Howard Gardner's Theory of. Multiple Intelligences. Many of us are familiar with three general categories in which people learn: visual learners, auditory learners . Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. “An intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more. To learn more, please visit Howard Gardner's official website of MI Theory at “In a Nutshell,” the first chapter of Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons (PDF).
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PDF | On Jan 1, , Katie Davis and others published The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. oped by psychologist Howard Gardner in. This paper compares the theories of multiple intelligences and learning styles to Howard Gardner advocates that there are at least eight intelligences that. The theory of multiple intelligences differentiates human intelligence into specific 'modalities', rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability. Howard Gardner proposed this model in his book Frames of Mind: The .. "Reflections on multiple intelligences: Myths and messages" (PDF). Phi Delta.
Then start brainstorming ideas for teaching or learning that topic and write down ideas next to each intelligence this is a spatial-linguistic approach of brainstorming; you might want to do this in other ways as well, using a tape-recorder, having a group brainstorming session, etc. Have fun! Multiple Intelligences.
These intelligences are: How to Teach or Learn Anything 8 Different Ways One of the most remarkable features of the theory of multiple intelligences is how it provides eight different potential pathways to learning. Resources Armstrong, Thomas. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom 4th ed.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Armstrong, Thomas. Identifying and Developing Your Multiple Intelligences. New York: Plume, In Their Own Way: Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit, The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and Writing: Making the Words Come Alive. Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development, Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Basic Books, Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons in Theory and Practice.
Basic Books, Intelligence Reframed: Klein as being so unclear as to be tautologous and thus unfalsifiable. Having a high musical ability means being good at music while at the same time being good at music is explained by having a high musical ability.
Henri Wallon argues that "We can not distinguish intelligence from its operations". In China, the notion of "being" self and the notion of "intelligence" don't exist. These are claimed to be Graeco-Roman inventions derived from Plato. Instead of intelligence, Chinese refers to "operating modes", which is why Yves Richez does not speak of "intelligence" but of "natural operating modes" MoON. Andreas Demetriou suggests that theories which overemphasize the autonomy of the domains are as simplistic as the theories that overemphasize the role of general intelligence and ignore the domains.
He agrees with Gardner that there are indeed domains of intelligence that are relevantly autonomous of each other. In Demetriou's theory, one of the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development , Gardner is criticized for underestimating the effects exerted on the various domains of intelligences by the various subprocesses that define overall processing efficiency, such as speed of processing , executive functions , working memory , and meta-cognitive processes underlying self-awareness and self-regulation.
All of these processes are integral components of general intelligence that regulate the functioning and development of different domains of intelligence.
The domains are to a large extent expressions of the condition of the general processes, and may vary because of their constitutional differences but also differences in individual preferences and inclinations.
Their functioning both channels and influences the operation of the general processes. The premise of the multiple intelligences hypothesis, that human intelligence is a collection of specialist abilities, have been criticized for not being able to explain human adaptation to most if not all environments in the world.
In this context, humans are contrasted to social insects that indeed have a distributed "intelligence" of specialists, and such insects may spread to climates resembling that of their origin but the same species never adapt to a wide range of climates from tropical to temperate by building different types of nests and learning what is edible and what is poisonous. While some such as the leafcutter ant grow fungi on leaves, they do not cultivate different species in different environments with different farming techniques as human agriculture does.
It is therefore argued that human adaptability stems from a general ability to falsify hypotheses and make more generally accurate predictions and adapt behavior thereafter, and not a set of specialized abilities which would only work under specific environmental conditions.
Gardner argues that IQ tests only measure linguistic and logical-mathematical abilities. He argues the importance of assessing in an "intelligence-fair" manner. While traditional paper-and-pen examinations favor linguistic and logical skills, there is a need for intelligence-fair measures that value the distinct modalities of thinking and learning that uniquely define each intelligence. Psychologist Alan S. Kaufman points out that IQ tests have measured spatial abilities for 70 years.
While IQ tests do give an overall IQ score, they now also give scores for many more narrow abilities. According to a study many of Gardner's "intelligences" correlate with the g factor , supporting the idea of a single dominant type of intelligence. According to the study, each of the domains proposed by Gardner involved a blend of g , of cognitive abilities other than g , and, in some cases, of non-cognitive abilities or of personality characteristics. Linda Gottfredson has argued that thousands of studies support the importance of intelligence quotient IQ in predicting school and job performance, and numerous other life outcomes.
In contrast, empirical support for non- g intelligences is either lacking or very poor. She argued that despite this the ideas of multiple non- g intelligences are very attractive to many due to the suggestion that everyone can be smart in some way. To date, there have been no published studies that offer evidence of the validity of the multiple intelligences.
In Sternberg reported finding no empirical studies. In Allix reported finding no empirical validating studies, and at that time Gardner and Connell conceded that there was "little hard evidence for MI theory" , p. In Sternberg and Grigerenko stated that there were no validating studies for multiple intelligences, and in Gardner asserted that he would be "delighted were such evidence to accrue",  and admitted that "MI theory has few enthusiasts among psychometricians or others of a traditional psychological background" because they require "psychometric or experimental evidence that allows one to prove the existence of the several intelligences.
The same review presents evidence to demonstrate that cognitive neuroscience research does not support the theory of multiple intelligences:.
Taken together the evidence for the intercorrelations of subskills of IQ measures, the evidence for a shared set of genes associated with mathematics, reading, and g, and the evidence for shared and overlapping "what is it?
Equally important, the evidence for the "what is it? Because Gardner claimed that the intelligences are innate potentialities related to a general content area, MI theory lacks a rationale for the phylogenetic emergence of the intelligences. The theory of multiple intelligences is sometimes cited as an example of pseudoscience because it lacks empirical evidence or falsifiability ,  though Gardner has argued otherwise.
Gardner defines an intelligence as "bio-psychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture.
Gardner believes that the purpose of schooling "should be to develop intelligences and to help people reach vocational and avocational goals that are appropriate to their particular spectrum of intelligences.
People who are helped to do so, [he] believe[s], feel more engaged and competent and therefore more inclined to serve society in a constructive way. Gardner contends that IQ tests focus mostly on logical and linguistic intelligence.
Upon doing well on these tests, the chances of attending a prestigious college or university increase, which in turn creates contributing members of society. Gardner's theory argues that students will be better served by a broader vision of education, wherein teachers use different methodologies, exercises and activities to reach all students, not just those who excel at linguistic and logical intelligence.
It challenges educators to find "ways that will work for this student learning this topic". James Traub 's article in The New Republic notes that Gardner's system has not been accepted by most academics in intelligence or teaching.
Within the area of education, the applications of the theory are currently being examined in many projects. Our hunches will have to be revised many times in light of actual classroom experience.
Jerome Bruner agreed with Gardner that the intelligences were "useful fictions," and went on to state that "his approach is so far beyond the data-crunching of mental testers that it deserves to be cheered.
Herrnstein in The Bell Curve called Gardner's theory "uniquely devoid of psychometric or other quantitative evidence. In spite of its lack of general acceptance in the psychological community, Gardner's theory has been adopted by many schools, where it is often conflated with learning styles ,  and hundreds of books have been written about its applications in education. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Main article: Spatial intelligence psychology. Linguistic intelligence. Further information: Gross motor skill and Fine motor skill. Social skills. Spiritual intelligence. Indiana University. Archived from the original on 25 November Retrieved 14 November The encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved 22 October Multiple intelligences and instructional technology.
A response to Gardner" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 3 October Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 9 December Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences" PDF. Educational Researcher. CS1 maint: Multiple names: Human Cognitive Abilities: A Survey of Factor-analytic Studies. Cambridge University Press. A Global Perspective". Interdisciplinary Journal of Theory of Postpedagogical Studies. How Are Kids Smart: Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom—Administrators' Version.
National Professional Resources Dr.
Howard Gardner, along with teachers and students from Fuller Elementary School in Gloucester, MA, discuss the theory behind Multiple Intelligences and demonstrate how they have integrated it into their classrooms and community. Bridging the Gaps: A Study in Redundancy". Experimental Psychology. Myths and messages" PDF. Phi Delta Kappan.
The Eight One: Naturalistic Intelligence". In Kincheloe, Joe L. Multiple Intelligences Reconsidered.
Peter Lang. Canadian Journal of Education. Intelligence Isn't black and white: There are 8 different kinds. Check minutes 5: Educational Research. Educational Psychologist. The new psychology of success.