New Kindle ePUB or eBook ism, information theory, postmodernism, and the thought of Heidegger, Bakhtin, Barthes, and others. Ebook Pdf Chaosmosis An Ethico Aesthetic Paradigm By Felix Guattari 09 22 contains important information and a detailed explanation. Chaosmosis An Ethico Aesthetic Paradigm * Uploaded By Corín Tellado, an ethico aesthetic paradigm felix guattari translated by paul bains and julian pefanis.
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This question of modeli sation more exactly of psychological metamodelisation leads to an evaluation of the usefulness of these cartographic instru ments - these concepts from psychoanalysis, systems theory, etc. Do we use them as a grid for an exclusive universal read ing, with scientific claims, or as partial instruments, in combi nation with others, the ultimate criterion being of a functional order?
What processes unfold in a consciousness affected by the 12 Chaosmosis shock of the unexpected? How can a mode of thought, a capaci ty to apprehend, be modified when the surrounding world itself is in the throes of change? How are the representations of an exterior world changed when it is itself in the process of chang ing?
The Freudian Unconscious is inseparable from a society attached to its past, to its phallocratic traditions and subjective invariants. Contemporary upheavals undoubtedly call for a modelisation turned more towards the future and the emer gence of new social and aesthetic practices.
The devaluation of the meaning of life provokes the fragmentation of the s elf image: its representations become confused and contradictory. Faced with these upheavals the best attitude would be to envis age the work of cartography and psychological modelisation in a dialectical relation with the individuals and groups con cerned; the crucial thing is to move in the direction of co-man agement in the production of subjectivity, to distrust sugges tion and the attitudes of authority which occupy such a large place in psychoanalysis, in spite of the fact that it claims to have escaped them.
A long time ago I renounced the Conscious-Unconscious dualism of the Freudian topoi and all the Manichean opposi tions correlative to Oedipal triangulation and to the castration complex.
I opted for an Unconscious superposing multiple stra ta of subjectivation, heterogeneous strata of variable extension ;and consistency. Thus a more "schizo" Unconscious, one liber r;t:han towards fixations on, and regressions to, the past. I don't, however, con ider my " schizoanalytic cartographies"4 to be scientific theo hes.
Just as an artist borrows from his precursors and contem poraries the traits which suit him, I invite those who read me to take or reject my concepts freely. The important thing is not the On the production of s ubjectivity 13 final result but the fact that the multicomponential cartograph ic method can co-exist with the process of subjectivation, and that a reappropriation, an autopoiesis, of the means of produc tion of subjectivity can be made possible.
Of course, I am not equating either psychosis to the work of art or the psychoanalyst to the artist! I am only emphasising that the existential registers concerned here involve a dimen sion of autonomy of an aesthetic order.
We are faced with an important ethical choice: eithe we objectify, reify, "scientifise" subjectivity, or, on the contrary, we try to grasp it in the dimen sion of its processual creativity.
Kant established that the j udgement of taste involved subjectivity and its relation to the other in a certain attitude of "disinterestedness.
How do certain semiotic segments achieve their autono my, start to work for themselves and to secrete new fields of ref erence? It is from such a rupture that an existential singularisa tion correlative to the genesis of new coefficients of freedom will become possible.
This detachment of an ethico-aesthetic "par tial obj ect" from the field of dominant significations corre sponds both to the promotion of a mutant desire and to the achievement of a certain disinterestedness. Here I would like to establish a bridge between the concept of a partial object object " a " as theorised by Lacan that marks the autonomisation of the components of unconscious subjectivity, and the subjective autonomisation relative to the aesthetic object.
At this point we rediscover a problematic highlighted by Mikha'il Bakhtin in his first theoretical essay6 of 1 9 the function of enunciative appropriation of aesthetic form by the autonomisation of cogni tive or ethical content and the realisation of this content in an aesthetic object - what I wil1 call a partial enunciator. I am 14 Chaos mos is attempting to draw the psychoanalytic partial object that is adj acent to the body - the point of coupling of the drive towards a partial enunciation.
The expansion of the notion of partial object, to which Lacan contributed with the inclusion of the gaze and the voice in the object " a " , needs to be followed up. This entails expanding the category to cover the full range of nuclei of subjective autonomisation relative to group sub j ects, a n d to instances of the production of subj ectivity machinic, ecological, archictectural, religious, etc.
According to Bakhtin, in. The content of the work of art detaches itself from its connotations that are as much cognitive as aesthetic: " isolation or detachment relates not to the material, not to the work as thing, but to its significance, to its content, which is freed from certain neces sary connections with the unity of nature and the unity of the ethical event of being.
In music, for example, as Bakhtin emphasises, isolation and invention can not be axiologically related to the material: "It is not the sound of acoustics that is isolated, and not the mathematical number of the compositional order that is made up. What is detached and fictively irreversible is the event of striving, the axiological tension, which actualises itself thanks to that without any impediment, and becomes consummated. And it is this last aspect, declares Bakhtin, that encompasses all the others.
Equally, we find with Bakhtin the idea of irreversibility of the aesthetic object and implicitly the idea of autopoiesis - notions truly necessary to the analysis of Unconscious formations, pedagogy, psychiatry, and more generally to a social field devastated by capitalist sub jectivity.
Thus it is not only in the context of music and poetry that we see the work of such fragments detached from content, fr agmen t s which I p l ace in t h e cate gory of " existential refrains. The simplest examples of refrains delimiting existential Territories can be found in the ethology of numerous bird species. Certain specific song sequences serve to seduce a sexual partner, warn off intruders, or announce the arrival of preda tors.
In archaic societies, it is through rhythms, chants, dances, masks, marks on the body, ground and totems, on ritu al occasions and with mythical references, that other kinds of collective existential Territories are circumscribed.
But we all familiar with such crossings of subjective thresholds triggered by a catalysing tem poral module that plunges us into sadness or indeed, into an ambience of gaiety and excitement. What we are aiming at with this concept of refrain aren' t j ust massive affects, but hyper-complex refrains, catalysing the emergence of incorpore al Universes such as those of music or mathematics, and crys tallising the most deterritorialised existential Territories.
This type of transversalist refrain evades strict spatio-temporal delimitation. With it, time ceases to be exterior in order to become an intensive nucleus [foyer] of temporalisation.
From this perspective, universal time appears to be no more than a hypothetical projection, a time of generalised equivalence, a "flattened" capitalistic time; what is important are these partial modules of temporalisation1 operating in diverse domains bio logical, ethological, socio-cultural, machinic, cosmic.
When I watch televi sion, I exist at the intersection: 1. It's a question of the refrain that fixes me in front directions. How can I maintain a relative sense of unicity, On the production of subjectivity 17 of the screen, henceforth constituted as a projective existential node. My identity has become that of the speaker, the person who speaks from the television. Like Bakhtin, I would say that the refrain is not based on elements of form, material or ordi nary signification, but on the detachment of an existential "motif" or leitmotiv which installs itself like an "attractor" within a sensible and significational chaos.
The different com ponents conserve their heterogeneity, but are nevertheless cap tured by a refrain which c o uples them to the existential Territory of my self. In the case of neurotic identity, sometimes the refrain develops into a "hardened" representation, for example, an obsessive ritual. If for any reason this machine of s ubj ectivation is threatened, the whole personality may implode; this occurs in psychosis where the partial components move off on delirious, hallucinatory lines.
The paradoxical concept of a complex refrain will enable us, in psychoanalytic t r e a tme n t , to refer an in terpre tive e v e n t , no l o n g e r t o Universals o r mathemes, nor to preestablished structures of s ubj ectivity, b u t rather to wha t I call a constellation of Universes.
This does not involve Universes of reference in gen eral, but incorporeal domains of entities we detect at the same time that we produce them, and which appear to have been always there, from the moment we engender them.
Here is the real paradox of these Universes: they are given in the creative moment, like a hecceity freed from discursive time - nuclei of eternity lodged between instants.
Take a sim ple example: a patient in the course of treatment remains stuck on a problem, going around in circles, and coming up against a wall. One day he says, without giving it much thought: "I've been thinking of taking up driving lessons again, I haven't dri- 18 Chaosmosis ven for years " ; or, "I feel like learning word processing. However, this kind of singularity can become a key, activating a complex refrain, which will not only modify the immediate behaviour of the patient, but open up new fields of virtuality for him: the renewal of contact with long lost acquaintances, revisiting old haunts, regaining self confidence.
In this, a rigid neutrality or non-intervention would be negative; it's sometimes necessary to j ump at the opportunity, to approve, to run the risk of being wrong, to give it a go, to say, "yes, perhaps this experience is important. This is why I have opted for pragmatic interventions orientated towards the construction of subjectitie s , towards the production of fields of virtualities which wouldn't simply be polarised by a symbolic hermeneutic centered on childhood.
In this conception of analysis, time is not something to be endured; it is activated, orientated, the object of qualitative change.
Analysis is no longer the transferential interpretation of symptoms as a function of a preexisting, latent content, but the invention of new catalytic nuclei capable of bifurcating existence. A singularity, a rupture of sense, a cut, a fragmenta tion, the detachment of a semiotic content - in a dadaist or surrealist manner - can originate mutant nuclei of subjectiva tion.
Just as chemistry has to purify complex mixtures to extract atomic and homogeneous molecular matter, thus creat ing an infinite scale of chemical entities that have no prior exis tence, the same is true in the "extraction" and "separation" of aesthetic subjectivities or partial objects, in the psychoanalytic sense, that make an immense complexification of subjectivity possible - harmonies, polyphonies, counterpoints, rhythms On the production of subjectivity 19 a n d exi stential orchestratio n s , until n o w unheard and unknown.
An essentially precarious, deterritorialising com plexification, constantly threatened by a reterritorialising sub sidenGe; above all in the contemporary context where the pri macy of information fluxes that are machinically engendered threaten to lead to a generalised dissolution of old existential Territorialities.
In the early phases of industrial society the " demonic" still continued to flower, but since then mystery has become a rarer and rarer commodity. One need only evoke the desperate quest of Witkiewicz to grasp an ultimate "strange ness of being" which literally appeared to slip between his fin gers.
In these conditions, the task of the poetic function, in an enlarged sense, is to recompose artificially rarefied, resingu larised Universes of subjectivation. For them, it's not a matter of transmitting messages, investing images as aids to identifica tion, patterns of behaviour as props for modelisation proce dures, but of catalysing existential operators capable of acquir ing consistence and persistence.
This poetic-existential catalysis that we find at work in the midst of scriptural, vocal, musical or plastic discursivities engages quasi-synchronically the enunciative crystallisation of the creator, the interpreter and the admirer of the work of art, like analyst and patient.
Its efficiency lies in its capacity to pro mote active, processual ruptures within semiotically struc tured, significational and denotative networks, where it will put emergent subjectivity to work, in D aniel Stern' s sense. When it is effectively triggered in a given enunciative area that is, situated in a historical and geo-political perspective such an analytico-poetic function establishes itself as a mutant nucleus of auto-referentiality and auto-valorisation.
This is why we must always consider it in two ways: 1. The quality of the base material matters little here, as one can see in repetitive music or Butoh dance, which, as Marcel Duchamp would have wished, are turned entirely towards "the spectator.
Beyond the poetic function, the question of the apparatuses of subjectivation presents itself. And , more precisely, what must characterise them so that they abandon seriality - in Sartre's sense - and enter into processes of singularisation which restore to existence what we might call its auto-essen tialisation. With the fading antagonisms of the Cold War, we enter a period when serious threats, posed by our productivist society to the human species, appear more distinctly.
Our sur vival on this planet is not only threatened by environmental damage but by a degeneration in the fabric of social solidarity and in the modes of psychical life, which must literally be re invented.
The refoundation of politics will have to pass through the aesthetic and analytical dimensions implied in the three ecologies - the environment, the socius and the psyche. We cannot conceive of solutions to the poisoning of the atmosphere and to global warming due to the greenhouse effect, or to the problem of population control, without a mutation of mentali ty, without promoting a new art of living in society.
We cannot conceive of international discipline in this domain without solving the problem of hunger and hyperinflation in the Third World. We cannot conceive of a collective recomposition of the On the production of s ubjectivity 21 socius, correlative to a resingularisation of subjectivity, with out a new way of conceiving political and economic democra cies that respect cultural differences - without multiple molec ular -revolutions. We cannot hope for an amelioration in the living conditions of the human species without a considerable effort to improve the feminine condition.
The entire division of labour, its modes of va:lorisation and finalities need to be rethought. Production for the sake of production - the obses sion with the rate of growth, whether in the capitalist market or in planned economies - leads to monstrous absurdities. The only acceptable finality of human activity is the production of a subjectivity that is auto-enriching its relation to the world in a continuous fashion.
The productive apparatuses of subjectivity can exist at the level of megapoles as easily as at the level of an individual's language games. And to learn the intimate work ings of this production, these ruptures of meaning that are auto-foundational of existence - poetry today might have more to teach us than economic science, the human sciences and psychoanalysis combined. That contemporary social transformations happen on a large scale by a relatively progressive mutation of subjectivity, or in the moderately conservative fashion one sees in the Eastern bloc, or in the clearly reactionary, indeed neo-fascistic manner in the Middle East, and that, at the same time, such changes can take place on a molecular level, microphysical in Foucault's sense, in political activity, in analytic treatment, in establishing an apparatus changing the life of the neighbour hood, the way a school or psychiatric institution functions the synergy of these two processes calls for a departure from structuralist reductionism and a refoundation of the problem atic of subjectivity.
A partial subjectivity - pre-personal, poly phonic, collective and machinic. Fundamentally, the question of enunciation gets decentered in relation to that of human 22 Chaosmosis individuation. Enunciation becomes correlative not only to the emergence of a logic of non-discursive intensities, but equally to a pathic incorporation-agglomeration of these vectors of par tial subjectivity.
Thus it involves rejecting the habitually uni versalising claims of psychological modelisation. The so-called scientific content of psychoanalytic or systemic theories as well as mythological or religious modelising, or even the mythological models of systematic delire. In these conditions, theoretical activity is reorientated towards a metamodelisation capable of taking into account the diversity of modelising systems.
In particular it involves situating the concrete incidence of capitalistic subjec tivity the subjectivity of generalised equivalence within the context of the continued development of the mass medi a , Collective Equipment and the information revolution - a sub j ectivity which seems likely to blot out, with its greyness, the faintest traces and last recesses of the planet's mysteries.
So we are proposing to decentre the question of the sub j ect onto the question of subjectivity. Traditionally, the sub j ect was conceived as the ultimate essence of individuation, as a pure , empty, prereflexive apprehension of the world, a nucleus of sensibility, of expressivity - the unifier of states of consciousness. With subj ectivity we place the emphasis instead on the founding instance of intentionality.
This involves taking the relation between subject and object by the middle and foregrounding the expressive instance or the interpre t an t of the P eircean triad. Hereafter , this is where the question of Content will reside. Content partici pates in subjectivity by giving consistency to the ontological quality of Expression. It is in this reversibility of Content and Expression where what I call the existentialising function resides. Thus, we will start with the primacy of enunciative On the production of subjectivity 23 substance over the couplet of Expression and Content.
Going beyond Hjelmslev, I intend to consider a multiplicity of expressive instances, whether they be of the order of Expression or Content. There is a difficulty in that Hjelmslev himself used the category of substance in a tripartite division between matter, substance and form relating on one hand to Expression and on the other to Content.
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Semiotics of materiality, translated into relational materiality, is the name of the first one. Four nails in the coffin!
Guattari, b : — Guattari . Guattari, b . It has been used further by Annemarie Mol See, in particular, 2. For a more detailed profile, see Latour b. Latour b : The function of the diplomat is developed in Vol.
Callon M. In: Law J, editor. In: Knorr K, Cicourel A, editors. In: Michel Foucault philosophe. Rencontre internationale Paris 9, 10, 11 janvier Paris: Le Seuil.
Deleuze G  The Logic of Sense, trans. Lester M with Stivale C. London: Continuum. Deleuze G  How do we recognize structuralism? In: Desert Islands and Other Texts, —, trans. Taormina M.