ScoresOnDemand aracer.mobi Library of Digital Perusal Scores. John Adams Harmonielehre (). Not owing copyright this is score is for didactic purposes only Perhaps is John Adams most significative pdf La experiencia del tiempo en aracer.mobi Sheet Music - £ - John Adams's creative output spans a wide range of media: works for orchestra, opera, video, film, and dance, as well as electronic and.
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The first work by John Adams that the New York Philharmonic The scores he evaluated for inclusion in the Horizons '83 festival both. Following the minimalist tradition, much of John Adams's' music .. In the first movement of Harmonielehre, the first time span con- Reduced score (mm. Harmonielehre by John Adams Published by Associated Music Publishers, Inc. Short Ride saw the launch of Keeping Score, a multimedia educational.
The notion of the intertext is a useful one because it accounts for, and pays attention to, the presence in any text of numerous codes and discourses. The reader or listener is deeply implicated in this transaction, entering into dialogues that may involve in the case of the listener other musical texts, styles, or more general contextual links within the socio- cultural framework; these dialogues may be stimulated by the music itself, or by the performance, titles, directions, verbal references and whatever else frames the actual score.
The result is a web of meanings that is, in a sense, eternally open, eternally reshaping itself. In an age in which being and knowing are filtered through by the presence of multiple codes, value systems and cultures, we could be said to be intertextual ourselves, ceaselessly dialoguing with discourses and meanings, mediating our individual experiences through the vast web of possibilities presented to us.
The artist, too, has a vast range of textual options to choose from, drawn both from history and the present.
In fact, the postmodern artist frequently makes a virtue of his radical intertextuality. He understands that he is not the only author of his text and that he is engaging in a game that is as much about politics and society as it is about art. By this Adams means that his music follows the kind of hierarchised pitch organisation that typifies the western classical music of previous centuries, although in certain scores his relationship with minimalist procedure is more palpable, and in more recent works he has explored greater levels of dissonance.
This does not necessarily mean that Adams is exploring tonal language in any systematic or progressive way: his relationship with past forms and styles is expedient and often random; different works dabble in the sound-worlds and strategies of different composers and styles within the western classical and popular canon.
What we are concerned with here is the Adams of the mid s, some years after he had captured the popular music imagination in works like Phrygian Gates and Shaker Loops. In the s, as a student and young composer on the American East Coast, he had felt considerable pressure to bow to the implied academic legitimacy of atonality and serialism. Three scores of the s in particular engage with typically Romantic expressive values and tonal procedure.
The intertextual surfaces of Harmonielehre As a three-movement symphony Harmonielehre sets up and fulfils many of the established conventions of the classical symphonic genre. However, the score also engages the listener in an elaborate game, sending him searching for clues in the discursive spaces and semiotics of the musical past; these clues are to be found not only in the syntactic surfaces of his music, but in allusions and metaphors stitched into its musical and extramusical codes.
In the following pages we analyse these codes, both so as to explain how the piece works and also to interrogate its meaning as a postmodernist document. Linda Hutcheon praises double-coding as a way of bringing meaning to radically intertextual art.
There is no sense of dialectic, no sense of climax, no narrative. The inherently static nature of the music forces the listener to become more aware of each moment, rather than the relationship between moments, or the construction of a discursive whole. The contemplation of time rather than the passing of time is important; the listener is invited to stay in the present and not to construct meaning retrospectively according to an experiential, dynamic or architectural dialectic.
There is no reference to another previous experience no representation , no implication of a higher level of experience no metaphysics , no promise of a deeper intellectual experience no metaphor.
This, we claim, is what Adams is doing in his Harmonielehre: recontextualising existing or past cultural tropes so as to highlight their politics of representation.
The expressive powers of traditional tonality are foregrounded i. Its tropes define the surfaces of Harmonielehre, even though they are invariably subverted in crucial ways. In each of the three main sections of the 3rd movement, for example, recognisably minimalist processes defined by additive rhythmic structures, repeated pitch modules and modal sequences are subjected to fluctuations in harmonic rhythm, textural density and energy level.
The music acquires a narrative and expressive dimension, moving towards climaxes and points of resolution in a way that is clearly reminiscent of late-Romantic tonal procedure. The final process is the most climactic of all, invoking Beethoven and Mahler at points of harmonic and structural apotheosis.
The minimalist composer decides that he will add, subtract or change an aspect or parameter of the music at preconceived points.
In this way the music gradually transforms over a relatively long period of time. From fairly early on in its history tonality was treated as though it had representational powers, and thus the ability to express the emotions and even depict certain movements and objects: the Baroque Doctrine of Affects codified certain representations as relating to particular emotions, and word painting was elaborate and conventional; in the late 19th-century composers like Liszt, Wagner and Richard Strauss developed sophisticated motivic strategies to accord music a semantics and narrative which are not its inherent property.
The music remains diatonic, and chordal points of arrival create in the listener the rather surreal sense of time passing. This anomalous fusing of two different sounds can be observed at various levels, emphasising the ideological point that Adams is making.
In the 1st movement, the first subject group bars is minimalist in sound rhythmic features predominate , while the second is more lyrical and closer to a traditional tonal trope.
In the 3rd movement, Adams employs a minimalist texture as a programmatic idea the illusion of Meister Eckhart and Quackie flying through the universe ; thus, paradoxically, the non-representational functions representationally through the subversion and transformation of its abstract patterned features.
This is in part, as we have already noted, because Romanticism is itself infinitely complex and intertextual in its semiotic codes. Gestures suggestive of impending and actual points of closure in the 1st and 3rd movements of Harmonielehre she analyses as occurring when other typical features of closure are absent or ambiguous.
One result is the idiosyncratic skewing of the relationship between rhetoric and tonal gesture the last phase of projected motion , particularly at points of closure.
The overtly ideological discourses that permeate Harmonielehre, however, insist that the listener reach beyond its synchronic boundaries and into the multivalent realm of the intertext. In particular an ongoing dialogue with specific texts from the late 19th-century seems to document the expressive agency of tonality. Even when the music appears to emulate the surface of minimalism, it asks the listener to imagine the depth of Sibelius and Mahler. If the music itself cannot quite speak this tragedy, Adams tries to envoice it referentially, via musical quotation, metaphor and extramusical commentary.
The very name, Harmonielehre, is laden with significance and, by invoking it, Adams seems to be re-enacting in a rather dramatic way the crisis in which tonality found itself at the moment in history in which modernism was inaugurated. As a composer, too, Schoenberg felt impelled to bid a final protracted farewell to tonality, albeit in its dying form. His epic Gurrelieder for orchestra, choir and solo voice which he worked on during the first decade of the new century and completed also in is filled with the gestures and excesses of late-Romanticism; and as such it inevitably tests extended tonality as a means of representation, and reaches into discursive spaces that properly belong to other mediums and languages.
The year , then, is critical for Schoenberg as theorist and composer, and also as historian and revolutionary, just as it is a crucial marker in the history of tonality as an organising and expressive principle.
In Harmonielehre Adams meditates on this year and the vivid, historic crisis by which it is remembered. Given his frequently expressed belief in the affective power of tonality, and his disengagement from the pitch-equalisation projects of modernism, it is difficult not to speculate that Gurrelieder stands for Adams as a metaphor for his own exaggerated sense of the loss, in 20th-century modernism, of tonal expressivity.
Gurrelieder tracks a journey through personal suffering to redemption and metaphoric rebirth, at its apex invoking all the semiotic triggers of a triumphant chorus in C major. For Adams, then, the work might well signify not only personal creative turmoil and an epiphanic rediscovery of the joys of writing tonally, but the more general death and rebirth in 20th-century music of tonality.
Adams may well have intended some kind of personal acknowledgement of Mahler in his referencing of his music. Although he was to fall foul of ecclesiastical politics towards the end of his life, he was and is regarded as a great religious philosopher, renowned also for lectures in which he made extensive use of vivid visual imagery. Meister Eckhart has been taken up in modernity as an important forerunner of philosophers like Hegel, Schopenhauer and Heidegger.
Hippies of the s also fell upon his Zen-like sayings, and it is possible that Adams first came across him during his own student days at Harvard.
Or perhaps it is that if Eckhart is the ultimate purveyor of truth, Quackie has the recipe for its dispensing in musical terms. Adams seems less interested in the actual chord than its signifying context. In the original Mahler score it occurs prominently in the 1st and last movements as a series of rhetorical exchanges between full orchestra and high trumpet. The passage forms part of a rather ambiguous chromatic modulation leading back to the recapitulation and tonic key F-sharp major.
Or is Adams hinting more broadly at the inability of the languages of late capitalist western society such as minimalism to express to feel? Perhaps this is what he means when he remarks that minimalism has not yet found a way to express tragedy Whittall , The passage in its original context is characterised by outer parts that move in contrary motion, the melody in a descending chromatic line, the bass in an ascending pattern of minor thirds and semitones see Example 1.
As can be observed, the bass line etches a pattern of two ascending minor thirds followed by two semitones; this is then repeated with the first and last note of the patterns overlapping. Adams uses the same intervallic structure but alters it to include three patterns, each imposed on the other. He also includes a number of additional chords, which cause subtle structural differences in the second and third patterns.
Within the broader design of the 1st movement of Harmonielehre, this little passage ten bars functions as a modulating transition between two sections, connecting one that is cast in late-Romantic style ending in bar with one in which minimalist textures are prevalent starting approximately in bar The Wagnerian quotation navigates a gradual modal change to G minor see Example 2.
Again the passage functions as a means of modulation, in this case from E minor to C minor. He also continually transforms rather than repeats its rhythmic values. Disjuncture between the bass and melody lines and the fact that the chordal structure is not as clear as in the original do not matter to the ear as much as to the eye. Ex 3 Bass lines of the Wagner and Adams progressions showing structural similarities and differences If Adams was indeed referring to the celebrated passage from Wagner, he was doubtless thinking also about its narrative and symbolic portent.
Wotan had also been tempted to save his twins Siegmund and Sieglinde; however it is he who first established the law of morality, as his wife Fricke who is not impartial in this matter has recently reminded him.
We claim that Adams intends this allusion to further hint at his crisis around compositional language and identity. This is a narrative of subjective desire, of allegory, perhaps even of parody. There are arguments for both the prosecution and the defence. Admirers of Adams praise the seamless way in which he has integrated styles, as well as the fact that he has a distinctive and audience-accessible sound. No matter how fluid the score of Harmonielehre, it is undoubtedly radically double-coded and postmodern in its use of sources.
Detractors of postmodernist art might argue that its use of quotation and referentiality is excessive. In his affirmation yet denial of minimalist tropes, Adams is reasserting a rhetoric and politics of representation that has underpinned western classical music since the Renaissance.
He uses it somewhat like an alien replicant to invade founding minimalist gestures in Harmonielehre, forcing them to function as virtual thematic statements, and also as the ironic representation quotation of a style within a directionalised discourse. Given the commitment of the minimalist aesthetic to non-representation, this is a highly subversive and political intervention.
Whether such double-coding constitutes parody outside the postmodern paradigm is less sure. It is engaged and yet distancing, hyper-aware of context and yet individual. To attain real power, parody in the musical work requires the kind of cultural insights and ironic edge that are so brilliantly encoded in the music of composers like Berlioz, Mahler and Shostakovich.
Robert Schwarz leads the camp who consider that Adams should be termed post- minimalist in his addition of expressive value and directionality to his music. Works by these authors are listed in the bibliography to this paper. They also had profound senses of tragedy and the sublime.
Although they certainly cannot be counted as postmodernists, Mahler and Shostakovich both employed double-coding in their works to shattering effect.
Adams, despite his stated intention to do so, attains neither the tragic nor the sublime in his music of the s, nor do his attempts at irony ever truly reach behind their surface slickness and a sort of complacency that frequently attends contemporary American cultural expressions.
If Harmonielehre is neither genuinely parodistic nor ironic, one is prompted to ask whether it is perhaps nostalgic in the sense that Jean Baudrillard uses the term. This is a subject still evident in the tormented utterances of the Expressionist Schoenberg and even in the austere intentionality of other forms of modernism. It is crucial to make this distinction.
He seems to want to insert himself into his text as author, as Romantic subject. And yet it is impossible. Double-codedness simply does not allow it; neither the double-codedness of postmodern practice nor the double-codedness of late 20th-century experience. As intertextual beings we are denied the unity of experience of the past. Baudrillard observes that we all live our lives in quotation marks, as if we were playing a part in a movie , and Kramer writes rather wistfully: As social saturation proceeds we become pastiches, imitative assemblages of each other.
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