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A PRACTICAL TRAINING SEMINAR REPORT ON BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM If people require IRS as well, here's a aracer.mobi In view of such benefits, imparting of vocational training has been made an. Training Report oF BSNL. Acknowledgement I acknowledge my gratitude and thank to all the well knowledge persons for giving me opportunity. 4 INTRODUCTION Today, BSNL is the No. 1 telecommunication company and the largest public sector undertaking of India and its responsibilities includes.
The radio technology is able to provide same quality of services as that provided by the wires line. Application of wireless loop technology has just been started in the worldwide. There is no standard for this so far. However, a number of national and international air interface standards for digital cellular mobile telephone system are available.
BTS Base Transreceiver System :- As it is clear from its name it transmits as well as receive signal, it works as an amplifier router to overcome the loss in signal in transmission. It can troubleshoot the problem; add new users as well as capable to block service given to user.
It is basically a computer system, which manages the whole process of WLL service. Multiple access radio has similarity to the LAN in which the common channel is available to all users. The circuits are demands assigned i. The provision of access to the radio circuits methods of multiple accesses are: CDMA: - Where large number of transmission are combined on the same channel at the same time and separated by the codes.
See other cellular technology in the world. The refer of variant of usage of a 1.
May there were 35 million subscribers on cdmaOne system worldwide. Over 35 countries have either commercial or trial activity ongoing. There were already 43 WLL systems in 22 countries using cdmaOne technology. This first phase of cdmaOne variously called 1XRTT, 3G1X or just plain 1X is designed to double current voce capacity and support always on data transmission speed 10 times faster than typically available today, some The telecommunication is the biggest factor in influencing the speed of life in the modern age.
There are eight radio timeslots giving eight burst periods grouped into what is called a TDMA frame.
Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel data rate is GSM has used a variety of voice codecs to squeeze 3.
Originally, two codecs, named after the types of data channel they were allocated, were used, called Half Rate 5.
These used a system based upon linear predictive coding LPC. In addition to being efficient with bit rates, these codecs also made it easier to identify more important parts of the audio, allowing the air interface layer to prioritize and better protect these parts of the signal. Finally, with the development of UMTS, EFR was refactored into a variable-rate codec called AMR-Narrowband, which is high quality and robust against interference when used on full rate channels, and less robust but still relatively high quality when used in good radio conditions on half-rate channels.
There are five different cell sizes in a GSM networkmacro, micro, pico, femto and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level.
Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level; they are typically used in urban areas.
Picocells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters; they are mainly used indoors. Femtocells are cells designed for use in residential or small business environments and connect to the service providers network via a broadband internet connection. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells.
Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna gain and propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of kilometers. The longest distance the GSM specification supports in practical use is 35 kilometers 22 mi. There are also several implementations of the concept of an extended cell, where the cell radius could be double or even more, depending on the antenna system, the type of terrain and the timing advance.
Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor picocell base station, or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters, to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system. These are typically deployed when a lot of call capacity is needed indoors, for example in shopping centers or airports.
However, this is not a prerequisite, since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from nearby cells. In GMSK, the signal to be modulated onto the carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter prior to being fed to a frequency modulator, which greatly reduces the interference to neighboring channels adjacent channel interference.
Network structure The network behind the GSM system seen by the customer is large and complicated in order to provide all of the services which are required. It is divided into a number of sections and these are each covered in separate articles.
The Base Station Subsystem the base stations and their controllers. The Network and Switching Subsystem the part of the network most similar to a fixed network.
This is sometimes also just called the core network. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's subscription information and phone book. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets. Alternatively, the user can also change operators while retaining the handset simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM issued by them; this practice is known as SIM locking, and is illegal in some countries.
Many operators lock the mobiles they sell. This is done because the price of the mobile phone is typically subsidized with revenue from subscriptions, and operators want to try to avoid subsidizing competitor's mobiles.
In some countries such as India, all phones are sold unlocked. The system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and challenge-response. Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted. The development of UMTS introduces an optional USIM, that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security, as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user whereas GSM only authenticated the user to the network and not vice versa.
The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication, but limited authorization capabilities, and no nonrepudiation. GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. The system supports multiple algorithms so operators may replace that cipher with a stronger one.
It may also have equipments for encrypting and decrypting communications, spectrum filtering tools band pass filters etc. Typically a BTS will have several transceivers TRXs which allow it to serve several different frequencies and different sectors of the cell in the case of sectorised base stations. The basic structure and functions of the BTS remains the same regardless of the wireless technologies.
BROADBAND Broadband in telecommunications refers to a signaling method that includes or handles a relatively wide range of frequencies, which may be divided into channels or frequency bins.
Broadband is always a relative term, understood according to its context. The wider the bandwidth, the greater the information-carrying capacity. In radio, for example, a very narrow-band signal will carry Morse code; a broader band will carry speech; a still broader band is required to carry music without losing the high audio frequencies required for realistic sound reproduction. A television antenna described as "normal" may be capable of receiving a certain range of channels; one described as "broadband" will receive more channels.
In data communications Broadband in data communications can refer to broadband networks or broadband Internet and may have the same meaning as above, so that data transmission over a fiber optic cable would be referred to as broadband as compared to a telephone modem operating at 56, bits per second. However, broadband in data communications is frequently used in a more technical sense to refer to data transmission where multiple pieces of data are sent simultaneously to increase the effective rate of transmission, regardless of actual data rate.
In network engineering this term is used for methods where two or more signals share a medium. In video Broadband in analog video distribution is traditionally used to refer to systems such as cable television, where the individual channels are modulated on carriers at fixed frequencies.