BRS Embryology, 5th Edition. Home · BRS BRS Physiology, 5th Edition (Board Review Series) · Read more Langman's Medical Embryology 11th edition. BRS Embryology 5th Edition. Table Of Contents: PREFERTILIZATION EVENTS; WEEK 1 OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (DAYS 1–7); WEEK 2 OF HUMAN. Preface The fifth edition of BRS Embryology has afforded me the opportunity to further I hope that students will continue to find BRS Embryology a clear and.
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Combination pills contain a combination of estrogen and progesterone.
They are 2. The primary mechanism of action is the inhibition of gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH , folliclestimulating hormone FSH , and luteinizing hormone LH secretion, which prevents ovulation. Progesterone-only pills contain only progesterone.
They are taken continuously without a break. The primary mechanism of action is not known, but thickening of cervical mucus hostile to sperm migration and thinning of the endometrium unprepared for conceptus implantation are known to occur.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate Depo-Provera is a progesterone-only product that offers a long-acting alternative to oral contraceptives. It can be injected intramuscularly and will prevent ovulation for 2—3 months.
Levonorgestrel Norplant is a progesterone-only product that offers an even longeracting alternative to Depo-Provera. The capsules containing levonorgestrel can be implanted subdermally and will prevent ovulation for 1—5 years. Seasonale is a combined ethinyl estradiol 0. Seasonale is a day treatment cycle whereby the woman should expect to have four menstrual periods per year.
Ortho Evra is a combined ethinyl estradiol 0. The therapy is more effective the earlier it is initiated within a hour window.
There are two types of ECPs: a. Combined ECPs contain both estrogen and progesterone in the same dose as ordinary birth control pills.
In many countries but not the United States , combined ECPs are specially packaged and labeled for emergency use.
Combined ECPs are associated with a high incidence of nausea and vomiting. Progesterone-only ECPs contain only progesterone. The brand name in the United States is Plan B 0. The dosage of Plan B is one pill within 72 hours of unprotected sex; the second pill should be taken 12 hours after the first pill.
Plan B shows a reduced incidence of nausea and vomiting. Diethylstilbestrol DES was used as an ECP in the past but has been discontinued because it is associated with reproductive tract anomalies and vaginal cancers in exposed offspring.
Clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina occurs in daughters of women who were exposed to DES therapy during pregnancy. A precursor to clear-cell adenocarcinoma is vaginal adenosis a benign condition , in which stratified squamous epithelium is replaced by mucosal columnar epithelial-lined crypts.
Luteinizing hormone—releasing hormone LH-RH analogues. Chronic treatment with a LHRH analogue e. Clomiphene citrate is a drug that competes with estrogen for binding sites in the adenohypophysis, thereby suppressing the normal negative feedback loop of estrogen on the adenohypophysis. The estimated chance of pregnancy fertility in the days surrounding ovulation is shown in Table 1.
Which of the following is a major characteristic of meiosis I? A normal somatic cell contains a total of 46 chromosomes. What is the normal complement of chromosomes found in a sperm? A B C D E 22 autosomes plus a sex chromosome 23 autosomes plus a sex chromosome 22 autosomes 23 autosomes 23 paired autosomes 3. Which of the following describes the number of chromosomes and amount of DNA in a gamete? Which of the following chromosome compositions in a sperm normally results in the production of a genetic female if fertilization occurs?
A B C D E 23 homologous pairs of chromosomes 22 homologous pairs of chromosomes 23 autosomes plus an X chromosome 22 autosomes plus a Y chromosome 22 autosomes plus an X chromosome 5. In the process of meiosis, DNA replication of each chromosome occurs, forming a structure consisting of two sister chromatids attached to a single centromere.
What is this structure? All primary oocytes are formed by A week 4 of embryonic life B month 5 of fetal life C birth D month 5 of infancy E puberty 7.
When does formation of primary spermatocytes begin? In the production of female gametes, which of the following cells can remain dormant for 12—40 years?
In the production of male gametes, which of the following cells remains dormant for 12 years? Approximately how many sperm will be ejaculated by a normal fertile male during sexual intercourse? A young woman enters puberty with approximately 40, primary oocytes in her ovary. About how many of these primary oocytes will be ovulated over the entire reproductive life of the woman?
A B C D E 40, 35, 48 12 Fetal sex can be diagnosed by noting the presence or absence of the Barr body in cells obtained from the amniotic fluid. What is the etiology of the Barr body?
How much DNA does a primary spermatocyte contain? During ovulation, the secondary oocyte resides at what specific stage of meiosis? Concerning maturation of the female gamete oogenesis , when do the oogonia enter meiosis I and undergo DNA replication to form primary oocytes? Where do primordial germ cells initially develop? A In the gonads at week 4 of embryonic development B In the yolk sac at week 4 of embryonic development C In the gonads at month 5 of embryonic development D In the yolk sac at month 5 of embryonic development E In the gonads at puberty During meiosis, pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs, which permits large segments of DNA to be exchanged.
What is this process called? Pairing of homologous chromosomes synapsis is a unique event that occurs only during meiosis I in the production of gametes.
Synapsis is necessary so that crossing over can occur. A normal gamete sperm in this case contains 23 single chromosomes. These 23 chromosomes consist of 22 autosomes plus 1 sex chromosome.
Gametes contain 23 chromosomes and 1N amount of DNA, so that when two gametes fuse at fertilization, a zygote containing 46 chromosomes and 2N amount of DNA is formed. A sperm contains 22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome. The sex chromosome in sperm may be either the X or the Y chromosome.
The sex chromosome in a secondary oocyte is only the X chromosome. If an X-bearing sperm fertilizes a secondary oocyte, a genetic female XX is produced.
Therefore, sperm is the arbiter of sex determination. The structure formed is a duplicated chromosome. However, the chromatids remain attached to the centromere, forming a duplicated chromosome.