Basic facts about the united nations 2011 pdf

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Basic Facts About The United Nations 2011 Pdf

Basic Facts about the. ISBN DPI/ Basic Facts about the United Nations shows how the Organization is laying the. BASIC FACTS ABOUT THE UN 42ND ED Available Formats. $ ISBN: Add to cart. PDF. $ , has been revised to take account of significant developments in the world and the Organization itself since countries are UN members; the most recent to join was South Sudan in July The UN is a forum, a meeting-place, for virtually all nations of the world. It.

It's the same day, Wired 's Threat Level blog points out, that "an Internet monitoring firm detected that two thirds of Syria's Internet access has abruptly gone dark, in what is likely a government response to unrest in that country. But people, in most cases, found a way online. In Egypt, for example, we saw hundreds of individuals using old modems and telephone lines to route their traffic through a volunteer network around the globe. And we support them. A survey of 26 countries conducted by the BBC in March found that nearly four out of five people 79 percent, to be exact believe that access to the Internet is a "fundamental human right. Estonia passed a law in , for example, that declared access to the Internet a basic human right. In , France followed.

Understanding Role of Security Council: Indian Experiences Before examining the Indian ideas, aspirations and strategies, an understanding of the very special nature of the UN Security Council becomes necessary. This membership, not a right but a privilege, was structured in two categories of membership, viz. Although Article 23 of the Charter names the five member states as permanent members of the Council, the criteria for conferring this privileged permanent membership remained conspicuous by its absence.

Further, to ensure restricted access to the membership of Council, it was required to elect the non-permanent members with the support of two-thirds of members voting in the General Assembly and it would be only for a two year term.

Here, India strongly advocated weightage for factors such as population, industrial potential, willingness and ability to contribute to international peace and security, and past performance, and the need for representation for various regions for states to be selected for the Security Council.

Significantly, India did not have to press for a vote on its amendment as the Sponsoring Powers accepted this suggestion and modified their original proposals.

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Murthy , p. Except for the first time, when India held the seat earmarked for the Commonwealth group, it has held the seat on every other occasion on behalf of the Asian group. It needs to be recalled that not long ago in , India had lost the elections to Japan by a wide margin for a non-permanent seat. The typical Indian preferences in the UNSC has always been to be the part of the democratic majority contributing to the adoption of broadly acceptable resolutions and decisions.

Analyzing all terms of India in the SC barring the last one, Murthy , p. With regard to aggregate of adopted resolutions 41 percent that gave rise to a division, India cast an affirmative vote on 89 per cent of them.

Significantly, on not more than a dozen times did India stood aside without joining the concurrent majority, and has not voted against any resolution, and resorted to abstentions only to express its reservations. Remarkably, India was never a loner in abstaining as it always had company of other Council members on many occasions. The Indian behavior herein clearly points to a systematic effort to display a constructive, rule of law abiding and a democratic majority building state in a global, multilateral setting like the Security Council.

But the leadership precedence for independence and managing the difficult, bloody partition followed by the India-Pakistan conflict on Kashmir moved their attention and interests away from the possible opportunity of a seat. Cohen , p. India, because of many factors is certainly entitled to a permanent seat in the Security Council. But we are not going in at the cost of China. The Indian calculus on permanent membership of Security Council flow broadly from a mix of, not necessarily hierarchical, three streams, viz.

India in UN System: In pursuance of its claims to the Council seat, India points out its rich history of consistent international, multilateral posture of cooperation and fraternity, especially when it comes to the UN. The origins of Indian multilateral engagement dates back to 28 June when India signed the Treaty of Versailles that ended the First World War and created the League of Nations, the precursor of the UN, wherein India, too, was a member.

Permanent Mission of India to the UN, New York, no date given India, since its independence and even before that, has been an active participant in all initiatives undertaken by the UN and the various UN organs including the various discussions on the Agenda for Peace and the Agenda for Development, the Millennium Development Goals, and various UN summits, including most importantly on climate change. India also makes a strong case by highlighting its regular, significant contributions to the UN.

In the arena of peacekeeping, India has remained the largest cumulative contributor of UN peacekeeping troops with around , troops since the s. Currently, around Indian peacekeepers have been deployed in 13 missions out of the total of 16 in 11 countries. Permanent Mission of India to the UN, New York Today, most significantly, India has almost twice the number of peacekeepers deployed in the ground as do China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States combined — also known as the P5, the five countries that wield veto power at the Council.

For a country with low per capita income, assessed contribution as per the United Nations scale may entail proportionately higher sacrifice. The record of timely payment also should be taken into account. The point is India could emerge before long, if its economy performs well, as a sizeable contributor to UN budget.

To prevent this negative outcome ever again, the Indian presence at the Security Council, it is hoped will ensure Indian interests are not sacrificed at the altar of great power politics. Most importantly, it will stall any possible intervention by China, a permanent member at the behest of its ally Pakistan. Many pundits agree that India would be moderately revisionist that seeks to adjust international norms and frameworks that suits its global vision, without seeking to overthrow the current international system.

Former Secretary General Kofi Annan has been quoted as saying that India has been one of the most significant votaries of shaping the UN agenda on behalf of the developing world. They have been single-mindedly pursuing larger freedom through pluralist democracy.

It declares: By any objective criteria, such as population, territorial size, GDP, economic potential, civilizational legacy, cultural diversity, political system and past and ongoing contributions to the activities of the UN — especially to UN peacekeeping operations — India is eminently qualified for permanent membership.

At the outset itself, demography remains the primary reason why India should be in the Council. India, with its population at 1. This basic fact itself warrants Indian inclusion and representation in the Security Council. With increasing emphasis on the principle of democracy at the national level, there is a need for extending the principle to the international level also.

On the negative side, it is argued by critics that India has still not signed the NPT, had rejected the CTBT in and in fact, was the target of unanimous Security Council Resolution after it conducted nuclear tests in India sees itself carrying the necessary abilities, actual and potential, which entitles it to a permanent seat at the Council. It would serve as an equalizer to China, its rival and an emerging hegemon in Asia and an ever increasing strategic and security concern in its immediate neighborhood and beyond.

India has always seen itself as a democratic alternative to the authoritarian China in a leadership role in Asia.

The Indian attempts at joining various regimes like the MTCR and the ongoing, high pitched campaign to join the NSG amply indicate that India is no more satisfied with being either the target or a mere follower of various international norms and rules and wants now to shape and align them to suit Indian ideas and interests. In conclusion, and most significantly, Indian hopes significantly rest on an acknowledgement by UN itself of the need to expand the UNSC.

While there was convergence of views that the membership of the Security Council should be enlarged, there was also agreement that the scope and nature of such enlargement require further discussion.

It needs to be recalled that the Security Council reformed as back as when it increased its non-permanent members from 11 to 15, and increased the necessary votes for the adoption of resolutions from seven to nine. The s also saw Indian attempts at pressing for UN reforms.

Three issues were highlighted specifically. Two organizing principles do stand out: first, purposeful, result oriented negotiations and secondly, parity for the unrepresented and the underrepresented. Categories of Membership On the issue of categories of membership, India has argued that an overwhelming majority of Member-States have already supported expansion in both categories.

Two largest groups including Africa with 54 members and L.

India supports increase in both permanent and non-permanent membership of UN Security Council. India, citing the deliberations held in itself, pointed out that these models were rejected by an overwhelming majority.

India identified number of reasons for its opposition to increase in non-permanent category only.

Firstly, the issues raised by the current imbalance between permanent and non-permanent members are not addressed due to lack of any checks or balances. Seventy-three UN member states have never sat on the Council.

All members of the United Nations, however, agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council. While other organs of the United Nations make recommendations to member states, only the Security Council has the power to make decisions that member states are then obligated to implement under the Charter. The Security Council is organized in such a way that it can function continuously. A representative of each of its members must be present at all times at UN Headquarters.

The Council may meet elsewhere: in it held a session in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; in it met in Panama City, Panama; and in it met in Geneva. The Council may set forth principles for such an agreement.

Chapter I: UN Charter, structure and system 9 In some cases, the Council itself undertakes investigation and mediation. It may dispatch a mission, appoint special envoys or request the Secretary-General to use his good offices to achieve a pacific settlement of the dispute.

It may issue ceasefire directives that can help prevent an escalation of the conflict. The Council may also dispatch military observers or a peacekeeping force to help reduce tensions, separate opposing forces and establish a calm in which peaceful settlements may be sought. Beyond this, the Council may opt for enforcement measures, including economic sanctions, arms embargoes, financial penalties and restrictions, and travel bans; severance of diplomatic relations; blockade; or even collective military action.

A chief concern is to focus action on those responsible for the policies or practices condemned by the international community, while minimizing the impact of the measures taken on other parts of the population and economy. The Council established the Counter-Terrorism Committee as a subsidiary organ following the terrorist attacks on the United States on 11 September The Peacebuilding Commission, established by the Council in , supports peace efforts in countries emerging from conflict.

Tribunals and courts Over the past two decades, the Council has established, as subsidiary organs, two ad hoc, territorially specific, international criminal tribunals to prosecute crimes against humanity in the former Yugoslavia and in Rwanda. These are not permanent and will cease to exist once their business draws to a close. Its organizational components are its Chambers, Registry and the Office of the Prosecutor.

It has 16 permanent judges, 12 ad litem judges of whom it can call upon up to 12 at any given time and a staff of representing 77 nationalities. The Tribunal has indicted persons accused of crimes committed against many thousands of victims during the conflicts in Croatia — , Bosnia and Herzegovina — , Kosovo — and The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia By holding individuals accountable regardless of their position, the Tribunal has substantially contributed to dismantling impunity for war crimes.

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Its three Trial Chambers and one Appeals Chamber are composed of 16 independent judges. No two of them may be nationals of the same state.

Three judges sit in each of the Trial Chambers and five judges sit in the Appeals Chamber, which is shared with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. It also has a pool of 18 ad litem judges of whom it can call upon up to nine at any given time , and staff as of 30 June , among which some 68 nationalities were represented. Appellate proceedings had been concluded in respect of 46 accused persons. All but one of the remaining appeals would be completed in Those convicted include Jean Kambanda, Prime Minister of Rwanda during the genocide—the first head of government to be arrested and subsequently convicted for that crime.

Box , Arusha, Tanzania Tel. It is mandated to try those who bear the greatest responsibility for serious violations of international humanitarian law and Sierra Leonean law committed in the territory of Sierra Leone since 30 November The Special Court is the first international criminal tribunal to be funded entirely from voluntary contributions from governments and has received contributions from over 40 states in all world regions.

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President: Jon M. The Pre-Trial and Trial Chambers are each composed of five judges, three of whom are Cambodian and one of these President. Box 71, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Tel. The Special Tribunal, established following a further Security Council resolution in and officially opened in , sits in Leidschendam-Voorburg, near the Hague.

The Chambers of the Special Tribunal consist of one international Pre-Trial Judge; a Trial Chamber with three judges: one Lebanese and two international, plus two alternate judges: one Lebanese and one international ; and an Appeals Chamber five judges: two Lebanese and three international. The SecretaryGeneral appoints the judges in consultation with the Lebanese government.

The 54 members of the Council serve for three-year terms. Seats on the Council are allocated based on geographical representation, with 14 allocated to Afri- 12 Basic Facts about the United Nations can states, 11 to Asian states, 6 to Eastern European states, 10 to Latin American and Caribbean states, and 13 to Western European and other states. Voting in the Council is by simple majority, with each member having one vote. Through its discussion of international economic and social issues and its policy recommendations, ECOSOC plays a key role in fostering international cooperation for development and in setting priorities for action throughout the UN system.

Sessions and subsidiary bodies The Council normally holds several short sessions and many preparatory meetings, roundtables and panel discussions throughout the year with members of civil society dealing with the organization of its work. It also holds a four-week substantive session in July, alternating annually between New York and Geneva. That session includes a high-level segment, attended by cabinet ministers and other officials, to discuss major economic, social and humanitarian issues.

The year-round work of the Council is carried out in its subsidiary and related bodies. At the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20—22 June , member states agreed to establish a high-level political forum to replace the Commission on Sustainable Development. Their mandate is to promote the economic development of each region, and strengthen the economic relations of the countries in that region, both among themselves and with other countries of the world.

ECA promotes policies and strategies to increase economic cooperation and integration among its 53 member countries, particularly in the production, trade, monetary, infrastructure and institutional fields. It focuses on information and analysis on economic and social issues; food security and sustainable development; development management; the information revolution for development; and regional cooperation and integration.

The Commission pays special attention to improving the condition of women, enhancing their involvement and decision-making in development, and ensuring that gender equity is a key element in national development.

Executive Secretary: Dr. Box , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Tel. ECE has 56 member countries. Priority areas include economic analysis, environment and human settlements, statistics, sustainable energy, trade, economic cooperation and integration, housing and land management, population, forestry and timber, and transport. It pursues its goals primarily through policy analysis and debates, as well as conventions, regulations, standards and harmonization.

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