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Sql Server Interview Question Pdf

Are you looking for SQL Server Dba Interview Questions for Fresher's or experienced? You are at accurate place. There are loads of chances from various. SQL Server. Interview Questions and Answers. For All Database Developers and. Developers Administrators. Pinal Dave. aracer.mobi Vinod Kumar. A stored procedure is a named group of SQL statements that have been previously created and stored in the server database. Stored procedures accept input.

DDL commands are used to define or alter the structure of the database. DML commands are used for managing data present in the database. DCL commands are used to create roles, grant permission and control access to the database objects. What is an Index? An index is used to speed up the performance of queries.

The starting position is optional.

Top 50 Sql Server Interview Questions And Answers Pdf ☑ ☑ ☑ ☑ ☑

LEN textData — Returns integer value of the length of the string, excluding trailing blanks. STUFF textData, start , length , insertTextData — Deletes a specified length of characters and inserts another set of characters at a specified starting point.

What are the three ways that Dynamic SQL can be executed? Writing a query with parameters. Using EXEC. Get a clear understanding of SQL in this riveting blog.

In what version of SQL Server were synonyms released? How do synonyms work and explain its use cases? Synonyms were released with SQL Server Synonyms enable the reference of another object View, Table, Stored Procedure or Function potentially on a different server, database or schema in your environment.

In simple words, the original object that is referenced in the whole code is using a completely different underlying object, but no coding changes are necessary. Think of this as an alias as a means to simplify migrations and application testing without the need to make any dependent coding changes.

Synonyms can offer a great deal of value when converting underlying database objects without breaking front end or middle tier code.

This could be useful during a re-architecture or upgrade project. If you are a SQL Developer, how can you delete duplicate records in a table with no primary key?

If so, what are the commands? Yes, six commands are available to import data directly in the T-SQL language. These commands include : BCP : The bulk copy bcp command of Microsoft SQL Server provides you with the ability to insert large numbers of records directly from the command line. In addition to being a great tool for command-line aficionados, bcp is a powerful tool for those seeking to insert data into a SQL Server database from within a batch file or other programmatic method.

Typically linked servers are configured to enable the Database Engine to execute a Transact-SQL statement that includes tables in another instance of SQL Server, or another database product such as Oracle. What is the native system stored procedure to execute a command against all databases? The alternative is to use a cursor to process specific commands against each database.

How do you maintain database integrity where deletions from one table will automatically cause deletions in another table? You can create a trigger that will automatically delete elements in the second table when elements from the first table are removed. What port does SQL server run on? Explain with an example? What are the risks of storing a hibernate-managed object in cache?

80 Most Popular SQL Interview Questions And Answers | Software Testing Material

How do you overcome the problems? The primary problem here is that the object will outlive the session it came from. Updating statistics ensures that queries compile with up-to-date statistics. However, updating statistics causes queries to recompile.

We recommend not updating statistics too often because there is a performance tradeoff between improving query plans and the time it takes to recompile queries.

Top 50 Sql Server Interview Questions And Answers Pdf

The specific tradeoffs depend on your application. What is SQL Profiler? You can capture and save data about each event to a file or table to analyze later. Use SQL Profiler to monitor only the events in which you are interested. If traces are becoming too large, you can filter them based on the information you want, so that only a subset of the event data is collected.

This technique is usually used for attacking Data-Driven Applications to have an access to sensitive data and perform administrative tasks on databases. External Access Sandbox: User can have access to files without having a right to manipulate the memory allocation. Unsafe Access Sandbox: This contains untrusted codes where a user can have access to memory.

SQL is a structured query language that is used for manipulating and accessing the relational database, on the other hand, MySQL itself is a relational database that uses SQL as the standard database language. Question 21 What is the use of NVL function? NVL function is used to convert the null value to its actual value.

Question 22 What is the Cartesian product of table? The output of Cross Join is called as a Cartesian product. It returns rows combining each row from the first table with each row of the second table.

Alternate key —If the table has more than one candidate keys and when one becomes a primary key the rest becomes alternate keys.

Composite key —More than one key uniquely identify a row in a table. Q7 What are defaults? It is a value that will be used by a column if no value is supplied to that column while inserting data.

Q8 What are user defined data types and when you should go for them? Lets you extend the base SQL server data types by providing a descriptive name and format to the database.

A transaction is a logical unit of work in which, all the steps must be performed or none. These are the properties of a transaction. Q10 What part does database design have to play in the performance of a SQL Server-based application? It plays a very major part. When building a new system, or adding to an existing system, it is crucial that the design is correct. Ensuring that the correct data is captured and is placed in the appropriate tables, that the right relationships exist between the tables and that data redundancy is eliminated is an ultimate goal when considering performance.

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Planning a design should be an iterative process, and constantly reviewed as an application is developed. It is rare, although it should be the point that everyone tries to achieve, when the initial design and system goals are not altered, no matter how slightly.

Therefore, a designer has to be on top of this and ensure that the design of the database remains efficient.. Q11 What can a developer do during the logical and physical design of a database in order to help ensure that their database and SQL Server-based application will perform well?

A developer must investigate volumes of data capacity planning , what types of information will be stored, and how that data will be accessed. If you are dealing with an upgrade to an existing system, analyzing the present data and where existing data volumes occur, how that data is accessed and where the current response bottlenecks are occurring, can help you search for problem areas in the design.

A new system would require a thorough investigation of what data will be captured, and looking at volumes of data held in other formats also will aid design. Knowing your data is just as important as knowing the constituents of your data.

Also, constantly revisit your design. As your system is built, check relationships, volumes of data, and indexes to ensure that the physical design is still at its optimum.

Q12 What are the main steps in Data Modeling? Logical — Planning, Analysis and Design 2. Explain different types of cursors. What are the disadvantages of cursors? How can you avoid cursors? Cursors allow row-by-row processing of the result sets.

Types of cursors: Static — Makes a temporary copy of the data and stores in tempdb and any modifications on the base table does not reflected in data returned by fetches made by the cursor. Dynamic — Reflects all changes in the base table.

Forward-only — specifies that cursor can only fetch sequentially from first to last. Keyset-driven — Keyset is the set of keys that uniquely identifies a row is built in a tempdb. Disadvantages of cursors: Each time you fetch a row from the cursor, it results in a network roundtrip, whereas a normal SELECT query makes only one roundtrip, however large the result set is. Cursors are also costly because they require more resources and temporary storage results in more IO operations.

Most of the times set-based operations can be used instead of cursors. Joins are used in queries to explain how different tables are related. Joins also let you select data from a table depending upon data from another table. Q16 Can you have a nested transaction? Yes, very much.

Q19 What are triggers? How many triggers you can have on a table? How to invoke a trigger on demand? In SQL Server 6. From SQL Server 7.

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