal part of its enormous arcbiiec lural wealth which got destroyed in a millenn. The extant menu- ments and canals claimed to have been built by. A very graphic illustration of the falsity of such claims is found Yn chVonicles relating to Sher Shah's reign.
These claims are patently false. When such innate cruelty was being oerpetraied against most of the population could it be called a floldea period? The entire alien rule in India for over a mille- on turn until the British took over was a harrowing nightmarish period in which rape, rapine, levy of cruel and despotic taxes. Many current concepts of mediaeval history need to be completely reversed. For instance, it baa been repeatedly claimed that extant Indian mediaeval monuments were built at ibe orders of alien rulers by alien architects and craftsmen.
Here it must be remembered that the existence of thousands of palatial mansions was itself one of the strongest pulls which attracted the predatory attentions of alien Muslim invaders. Secondly, just as the Western style of architecture is currently in vogue all over the world similarly during mediaeval times it was the Indian style of architecture which was followed throu- ghout the world.
This explains the similarity of Wkst Asian and Indian medieval monuments. Thus for insiauct Sir H. Elliot has pointed out in his critical study or the Jahangirnama that Jahangir's false claim to have installed a gold chain of justice in his palace at Agra was plagiarized from accounts of Anangpal's reign.
A broad, shaded highway connected Lahore and Agra, and perha,: But during successive Musuui UsWllOBl the hifb- vay was almost destroyed from lack of maintenance and coo- lant heavy marauding traffic. Huge trees thai lined the highway on either ride net hacked by the invaders for cooking food an heating wtter when they cam pod by the roadside.
They were lifted from ami accounts of Rajput charity and deftly implanted in Muslim chronicles. Even otherwise picnickers scrawl their names on the places tley visit. This is a common human failing Hence Muslim inscriptions on mediaeval Indian buildings even appearing to be tombs and mosques, must never be mis- taken to signify the original builder but only a captor, occupier and usurper, Vincent Smith has testified that Akbar.
Ohaus ai Gwalior. The building is a square, measuring ft on each side, wrth a hexagonal tower attached by an angle to each corner. The single tomb chamber. A dense fog of many anomalies and absurd i ties has been enveloping Indian mediaeval history. For instance firstly it could not be explained why alien Muslim invaders Ihundering anathema against the Hindus, unanimously fell for the Hindu architecture to build I heir fancied toraba and mosques ind iecotvdiy why ibey have left us absolutely no record of buUdtn.
One such adventurer who got the shock of his life and died soon thereafter on tinkering with India's borders was Alexander, the Great. But in spite of Alexander's discomfiture out histories sttit describe fa is misadventure as a great victory over India's invin- cible scion, Porus. This great travesty of the truth has imbed- ded itself in Indian history because all the accounts that have come down to ui of that great encounter arc all the partisan Greek And it is well known that aggressors suffering humi- liating defeats shroud their reverses in the phraseology of victory.
Indian adventure, Alexander the Great— as he is known— was born in B. Ambitious plani for waging aggressive wars and expanding the borders of the kingdom rilled the court atmosphere in Macedonia dun ng Alexander 'a childhood. Macedonia looked otwwd to be the leader of ihe Greek stales and win renown rn aggresaivc waxa. He liked to taste life in the raw.
Ai about this time domestic trouble between Alexander's parents was coming lo a head. They decided to separate. Philip took another wife named Cleopatra. Olympia, the queen, left the palace. Alexander, whose turbulent nature was more akin to his mother's, left with her too. Cleopatra bore a son to Philip creating a rival claimant to the throne. Sometime later Philip was murdered and history has suspected Alexander of patricide, Alexander's complicity in his father's murder does not seem improbable in view of his making common cause with his mother.
Having been known to fhe iroops as the royal prince and beir apparent for a number of years, Alexander was helped by them to grab the throne after his father's death. On coming to throne, Alexander had bis cousin and step brother murdered so that he may have no rival to throne. Alexander now lauched on a carrier consolidation and ex- pansion. He first subdued the rebellious hill tribes. He then wiled out to the west and annexed the region along the Danube river. In the meantime tbe people of Thebes rose m 'cvolt Alexander struck at them with great agility and razed ibw capital to the ground.
M 2 force said to be numerica lions in the bud, even before he succeeded overrui Minor. By sunset the Iranian army's 2? He declared the local Greek settlements tote independent, appointed governors over the other conquered regions and proclaimed nimseir emperor.
The newly annexed Tegjon fell easily to Alexander because its large Creek popula- tion and soldiery proved helpful. A year later Alexander annexed the kingdom of Gordium in North Pnrygia.
Legend has if that there be cut with his sword the famed Gordian Knot tied on the chariot of Gordius. That armada had helped him keep in touch with his native country. But now since he intend- ed to proceed to distant lands Alexander ordered his navy to return to its base.
Soon after Alexander's navy withdrew from the Hellespont the Iranian navy received orders from their king to prepare far an attack on Greece. To call off the threat to his homeland Alexander thought of overrunning the Syrian coast. To provide land cover to bis navy King Darius of Iran personally leading a large force entered Syria.
The two armies met at Isus in B. Greek historians record that the Iranian army fled in disarray leaving their women-folk behind but Alexander show- ed peat chivalry and restraint, Darius offered to part with half his realm but nothing short of the whole would satisfy Alexander He now besieged Tyre.
The liege lasted seven months and die whole of Phoenicia was annexed. On Snp. Igrfc fiver. The Lamar, ormy again suffered defeat and Darius escaped to Media. The battle of Gogmil is alternatively known as that of Erbil from a town of that name 60 miles away. Alexander an oexed the Babylonian region of the Persian empire and entering Persipotis, the capital of Iran, ransacked [bat wealthy city and theb burnt it down.
It is said that this was in revenge for the burning down of Greek temples by an earlier king, Xerxes, Dariui fled to the north. But now a regular hunt followed. A king was pursuing a king. Darius was overtaken. He was accompanied by his cousin Besam and a few noblemen only. It was the lummer of B. Alexander was now poised on the outskirts of the Indim sub-continent beyond the Indus. Beyond the Indus inside India et its northern tip lay three kingdoms, King Ambbi ruled the region around Jhelum river.
Takshashila Taxita was his capital. Poms ruled over the territory bordering on the Cheosb, while another king ruled the Abhisar territory around Kashmir, King Ambhi being at loggerheads with Poms saw in Alexan- der's advent an opportunity to settle old scores. The Abhisus -keeled to sit on the fence by keeping both Porus and Alexander guesting by avowing friendship with either. A bridge was improve ed over the Indus and Alexander's armies crossed over into India. A lot of inconsistencies, anomalies and lacunae can detected m Greek accounts aince they find u hard log.
Pflge But Curtiui writes i hat Alexander was encamped on the other side of ihc Jhelum.
The soldiers of Porus swam to the island. They laid siege to it and attacked the Greek advance guard. They killed many Greek soldiers. To escape death many jumped into the river but were drowned. Porus's advance guard was ted by his son. Id the battle that ensued he got killed. It is said that it wis a rainy day and Porus's mighty elephants got bogged down. A man records that "The Indian prince wounded Alexander and killed ffis horse Bucephalus," Justin says "As the battle hegau, Porus ordered a general assault.
To avoid bloodshed Porus generously offered to hgrit the Greek leader in single combat. Alexander refused the gallant offer. In the engagement that followed, his horse.
Irritated by Urn assault the wound- ed animals charged in rage upon the attackers who were m consequence trampled to death under their feet. The most dismal of all sights was of the pachyderms gripping the Greek soldtcrrwith ihcir trunks, hoisting inem above their heads and delivering them over into the hands of their riders for being beheaded.
They stamped under fool many Greek soldiers crushing their bones and coats of mail. The elephants caught the soldiers by their trunks and dashed Ihem against the pound in great fury. After this both signed a treaty.
Alexander then helped him in annexing other territories to his jtingdom- The reason given by Mr. Badge for Alexander's plight u that his soldiers were grief-stricken by tfao loss of tbousands of comrades in arms.
They threw thetr weapons and urged their leader to sue for peace. Mr, Badge adds that in asking for peace Alexander said "Porus please pardon me. I have realiz- ed your bravery and strength. Now 1 cannot bear these agonies. Saddened in heart I am planning to put an end to my life. I do not desire that my soldiers should be ruined like me. I am that culprit who has thrust them into the jaws of death.
It docs not become a king to thrust his soldiers into the jaws. India mon iocoe more territory for Porus It could be that rhc art. The recorded fact that Abbisar refused 10 meet Alexander also points to Alexander's defeat. Had Alexander subdued Porui'i might, as is claimed, Abhisar who had remained neutral, would have precipitately rushed to Alexander to make peace and fe go friendship.
Alexanders forces crossed the Cbenaband the Ravi without any opposition, as the Greek historian! As soon as Alexander's armies crossed the Ravi. India's second line of defence went into action. Porus had provided them t protective cover t trough bis own territory. In ancient times Indian armies were so alert that they did not tolerate any armed intrusion. Every citizen was n soldier. He did not allow misplaced com- pulsion to gel tbe better of his patriotism.
War-weary t wound- ed, home-sick, starved and fiercely opposed at every step because they were armed intruders, Alexander's soldiers refused to fight any more when they reached the banks of the Beas, They had enough of it. Thc engagement with Porus was their fourth and last big battle in Asia, Its harrowing memories were too much for them- Being unwelcome in thc territories through which their path of retreat lay Alexanders starving soldiery indulged in pillaging defenceless civilian communities.
But this fact has been twisted in Greek accounts as proof of the false claim that Alexander turned south after the so-called subjugation of Porus, to con- quer more territory and collect plunder. Alexander retreated through Sindh and Makran.
At every stage the ranks of his depleted host were getting thinner through skirmishes, sniping by Indians, starvation and disease. An enemy arrow was shot at him with such XftT. Hii father's trusted lieutenant Parmenian was also done to death by Alexander, Wherever his army went it burnt down whole cities, carried away the women and put children to death.
On page 72 of bis "Glimpses of World History 1 ' Jawaharlal Nehru writes "Alexander was vain and conceited and sometimes very cruel and violent. He thought of himself almost as a God, In fits of anger or whims of the moment be killed sons of his best friends and destroyed great cities with their inhabitants. His generals too had taken ii ves wherever they went. His adventure in Indja had backfired. Alexander threatened the Macedonians with dismis- sal and raising an army of people from other communities.
With great difficulty the revolt was quelled and Alexander Teaehtd Babylon in B. Alexander's remarkable career had bjgn. Badly wounded when he retreat India he died even before reaching home. His miehi ' r0n, presented a dismal picture of complete disarray. It is hi iii. Bodtmnkar's articles on the topic. The great Shankaracharya is held in universal reverence throughout India because his Advaita non-duality philosophy is considered to represent the quin- tessence of Indian metaphysical thought - This great philosopher founoed many peethas monasteries.
Four of these have traditionally wielded supreme religio-philo- sophical authority in their respective regions. Those four are: The fifth monastery— at Kanchipurum— was presided over by the great Shankaracharya himself until his death. He lived only for 32 years. But the crux of the question is.
Did he li? Or did the Shankaracharya live from B. The academic stakes in the controversy are high. A third view supported by one tradition of the Sh ringer i monastery is that the great Shankaracharya lived in 44 B. We shall now weigh the available evidence to determine the time when the great Shankaracharya lived.
A Cambodian inscription mentions one Sivasoma des- cribed as a pupil of "Bhagawao Sbankara-" Sivasoma was the preceptor of Indravarman. The latter is known to have lived around S87 A. This is cited as evidence that Shankara- cbarya lived from to A.
Many flaws can be detected in this argument. This is cited as proof thai Shankaracharya lived in the 8th Century A. Against tins it may be said that the dating of the several Puranas is itself by no means faultless. All Indian chronology having been warped by Western scholars to suit their pre-conceived notion that the Indian civilization is not very old, their assigning the said Puranas to the 4th Century A.
Tne farter having been scribed to i A. Sh-nkaraeharya u believed to have Jived in rh. In rebutting the above evidence we must consider other detail' which teem to have escaped enough attention. Vaishakha month. This mix-up was occasioned by a very close simila- rity between the events of their lives, Adi Shankara was born at Kalau in Malabar lava Shankara was horn at Chidambaram. W month ofA. Century AD. The confusion oflater day scholar!
He remarks: But the horoscope with m adjustments tallies with B. We shall deal with th. It is claimed that Shankaracharya's commentary in the ISth lootra of the 1st part of the 2nd chapter mentions two cities Sbrughna and Palaliputra of ancient India.
Pataliputra having been destroyed by floods in A. This argument is illogical because we often refer even to non-existent cities like Babylon and Nineveh in various contents.
I Pu " nrvarmao Wld be ,v. D,ck or Harry. K he were a real co n. Marpura Maia. Durmiti Samwatsara, D, Therefore Gaudapada mutt h. This argument is noi plausible- A man's work does not become so famouj-especl- al y n ancient times viicn there were no printing presses and naodern publicity media— and get translated jn f ir awa y count- ries Tike China immediately.
It could be that a period or several centuries elapsed between the writing of the commentary aT d its translation in China. A cc ppcr-plate inscription gives the date of Tnvikrama I as the 4th Century A. It is argued that the Tnvikrama converted by Adi Shankara, was the latter. In refutation or this contenticn it must be pointed out thai Adi Shankara was not interested in Shaivaiic sectarianism and protely ligation.
He wai first and foremost a philosopher. H reads: The Kali era began io B.
Among the other details we have the cyclic year Nand-ra, Vaiihaaba month and Sunday which was the Silt day or the bright hair of the month.
Therefore, there should be no doubt at to the authenticity or thtycat of his bjith being B. C From that dale the Dwarka Peetha has an unbroken line of succession of nearly 79 pontiffs, the Pun Peetha has hud over acharyai and the Kamakoti Peetha, The traditions preserved by these three great centres cannot just be ignored and brushed aside.
The inscription is dated of the YiidhJs- ih ii a era which corresponds to B. C and not in the Etb Century A.
He lived in the 16th Century. He testifies ,h i most of the verses are very old, handed down io succeed- ing pontiffs through the ages. Those verses ire 'ven table obituary notices of the pontifical succession mentioning the dale, month, year and place of the demise of each The verses were intended to be recited in memory ofthe departed pdntsffs while paying them homage. In those verses is recorded the succession to the Ptetoa from Adi Shankara's times. Adhyatma Prakashen- dttSaratwaii.
Hhira era which corresponds to. C in the SM r RakiaksH. Kota Venkatachelam's Chrcno- frgy of Nepal History, p. Saturn, Mart and Sun all being in exaltation. Mercury being posited with the Sun t Aryamba rSnankara's mother gave birth to the glorious Shanmukha. C -La not justified On the other hand iho plancint positions mentioned by Chitsukhacharya do tally with tbe dis- position of planets in B.
Nagwjuna Yogi it assigned the dale B. Kumanl having been shown to have been born in 55f B. He it also called Bhartrihan or Bhartriprapancha. He was ibe ton of Govinda Bhagwaipada the preceptor of Shankara. To thoie who contend thai putting Shankaracharya down he 6th Century B.
Ik almost making him u contemporary or Lord Buddha, it mutt be pointed out that Buddha himself mux be ante-dated. Hit antiquity too has been undcr-eiti mat- ed. But that ia the subject -matter of another chapter. Lord Buddha lived from IBB? Thai corresponds to B. Ourumlnamalika by At ma Bodba. Brihai Sbankaravljaya by Chitsukhacharya, Modem Indian histories and world histories have tended to tell readers that Lord Buddha was born around , or B.
This seems to be yet another blunder in Indian historical research because there is very strong evidence to prove that the Buddha was bora jo B. That meini Lord Buddha's antiquity bas been underestimated by over yearn.
The question then arises as to how and why such a big murg i u of error crept into Indian historical chronology. The eaplaoatioo is that India having been under British rule For nearly ISO yean and the entire Indian educational apparatus having been dominated by them dates acceptable to them alone came to be foitted on Indian history willy nilly. The British who came tortile over India in the 18 th and 19th Centuries bad vary primitive notions about the human creation.
They thought it wat only a few thousand years old- Consequently tbey presumed thit the Indian civilization was not more than flaw to five thousand years old. They i m however, entered a very pathetic confession that they ihcro' selves are not very sure of their findings. The dale B. Such fixation is of great importance for Indian historical chronology because Lord Buddha forms an important landmark and many other events can be dated with reference to Him.
It would be worthwhile noticing at the outset how Western scholars have ai rived at their dates about Lord Buddba. Because of their pet aversion for dates recorded in the Indian Puraoaa and astronomical data, the Western scholars by-passed these eompletely Instead they plumped Tor the peg of some proxi- mate Western records and hung their assumptions on it. They nrjfiu,. C mmQ k a Owndragapta of too i to B.
Tracing tbe virions dynasties aamin,. Buddhas and Jains. From tbe moment of bis death the Kali Ynga era began. The 86t j descendant Brihndbaf Mi killed m the Mahabhnrata war. Tbia long line of desce ' branched off into many families and jplit into many principal], liet and sub-dynasties known as Pava, MaTJa and Lichchavj H il -descendants ofLakshmana Lord Buddha was born the Lichcbavi branch. Gautama wat his gotra i e. According to the Manyi, Vayu, Vishnu.
TLi devotee at Kushinara in B. KarulavaMu was its capital. OSHA points out that the name Sakya derives from a tree known as Saka near which a king of the Ikshvaku dj nasty lived. Buddha was the son of Queen Maya and KingShuddhodana. Slddharta renounced princely life at the age or 29 and under- took penance for six years under a Peepat tree near Gnya where he attained the Buddhabood.
His son Rahula lucceeded to thctbrone. Ajatashatru is idenlined in Buddhistic works as the son of Queen Mahadevi and King Bfrabisara whose capital was Rajagcjhs. About the contemporaries of ibe Buddha there is unaniimty between Buddhist literature and modern histories. C in the reign of. Renunciation B. C Penance B.
Death B. If The Buddha is deemed to have lived in the 6th Centur B. Since Bimbisara was rhe 32nd ruler from the date of the Mahabharata war the total period of S years 3l3g mmm — would mean that on an average each ruler's reign lasted for 82 years and sin months.
On the other hand if according to our calculation Bimbisara was the 32nd ruler from the Mahabharata war until B. That event took place more than three hundred years aflei Lord Buddha's demise. Il is known that King P'ing feigned from o B. Footnotes 3, A. Hii testimony, therefore, also disproves the current belief thai The Buddha lived In the 6tb Century B. Adi Shankaracbarya, the great Indian philosopher who is wrongly placed by modern histories in the 8th Century A.
So the revised date for Shankaracbarya also lends support i the view that Lord Buddha lived in the 19th Century B. C The elaborate thesis which justifies our placing Shankaracbarya la the 6th Century B. D, states that a Kshamya king named Nagarjuna came from the land of the Bodhiiatva and did penance for six days in Kashmir during Kanaka's reign. Nagarjuna is staled to be a Kshatriya king and therefore must not be confounded with any Brahmin or Sudra of the time.
According to Kalbana he has narrated the history of the rulers of Kashmir from his own lime A. Abhimanyu, the father of Gonanda , ruled fur 52 years.
That marked the end of the year rule of his predecessor, Kanishka. Which means that Nagar- juna Bodhisatva visilcd Kashmir between and B. During the reign of Abhimanyu the 52nd t. C the scholar Chaudracharyj viiiled Kash.
COM w: Since the Western scholars post- dated the Andbra Satvahana dynasty from B. Punnas arc nor pioui fmodi " uul Maa Mueller condemned tendencies of Western ichojari to lUow the trimniMuon to run wild on tbe batis of pre-concek- tson.
Dbat Dbar is a Sanskrot namt. That clty was the capilli or a nourishina emporc on ancieot rimu. As such u bod mao7 temple and palaeet. Mou or tbesc oow sraod convened mto moaqucs. But what l1 morc, there is wriuen proof.
Slone cwbtdded in the toll aod tbose plastered over io tbc walls. A arapbic that of a monument copbllllllllc: A few ycoro back ,. Oskrtt tneratutc. U Is so anotcnt a Site that its or lain cannot be utablisbtd "ith any dearee of certainty. Its pillars, bracktll and Anyone upcricocc or bu1ldift1 or wb. Sucb II lhtDI it lmpos51b1t, unrca.
Mu1Um mvaGers. And t. Several anomaHcs and contradictions coutd be: The only cooctu one bu to draw. Its et. The Taraaadh-e Sansknt namc- os.
The rposque half-way up the mountaoa lrsd WI! I Hoodu temple prior to the capture of tho fort by tbc Mushms. Tho mosqiiKitlnlomb on top, ln fon was 1 B. Tho two ta. When tbc fakors docdtbey were burled 11 tbe ploct wberc the I" d 1 cd 1 ' ove a course of lome tbe sho anum mportancc u shrine.
Exctpt for the triangula r mound markloathc burial plac-e or St. Mornuddon Cbisti. JtlHMTplnla , Oaahdad and otber places In tbc Cenorat rcaioo even today. The c: All tbe countries from Sukkur 10 Sua. Kr Omar Kbayyam, iJ a Saosknt word. It 15 mt".. Th id u mcntJ lfc tll of 1m.. Thot 11 """'""'they sta rted wot h wrong ond Tboy mull now unlearn that and begin lo nssocin1e the dbm.
Bijapur is a Sanslrrr1 name aod sgnifies a very ancrtnt and nourishing city. II was caplured and ovtr by the Muslim Adil Shohi dynl.
Around that shrine lie scauered and burred innumerable Hindu images. A few or the excavated ones bovc been oollrctrd in lmall mustum in a nearby building. Shiva is! Moreover wbo dati b1 k or such fe. The huge To llavdl ond tbe "'"sive walla around Bjapur town lltC all or pre-Muslim orr gin. The Ad II Sbhs ouly captur-. They deslroyed a sood many buildings and built none: Malana Spacious lounaes.
The nme Madam llleka to lbasc buildiop bccousc they Vedic tcbools. Dowsoo, Vol" I to 1. Hmory or rbe SbabJ: TarkbFirozshashl by Slwn'-iSbiraz Alif. Rambles aed RecolltJooa of an lodi1o Oflici41, by lr. Daudi, ll. Akbu should rank amoo1 tbc """" lyranls or -orld bbiOI' ' DOl to speak or llldia alollc. Akbar and bls rciao wu full of atroclrieJ. AJ for the olbtr p. In cootlnuaUoo of 1bc above.. Akbar pcrmillod bitDStlf the practice or bolh victt AkbaJ'a two oons died lo early manhood from chronic alooboUam.
I noblest u. Smith aays. BpS Akbar in middle lifo wu d. A small wan a u. Abul Fazl, described by bis as a sham. History is replete with lnslances of "kbar's extreme addle tioa to sllona drloks and stupefying drugs. Be also used to take liberal bel plop of horrlfyina combinations of bolh, drup aod drlokJ. This clctrl ' impliu that Akbar wu very ofteo drunk. D feU ulecp wlllle taltioalo isium , tbG rraJOa beloa thai be made midi -.
On page it " rn. WII Ae followed tbe praeroce of bas family for. AU bulorilliJ uaanimouJiy testify to Akbar' s illito. Wbnt else could they do foeed wllb a cruel aod unscrupulous, ollpowcrful monuch! On page 81 Snutb 1oforms us tbal Aqu"" 'the aood Jc. Akbar bhubtasly.. Tbough thcro marc than S.
OOO womu ln the he hao given to each as Od OOO lie:. Y otber than decent H'lldU women w. Y pleasure. In Vol. Fro m thence lbey send tbcir to the oftic: The first CObd' t ' " b h II ft.. Tbus U 10 temtonct conquered by Akbar, whether coauo00c"' or of nobk or royal detot, were at Akbar' l mercy.
Wbllc be u a Ions a road a mao standing 1 n the balooo or a roadside building an a rrov. Akbar sums 10 have discouraa cd aucmp" 10 uecnaro the assailant' lt: Tbc auempted asstslloltloo.. Akbar'a harem wu tho a. The lol of a IU. Kls tbe u. A d ath and his w1dow draa that Jolmul wu deliberately done to e ged into Akbar's harem.
Tben there was the noloriout ioslilutioo of Mccaa Baur oc: I Hlndo hou.. Sied bf Shl'i , bit ,.. II cnuld nor "" llolr u..
Akbar wu lheo just about 14 years age. Jets aad ptrale enemies ; sucb was bts upbnogmg. Allot llac.. J o1bcr risco Ia rovoll, bad his eyes sewn up tbe skins of supporters were dnawn up before. When tho Miru was dofealtd in the baltlo o Ahmedabad, Sepl. Wben the ruler or Bengal, Oaud Kbao, was defeated "followlna the barbtrous custom of 1hc times Akbar's com mander Muoim Khan musacrtd his prisoners, whose btads were sulllcitoUy numerous 10 furnish eight sky high minartts" Akbamoma iii, When Dnud ove1comc with thirst asked for water "tbey filled b1s slipper whb Willet and brought It to bim.
Tb asltd 10 dectt! In rbe. Ar rrme ,. With that assurance, says Bad. Mrer rho capruro of Chilror, uys Col. Tod "Akbar deflliled every monument that bad been spared by the conqucrora.
At tbc resard to tb. Akbar "raolved ro rely on tboe arrl ofJorriguc and guole wh1ch ucclled.. Miran Bahndur aeeordloaly cm out wearing a scarf io a way slgulfylng ubmiuion At Miran Babadur did reverence thrice aod was advaocoog, a. Moahul officer cauabr bim by tile bead aod rbrew him down forcna bim to perform complcre proJirarioo He was held io custody aod asked ro sen. The Inner refused to surrender nod senr bls 60n to uk for rbc k10g's release.
This ln11ancc will provo rbat notbloa wu roo mean ror Akbar aad rhllt tria perfidy could 11oop to abysmal doprbt. Lull for weollh, womco. Utler"J I"" for women ma e m overlhe Adham kha I llldll or lla.
Akbar fell no scruples abou 1 u,. His procecdinas were much the umo. Tbe CJDptror desired lhe death of the Rana and the abaorptioo of his territory. Since tbe two woro dmls e IJ1Ua - of theJD.. Cri- Ia attackia1 principality aner ' au. VED t M. Tb bAd reached auch a p11Ch bauabllness and obe"ancc to Ak b could ool tolerale P". Akbar that be wu In tbe nome. Atumes b b d bridged lbe gulf between the thal1D bis own penon P a nfi..
F tber Mooserralo dncribtDI! Smitb observes on paac " The truth is lbal Akbar's pre tended 'rchgtoa' coosisll essentially io 1bc assertion or hts pet sonal supremacy over lbloas spnitual well as comporal. Fau 1 IN oAyonl' ol many acts of fien: Sayt Badauoo u;r o1her lbao Riodut came. Akbar's having married many Rajput women is onen! It has been amply illuslratcd above lbll Akbar Cidercd bit entire rulm as a huge harem, and!
Akbar, roc ocural re.. Asaln to co! Tbal proves 0 of I e I mplion from tbe Jiziya. Moreover eve 4D to ask for:: World's MDst Ha! Smhb d.. He sent. J A fooroote on page nys "As early as wb was sull'ering for a lime from stomach-ache ;nd 00 Akb1r exprCJSOd suspicion lhot his eldesr son bad PDiso ht PrraceSthm, wbo became rired or waiting ror tbe cro: I Secrttuecution of Kamran'a son at Gwalior, 1 S Tbc cquallv llltnicious dtarh c;f Masum Faraoabudl.
All the arrangements about Jaairs, braodios borscs etc. Ia imitar or..
Jstory rs that Akbar bad a similar , 1 Y Clf moe Ltlcnrcd man called tbe nine gems or hrs courr. Tb Akb. Todar Mal, v. Jcb they bad tO be ftogged and to remit wbicb they bad ro ll tbelr wives and children. Abul Fazl bad tbe reputauon of bcloJ a "sb4Didess llatterer" a. About him Smith remarh lP Jaarr wbrcb be never enjoyed. The much utolled wit.
Sbab Mansur, the so-called Finance Mrlllmr. Man Smgh """'once Sher Afghan, murdered, and 9ould look upoo wrtb pleu urc at the sight of a moo being Hayed alive. Ou waotb. All snch suicidu by Hindus bJVe been reprt! To an orthodox f-l indu in those day1, when idols were not 10 be touched, even by persons In the oamc bouscbold without a batb sod holy attire, summary removal of all idols by MuJhm..
Ia dirgun Todarml. Pn rl aad a But for lbcm I"'"""" 1 bkaL appcAuocc. AI an aocieot boly plott, it IIluna along witb liccnt fort. Tbc d,molitlon or Ptayag's gbau out: Btll from tbe very rct l.
He also made people dnol. VIO tl l o. Thus whmoee b I Dower mark on '. Horrible f amlnOI s rule led 10 ramioes of uo- Akbar'a lawlen.
Delhi was devastated and t. Gujanu, one or the rocbut provtoa In India, and generally reputed to be exe Dpl from tbc risk of famine sutl'ered severely for lo. Abul Fazl wlth characteristic voguencss reconb tbat tn IS83 or I 5S4, as prices were high on account of tbe dryoeso or tbc year, l. If we may judge saya Smitb from tbe slovenly way in wbicb be lrtall l.
OOJCr duration. Descnpu The bane of Indian biltorical scholarship bu been cbc rductantt or loabllhy co draw the rigbl, logicul coocluslonl from alllnQWll facts.
Bc1idcs uuacu mal's oepbews Jaaaanath. Snvurav uys bolptcu oonditioo sought the raced. These htrid details pul tbc whole epiSode ro to bold rcl1er. And yet Akbar bad no more lime to spare cban a day' waystde halt for Ibis prcudo-marriage.
Iant and helpless pa pardla. DJ by Moo S1ogb and olber bcoc: From account it lulcat that A. Atblr the Grut Mogul by Vincent Smitb. Akbar tbe Grut, Vol.
I, by Dr. Asbirbarll Lal Srovau 1 ,. Atblroama by Abu! Annals of! IOo, Vols. S4- chronicles arc most y llous era in which the truth. Tbe court bad to indulge in literate peop1c wa ensure the safety or tbelr own abject ftattery of the. Whatever bls;torir: For inslltnu tbe late Sit H. Elliot aays in the Prerace to hts eight volume critical study o mediaeval chronicles that the History o[ tbe Muslim era io Jodin, is an ulmpudc: In addre! Surendraoatb Sen, o secrionnl presi- dent.
Notbiog c3o he mote ndcutout,. Thc tbroo. I"'J tllal "' 'I"'" of tbt.. Tcssitori tb Jutu tcbo1u co saf that "Tbc history o mt4iaevai 1 ;. IIJuma br Jaha nth: IIIIo 1 llaciUu. A proper reappraisal will JbOW that thc. Jt the ctajm' a. Ia support or the above contcntioo I than present bcfotc you a pooramic survey or all important Muslim c.
ID this Or. Alberuoi' s work'. Be bas not done 10, and the terms in Sachau, London , he tliOh wltb abuodaot praise the priace of Hyrcania or 1urjan, Sboms Almuli, 01ho ""' 'dwarf by the aide of giant Mahmud.
Tho otudled or tbe oeaJeci of Mabmud comes out mo,. Tbo P'"faoe ofhll C'" Jl ChaDd A Co. Sacbau, Prormor in tho Uolvenity or Bttlia. Sachaua wo '. L oo thin,. WI be auacks cbe Arabs. Sachau adds "To Mahmud the Hlndus were infidels, to be despatched to bell as they refuted to be From the exw,cts quote-d cbove we arrivo at cbo following. That Albcruni'a asstrtions nerd 10 be uamioed with the utmost caut1on and disc: Tblt was but natural alltbclr cneraica were dissiraled In loot, drlokia oriJCI.
I'IJCiion a. Those became I. It is, therefore. All lk o. That FirdcuJttoo tbouab be bas no1 wriuea oa lodia. Sachau says in the ume Jft acctpaJe viii ' lmmortaf Firdausr had to fty ill diaauiseto.. Ide tbo doom or beina trampled 10 death by elephaou Attra. U t4 ,v. StVC l t f tbc mere mott cnv 11 rukrf in '"': Incident ia uid to have prod..
II aa he"'"' and aimc.. Mit ltlntf ', tod lbJI ftom lbat vantage Clo. Fnl's own coofsion ro sbow I bar timc-te: Ful UyJ "As fortuo FazJ wbo uied ro coo.
Thio nih 1nd Kho1ar. TbJl Akbar bimsclf r. Fazl as no m ba d rrr oretbJaa d an. Y "'' e lo beheve be should have arrai--' "''b the cbarge. Ao -dtolll This ". Ia Abul Ful' 1 b,oar. Jtcal P. Mort over we musr here recoil lbe fact rhal Akbar's desccodaoiJ and -slon borb being ioveocrate boozers be could not be 1 dill'ercor from them especially when we have the above reinforcing testimony from his own chrooicler Abul l'azl.
Ia Aln d.. Y" t Pll. L tfhttfiiC- ffc. Of ' ann'butcs It should not toke lotcUisent 'I. II should have boca atiPOl eomple where 1 tnigbcy emperor! OW lodJed In royal comfort. From dteocc lbcy " od their requtst to lbe officen or tbe Pliler, trocr ,. Omeo of rank ObtJii O pcrmissioo tO for a wbolc month.
This leadr to IDS ' ' "" 37, 38 eta. Slll t! D lhcte 11 thoia who have r l "mt c: I all Musltm monarc. D rna n of whom there was no dtartb. Q aod chi h rcs- cdve p: We shall now examine the laboogirooma wb,cb. Ellloc on cbc edited by Prot John OoW10n are an cxcc11cat cmocal atudy: Elliot's obsernttons underlloo tbe face tbac Jabaoalr' mcmoiB Contconporary accounls SJ cak or lobuoslr having lio many a time In a state of eoma because of excessive drug ood drink addicclon.
Jahaogir Posthumous Papers or Elliot edu.. John Oowson. I lw dJSliU. Thus betweon tbcmselve. Ill Orienta l l! I molllary 1 mmandcr of Jahnair. These obtcrvatloos ot tbc Brioitlt schoton redutc the verltny and rcliablhty or tbc Jahamm almost to 1 dphcr.
Lcr us l'OW turn our aucolioo to Badshabo: Wilted oonrettcred cu oyment of the deceased's property, Su H M. Elhot deal- loa ""'h tbc chroolt: Given Ibis rae! OUDI of Aft: Utnle dhrcprd o! II canoot or billorical wriring, a ad reck ll lt or Abut Ful'. L Hamld"oth. Ia quick Jbor' 11 le h. Abut Ful aod Fai,i. This amounct to a eonfess,on that bis record1np Su ta - "M. These assertions are like.
TarithlFtrozsbab1 and fulubaleFirozsba. Throughout 1b11 I. Sir K. Ellior's Posrbumous Papttl dcalinl wub lllo -r;utb Ic "L. Tbis Is: A ntler. S 'toftdet pillra 10 be ;: UJ he d.. Or where tbe cbrooicle1i purport to b been wrineo by tho rulcra thcmsclvu or at their biddoag they n: Uowarrooted reltanee hovlos beeo placed oo these couoterfeat chronu: What is in Leaded 10 be conveyed 11 tht lhty far from truthful records.
At 11a1e tbc! I he ndtrs bavioa If mcdra.. Olbtr M.. Nzamo'a omtrlt CUI of lbt bolts r h laJina.
I be I hh CCDtury be: Numl obs. Sy Prof. HUtoriaas aecourus cao't be properly fnterpntfd un1eu a 1 rcsdtr 6nt undemands tbem, their psycbolov. Nizami analysu that whenever Abu Fazl round bis itael! Clll lituatlon Muslim dynu1y In Asia bas found. Brhisb blllorlao, Vlnccnl Smilb observed lo his "fltllto,. Nitamo's appraisal! I n I bat it still Slicks 10 he t 'pioal mmtallty or a 1-!
Sorocenic e llll Sinoe we have q- alltcd u lll put polo aDd Olber tombs and mos- tl'""' thc lallt. SIIIcnuc lhe: IIQually but It by alo - ' - r , We would like t. Wllre ;ol lb. Taimorloog, AI Brruni and other atieos bavc coofcssed a rcerioa of wonder at seeing Indian river gbats and roagni6 ecot, towcrioz..
Mastery in seulpture presoppcses cerrain bibly develop- ed skills carefully nurtured and practised over o number of acneratio Had 1he invaders been really great buildtrt tbey ball lbeor own undy strctebu 10 buold on. Tbcy oeod no bac locurred tbc odium and r isks or to O btr r DOt H-. Cl'uld ool h. DtC v. Soraccnlc lhcory of architecture ;. He will WOtk out the oo Thrdly, wbeo thc: Mads ctC-1' 00 rcn nd craflsmcn working oo a bul. An architect has to give tbc workmen a destan co: That myth was avelltcd bY Western aeholar unable to cxplaio wby allegodly monumc.
Had they eommistiooed them they would bavc iosisad oo the buildings beioa cotirely io their own style. In foci even the tombs and moS jue l! II" o.. Lit Su. The Moshm invaders betn of. Ab -'1 m s, szaks U y Hard Cover Language: Vedic Books Sales Rank: Vedic Books Product Explorer Explore more books in.
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