I have the textbook, though, the eBook code has expired and I haven't been able to find the answers on the web. It'd be aracer.mobi%20BOOKS/ Group%%%20Sciences/Chemistry/PEARSON%20HL/. Free download Ebook Pearson Baccalaureate IB Chemistry HL 2nd edition. Free download educational resources for students, tutors and. IB Diploma Chemistry HL aracer.mobi - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view First published by Pearson Education Australia.
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PEARSON BACCALAUREATE. CATRIN BROWN • MIKE FORD. Chemistry. HIGHER LEVEL. HIGHER eBook only ISBN 1 2. Copyright notice. All rights .. Pearson Baccalaureate HL chemistry book, first published in What's it about? Comprehensive coverage of all the latest syllabus requirements and all the options for Higher Level. Chemistry. Differentiated content for HL. Pearson Baccalaureate Chemistry Higher Level 2nd edition ebook only edition ( etext) for the IB Diploma by Catrin Brown, , available at Book.
Harry Potter. Popular Features. New in Four-year student access to the enhanced eText contains simulations, animations, quizzes, worked solutions, videos and much more. Written by a highly experienced IB author, Chris Hamper, you can be confident that you and your students have all the resources you will need for the new Physics curriculum.
Nature of Science and TOK boxes throughout the text ensure an embedding of these core considerations and promote concept-based learning. Applications of the subject through everyday examples are described in utilization boxes, as well as brief descriptions of related industries, to help highlight the relevance and context of what is being learned. Differentiation is offered in the Challenge Yourself exercises and activities, along with guidance and support for laboratory work on the page and online.
Exam-style assessment opportunities are provided from real past papers, along with hints for success in the exams, and guidance on avoiding common pitfalls. Clear links are made to the Learner profile and the IB core values.
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Catrin Brown. Jason Welker. Chris Hamper. Concepcion Allende. Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide. Free delivery worldwide. Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. The reaction that occurs can be represented as: When anhydrous aluminium chloride reacts with a small amount of water.
When added to a large amount of water. This manner of reacting is typical of covalent chlorides. PCl3 and PCl5 react with water—they are hydrolysed. The hydrogen chloride dissolves in water to form a highly acidic solution with a pH value close to zero. The water molecules become even more strongly polarized than usual.
As they are covalent chlorides. HCl is produced. Like the other covalent chlorides. In this case a mixture of hypochlorous acid. Popper believed that scientists should not focus on finding conditions where a law is confirmed but on finding a way to prove it false. It reacts with the water to produce hypochlorous acid. Remember that Mendeleev refused to reject his periodic law hypothesis even when his results showed repeatedly there was no periodic variation.
Compounds containing hypochlorite ions also an effective killer of bacteria are used in home swimming pools. Ca OCl 2. One person who thought it was strange to design experiments in order to confirm the effects of an already known theory or law was the Austrian science philosopher Karl Popper — Theory of knowledge As part of your internally assessed experimental work you will design and carry out experiments to confirm the theories and laws studied in class.
Many of the compounds added to keep swimming pools clear and clean contain chlorine. In a large public swimming pool. What would you do?
Chloramines cause an unpleasant chlorine odour and eye irritation to swimmers. The power of the hypochlorite ion as an oxidizing agent is also used in swimming pool chemistry when it is added to remove chloramines that form when chlorine reacts with ammonia and nitrogen compounds e. These include calcium hypochlorite. In fact many important discoveries have occurred because scientists refused to abandon experimental work when the results obtained did not match the original hypothesis.
If this law was tested over and over again. It was only later after much perseverance that he realized that this contradictory evidence was due to experimental error. Iron was one of the first metals extracted from its ore and made into tools.
The first row of d-block elements consists of those elements whose highest energy electrons are filling the 3d subshell. Section 3. The properties and uses of everyday materials were revolutionized. Cl2 b silicon chloride. When bronze. MgCl2 3. These d-block elements have played an important role in different cultural traditions over thousands of years.
Bronze was valued for its strength. The elements cobalt. Of these. Early Chinese ceramics and pottery were made from iron-rich clays. Bronze was used to make precious metalware vessels to hold food. The Bronze Age in China started in the 21st century bc and lasted about years. These elements are scandium. It was also used in important ceremonies and to make musical instruments and armoury.
The semiprecious stone turquoise contains the element copper and has been valued for thousands of years in the Middle East and Asia for its beauty. This distinction is due to the definition of a transition element as a d-block element that can form at least one stable ion with a partially filled d subshell. SiCl4 c magnesium chloride. The scandium III ion. Most humans have about 10—20 mg in their bodies.
The zinc II. Manganese has various functions within the human body. If we consider the electron configurations of these d-block elements and the ions that they can form. Chem complement Manganese in your diet Manganese is an essential trace element found in the human body.
Sources of manganese in the diet include raspberries. Most of this is concentrated in the pancreas. In the case of scandium and zinc. It is an enzyme activator that helps to create fatty acids and cholesterol. It has been suggested that a diet high in berries is useful in reducing susceptibility to cancerous growths. It also helps to promote normal nerve function. It helps to strengthen bones. Recall from chapter 1 that when ions of first row d-block elements are formed electrons are first lost from the 4s subshell before the 3d subshell.
From titanium to manganese. You will recall that the 4s subshell is filled before the 3d subshell because an empty 4s subshell is lower in energy than the 3d subshell.
In addition to this property. For this interchange to occur. Variable oxidation states Transition elements can form ions with a variety of oxidation states oxidation numbers.
This is possible because these subshells are very close to each other in energy. In examining the d-block elements thus far. This can be used in redox titrations.
They are good conductors of electricity and heat. The variation in oxidation states is easily recognizable in many transition elements by a change in colour of the new compound. Iron is used widely for construction of bridges. Physical properties The d-block elements are all metals. Chromium is used for plating less-attractive metals while maintaining their strength. With the exception of mercury. Copper is most valuable for its excellent conduction of electricity and as a unreactive.
They have physical properties that are typical of metals. As the activation energy is lowered. Catalytic properties uncatalysed reaction catalysed reaction energy A catalyst increases the rate of a chemical reaction by providing an alternate reaction pathway with a lower activation energy.
Due to their high surface energies. The catalyst itself is not consumed. Many transition metals and their compounds show catalytic activity and they are widely used in industry. This attraction at the surface of the catalyst weakens the bonds within the reactant molecules. Collisions with other molecules are now more likely to overcome the activation energy for the reaction. The vegetable oils used for making margarines are refined as liquids that are high in unsaturated fatty acids.
By maximising the surface area of the catalyst. Biological catalysts are better known as enzymes. Vitamin B12 is essential for the production of red. This process is similar to the hydrogenation of ethene to form ethane: Reactive atoms migrate toward each other.
This weakens the bonds between N and O atoms within the molecules. Nickel is used as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of alkenes to form alkanes. To increase the melting point of the mixture.
A practical application of this process is in the manufacture of margarine. The rate at which oxygen is released is dramatically increased and easily re-lights a glowing splint. NO and NO2 are broken down into harmless compounds.
Alloys of platinum and rhodium are used in the catalytic converters of car exhaust systems. N2 g O2 g Gas molecules desorb from catalyst surface. Metal alloys mixtures of the metal with one or more other elements made from such elements are often plated in a very thin layer over a honeycombed surface of an inert material such as aluminium or silica. Without a catalyst. An example of this is found in the Contact process for making sulfuric acid.
The vanadium V oxide. In the laboratory the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide can be catalysed by a number of inorganic catalysts. The vanadium V oxide is an oxidizing agent and oxidizes the sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide. In catalysis. By using trays of pellets. The vanadium IV oxide is then oxidized by oxygen to reform vanadium V oxide. Hemoglobin is the oxygencarrying protein attached to red blood cells. Homogeneous catalysts are in the same phase as the reactants and products.
A lack of hemoglobin results in anemia due to a lack of oxygen reaching the cells of the body. Cobalt atoms bond to different parts of the vitamin B12 structure. Its decomposition is catalysed by the enzyme catalase. Many of the important industrial processes making chemicals such as sulfuric acid and ammonia rely on heterogeneous catalysts to overcome the disadvantage of having to use lower than ideal temperatures in order to produce satisfactory yields at equilibrium.
Catalysts are often grouped according to their phase in comparison to the reactions with which they are involved. Heterogeneous catalysts are in a different state to the reactants. During the Contact process sulfur dioxide. At low temperatures. Hydrogen peroxide is a toxin in the human body.
At a cost of about twice that of gold for the alloy. In the first stage of this process. At high temperatures. Chem Complement The Ostwald process An example of a solid catalyst in action is seen in the Ostwald process. In the German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald — invented a process for converting industrial quantities of ammonia into nitric acid.
Nitric acid HNO3 is an important raw material in the manufacture of fertilizers. This swift passage prevents the nitrogen monoxide from decomposing to N2 and O2 and consequently being lost. Ostwald was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in for his work on catalysts and chemical equilibria.
The wire mesh catalyst may remain functional for up to 6 months. The wire gauze Figure 3. Common ligands that are neutral molecules include water.
The ions and small polar molecules attracted to the transition metal cation are called ligands. Negative ions that can be ligands include the chloride ion. A ligand has an electron pair that it can donate to the central metal ion. Typically two to six ligands may surround a transition metal ion in a complex. NH3 Ammine- Carbon monoxide: Cl Chloro- Cyanide ion: These molecules have at least one pair of non-bonding electrons with which they can form a coordinate bond.
The number of ligands surrounding the central ion is called the coordination number. The catalyst is used in pellets and the gaseous mixture is passed over layers. The equation for this reaction is: This high charge density results in an ability to strongly attract ions and small polar molecules. This means that the transition metal ion is behaving as a Lewis acid. The copper II ion. These geometrical shapes are the same as those assumed by molecules with 2 to 6 atoms and no non-bonding electrons surrounding them.
When the complex is crystallized. This can be explained by the larger size and single positive charge therefore lower charge density of the silver ion. Notice in figure 3. The shape of the complex ion depends on the number of ligands surrounding the cation. The type and number of ligands surrounding the central metal ion is indicated in the name of the complex. Complex terminology Complexes form most easily in solution. Silver ions often only form complexes with two ligands.
The shape of a complex with two ligands is linear. With a high enough concentration of the particular ligand. Polydentate ligands generally form more stable complexes than the monodentate ligands. The porphyrin ring of the heme in hemoglobin is also a polydentate ligand. Chem complement Saved by a chelating ligand The ligands discussed so far have been monodentate ligands—they join to the metal ion by one atom only.
When drawing the structures of complexes of d-block elements. Notice that the charge on the ligands will effect the overall charge on the complex. The formula for a complex includes all ligands and the overall charge is shown outside square brackets. Some polyatomic ligands are able to bond to the metal ion by means of two atoms bidentate ligands and others may bond by more than two atoms polydentate ligands.
The formation of a complex between the EDTA and the toxic ion prevents the toxic ion from causing physiological damage. Ligands that transfer a substantial amount of negative charge to the metal.
This great stability has medical uses. This process is called chelation. The formula of the complex is [CoCl4]2—. Each NH3 is neutral. Worksheet 3. In the second geometric isomer. For a complex with two ligands of one type and two of another type in the square plane.
A well-known example of this is the geometric isomer cisplatin. Its trans isomer. Stereoisomerism geometric isomerism Geometric isomerism occurs in complexes with square planar or octahedral geometry. In the first geometric isomer. Biological systems are often sensitive to the difference between geometric isomers.
Isomerism of transition metal complexes Like organic compounds. Two forms of isomerism that occur in transition metal complexes are ionization isomerism and stereoisomerism. The colour that we see when observing a substance is the result of some of the colours being removed from white light by absorption and transmission. The complex is generally octahedral and has no plane of symmetry. A characteristic property of the transition elements is that they form compounds that are brightly coloured.
This phenomenon is also observed in organic compounds with a chiral centre see section 9. From left to right the solutions are compounds of titanium Ti. The two structures are mirror images of each other.
Optical isomers can be identified because their solutions can rotate plane-polarized light see p. In figure 3. Coloured d-block compounds When white light hits an object. When white light falls on the complex.
Instead of being the same energy. The d orbitals of a transition metal ion that has formed coordinate bonds with ligands in a complex will be affected by the ligands surrounding the ion. The amount of splitting depends on two factors: The colour of a substance that is observed is the complementary colour of the colour that has been absorbed. The wavelength of energy absorbed depends on the difference in the energy of the split orbitals.
An ion with a greater charge will attract the non-bonding pair of electrons on the ligand more strongly than one with a smaller charge. The remaining wavelengths of the light combine to give the colour that is observed the complementary colour.
The order of increasing amount of splitting for some common ligands is: Repulsion occurs between the non-bonding electrons of the ligand and the electrons in the d orbitals of the metal ion. Smaller ligands can get closer to the metal ion. The closer a ligand can get to the metal ion the further apart the d orbitals will split. This increases the repulsion between the non-bonding electrons of the ligand and the d-orbital electrons.
The absence of electrons in the 3d subshell or its complete filling do not prevent complexes being formed. Another common example of the replacing of ligands to form a different complex involves the addition of 1. If an ion does not have any d-orbital electrons. One of the most well-known examples of this is copper tetrammine. Because the energies of the d orbitals are caused by the presence of ligands. Not all transition metal ions are coloured.
For example: The ammonia ligands replace all six water ligands: The reaction in which the water ligands are displaced by ammonia ligands is: See Practical investigation 3. The colourless tetrahydroxozinc II complex ion. Explain why this colour change has occurred. Without naming any of the compounds.
The similarity in energies of these two subshells makes it possible for an element to form a number of stable ions with different oxidation states. Molecular compounds cannot conduct electricity due to an absence of freemoving charged particles.
The presence of ions that are free to move in the liquid state accounts for their ability to conduct electricity when molten. They are named cis and trans according to the positioning of the ligands. Na2O aluminium oxide. MgCl2 silicon dioxide. A ligand is an ion or a molecule with a nonbonding pair of electrons. When light shines on the transition metal ion.
Cl2 sulfur dioxide. Al2O3 chlorine. The number of ligands in a complex is most commonly 2. The light reflected or transmitted by the compound or solution is coloured due to the absence of some wavelengths of light from the original white light. SiO2 sodium oxide.
B between d orbitals and s orbitals. A Mg and Al. Chapter 3 Test C among the attached ligands. C Si and P. A between different d orbitals. Multiple-choice questions D from the metal to the attached ligands. What is the oxidation state of cobalt in these compounds? B Al and Si.
Use the data in the table below to identify the type of bonding in each of the chlorides listed and state how the given properties depend on the type of bonding. Data-based question a ii Write an equation for the reaction of silicon tetrachloride with water. Chloride Sodium chloride m. Suggest an approximate pH value for the solution formed. Extended-response question Magnesium chloride and silicon IV chloride have very different properties.
For each of the following reactions give the formula of the complex ion formed and deduce its shape. Support your answer with appropriate diagrams. Give equations for any reactions which occur. Part B: Short-answer questions 1 d Explain why the species in part c are coloured.
Ammonia solution is added until a colourless solution is obtained. We have found that the enthalpy of a reaction can be determined by experimental and some theoretical means. We will investigate this law in our studies of entropy in section 4. H reactants When the enthalpy change is measured under standard conditions at K and In the case of a closed system.
If heat is unable to escape or enter the system. Notice that all reactants and products are in their standard state—the state in which they would be found at K and a pressure of 1. I n our study of energetics to this point we have mainly been concerned with thermochemistry—the study of energy transfers between reacting chemicals and their surroundings.
The heat flow into or out of a system at constant pressure is known as enthalpy and is represented by the symbol H. The effect of temperature and entropy on the free energy of a reaction its spontaneity will be investigated in section 4. Energetics also encompasses the study of thermodynamics—the scientific study of the relationships between heat.
Work is done on an object when you transfer energy to that object. Third law: As a system approaches absolute zero 0 K of temperature. This law is fundamental to the balancing of chemical equations. It has surroundings to which it may release heat an exothermic reaction or from which it can absorb heat an endothermic reaction. Since the absolute enthalpy of a substance cannot be determined. First law: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Second law: The entropy of an isolated system when not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time.
Enthalpy changes can be identified specifically by the type of reaction for which they are measured. The laws of thermodynamics are fundamental laws of physics that bind together our studies of chemistry. Oxygen gas is the more stable form of oxygen. Legends in England were told of unwary travellers who were lured off safe paths by these marsh lights and drowned in the marsh.
Table 4. Figure 4. Chem Complement Marsh lights When organic matter such as plant material is decomposed by bacteria under water. The standard enthalpy change of combustion of a fuel such as methane could be measured using a bomb calorimeter in which the amount of heat energy released by the reaction is determined by finding the change in temperature of a body of water surrounding the reaction vessel.
Such a light was known as a marsh light. Similar conditions exist in rice paddies and wetlands. The standard enthalpy change of formation is defined as the enthalpy change that results when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements at a pressure of 1.
The arbitrary reference point to which enthalpies are compared is called the standard enthalpy change of formation. It is believed that spontaneous combustion of this marsh gas produced an eerie pale blue light in marshes and bogs.
Methane produced in this manner was known historically in England as marsh gas. By convention. Although there is no way in which the absolute enthalpy of a substance can be determined experimentally. We can use this equation and the standard enthalpy change of combustion of graphite. Although standard enthalpies of formation are often tabulated and readily available.
Worked example 1 Write the chemical equation. N2 and O2 and the product HNO3. Note that this is a theoretical equation only. Both oxygen and graphite are the most stable allotropic forms of the elements oxygen and carbon. This is defined as the enthalpy change of a reaction when carried out at K and at a pressure of 1.
The standard enthalpy of reaction. This may be done using the equation for the formation of that compound from its elements and other data such as enthalpy of combustion. Solution The standard enthalpy of formation of a compound is the enthalpy change that results when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements at a pressure of 1. All states should be those that occur under standard conditions.
Solution Standard enthalpy changes of formation: The equation above for graphite was a little simpler. Complete combustion: The standard enthalpy change of combustion. You should recall a few important points about thermochemical equations from your standard level course. For example, in the combustion of methane: Yet when the same equation is written with water vapour as the product instead of liquid water: This difference is caused by the endothermic reaction in which two mole of liquid water is evaporated: Worked example 4 Construct a simple enthalpy cycle and calculate the standard enthalpy change of formation for CH3OH l given the following data.
Section 4. Calculate the enthalpy change, in kJ mol—1, for the reaction: The equation for the combustion of ethyne is: Calculate the standard enthalpy change of combustion for ethyne, using values from table 4. Given the information in table 4. While our calculations to this point have generally involved the formation of molecular substances, there is an important group of compounds that need to be investigated—ionic compounds.
You will recall that an ionic compound exists as a crystal lattice in which positive and negative ions alternate and which is held together by the electrostatic attraction between these positive and negative ions. How can we evaluate the stability of an ionic compound? We know that they have very high melting temperatures, but there certainly is a difference between ionic compounds.
The stability of an ionic compound depends on the interaction between cations and the specific number of anions surrounding them and vice versa, not simply the interaction between a single cation and a single anion. The lattice enthalpy of an ionic solid provides a quantitative measure of its stability.
It is defined as the energy required to completely separate one mole of a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions.
It cannot be measured directly, but instead can be be calculated indirectly by assuming that the formation of the ionic lattice occurs by a number of steps.
The lattice enthalpy of an ionic solid is the energy required to completely separate one mole of a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions.
This is called a Born—Haber cycle. Fritz Haber, a German chemist, was the winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in for his work in the synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. Part of his interest in electrochemistry led him to the study of electrolysis of salts. He also was part of the scientific branch of the German armed forces during World War I and published a book on crystal theory during that time.
Both scientists knew James Franck, a German physicist who worked at both universities during the years after World War I. Although Born and Haber never worked together in a university, the method for determining the lattice enthalpy of an ionic crystal is named after both of them.
The ionization energy of an element involves the removal of electrons from atoms to create positive ions. The definition of ionization energy emphasizes that the atoms and ions be in the gaseous state, since the energy involved in ionization must only be that required to remove the electron from the atom or ion, not a combination of energy that would change the state of the element and then remove an electron.
Similarly, electron affinity requires the element to be in the gaseous state. Electron affinity is the energy change that occurs when one mole of electrons is accepted by one mole of atoms in the gaseous state to form one mole of negative ions.
Other atomic and molecular processes that must occur in order for elemental metals and non-metals to form an ionic lattice include the vaporization of solids, the dissociation of molecules into individual atoms and the final reaction between gaseous ions to form a solid compound. The enthalpy values that are involved in a Born—Haber cycle are as follows. A Born—Haber cycle combines all of the above steps to determine one that cannot be measured.
This may be the overall enthalpy for the reaction of the solid metal with a gaseous non-metal to form a solid ionic compound, or it may be one of the steps that is unobtainable, such as the electron affinity of the non-metal.
The processes of atomization and ionization are both endothermic. Energy must be added to remove an electron, to change state from solid to gas, or to separate the atoms in a molecule.
The electron affinity is exothermic. Energy is released when an electron is added to a non-metal atom; as the atom is acquiring greater stability, its energy is decreasing.