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Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Cross-Platform Edition [free] pdf 1. Cross-Platform Edition [free] pdf 2. Sharpen your GRE Verbal Reasoning skills by working your way through these question sets, remembering to use the Tips for Answering given in Chapter 2.
Begin with the easy set and then move on to the medium-difficulty and hard sets. Review the answer explanations carefully, paying particular attention to the explanations for questions that you answered incorrectly. Easy For each of Questions 1 to 9, select one answer choice unless otherwise directed. Questions 1 and 2 are based on this passage. Ragwort was accidentally introduced to New Zealand in the late nineteenth century and, like so many invading foreign species, quickly became a pest.
By the s, the weed was rampant. What made matters worse was that its proliferation coincided with Line sweeping changes in agriculture and a massive shift from sheep farming to dairying. Livestock generally avoid grazing where ragwort is growing, but they will do so once it displaces grass and clover in their pasture.
Though sheep can eat it for months before showing any signs of illness, if cattle eat it they sicken quickly, and fatality can even result. The passage suggests that the proliferation of ragwort was particularly ill-timed because it A coincided with and exacerbated a decline in agriculture B took place in conditions that enabled the ragwort to spread faster than it otherwise would have done C led to an increase in the amount of toxic compounds contained in the plants D prevented people from producing honey that could be eaten safely E had consequences for livestock that were more dramatic than they otherwise would have been For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
The passage implies which of the following about the problems ragwort poses to dairy farmers? A Milk produced by cows that eat ragwort causes illness in humans who drink it. B Ragwort can supplant the plants normally eaten by cattle. C Cattle, unlike sheep, are unable to differentiate between ragwort and healthy grazing. Reading Comprehension Question 3 is based on this passage. Despite the fact that the health-inspection procedures for catering establishments are more stringent than those for ordinary restaurants, more of the cases of food poisoning reported to the city health department were brought on by banquets served by catering services than were brought on by restaurant meals.
Which of the following, if true, helps explain the apparent paradox in the statement above? A A significantly larger number of people eat in restaurants than attend catered banquets in any given time period. B Catering establishments know how many people they expect to serve, and therefore are less likely than restaurants to have, and serve, leftover food, a major source of food poisoning.
C Many restaurants provide catering services for banquets in addition to serving individual meals. E People are unlikely to make a connection between a meal they have eaten and a subsequent illness unless the illness strikes a group who are in communication with one another.
Questions 4 and 5 are based on this passage. African American newspapers in the s faced many hardships. For instance, knowing that downloaders of African American papers also bought general-circulation papers, advertisers of consumer products often ignored African American publications. Unfortunately, it also made the selling price of Black papers much higher than that of general-circulation dailies. Often as much as two-thirds of publication costs had to come from subscribers or subsidies from community politicians and other 10 interest groups.
And despite their editorial freedom, African American publishers often felt compelled to print a disproportionate amount of sensationalism, sports, and society news to boost circulation.
For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply. The passage suggests that if advertisers had more frequently downloadd advertising in African American newspapers, then which of the following might have resulted? A African American newspapers would have given more attention to sports and society news than they did. B African American newspapers would have been available at lower prices than large national dailies were.
C African American newspapers would have experienced constraints on their content similar to those experienced by large national dailies. Reading Comprehension 5. A They assumed that advertising in African American newspapers would not significantly increase the sales of their products. B They failed to calculate accurately the circulation of African American newspapers. D They avoided African American newspapers partly because of their sensationalism. E They tried to persuade African American newspapers to lower the rates charged for advertising.
Question 6 is based on this passage. Years ago, consumers in Frieland began paying an energy tax in the form of two Frieland pennies for each unit of energy consumed that came from nonrenewable sources. Following the introduction of this energy tax, there was a steady reduction in the total yearly consumption of energy from nonrenewable sources. If the statements in the passage are true, then which of the following must on the basis of them be true?
A There was a steady decline in the yearly revenues generated by the energy tax in Frieland. B There was a steady decline in the total amount of energy consumed each year in Frieland. C There was a steady increase in the use of renewable energy sources in Frieland. D The revenues generated by the energy tax were used to promote the use of energy from renewable sources. E The use of renewable energy sources in Frieland greatly increased relative to the use of nonrenewable energy sources.
Reading Comprehension Questions 7 to 9 are based on this passage. In a plausible but speculative scenario, oceanographer Douglas Martinson suggests that temperature increases caused by global warming would not significantly affect the stability of the Antarctic environment, where sea ice forms on the periphery of the Line continent in the autumn and winter and mostly disappears in the summer.
True, less 5 sea ice would form in the winter because global warming would cause temperatures to rise. However, Martinson argues, the effect of a warmer atmosphere may be offset as follows. The formation of sea ice causes the concentration of salt in surface waters to increase; less sea ice would mean a smaller increase in the concentration of salt. Less salty surface waters would be less dense and therefore less likely to sink and stir up deep 10 water. The deep water, with all its stored heat, would rise to the surface at a slower rate.
Thus, although the winter sea-ice cover might decrease, the surface waters would remain cold enough so that the decrease would not be excessive. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is true of the surface waters in the current Antarctic environment? A They are more affected by annual fluctuations in atmospheric temperatures than they would be if they were less salty.
B They are less salty than they would be if global warming were to occur. C They are more likely to sink and stir up deep waters than they would be if atmospheric temperatures were to increase. D They are able to offset some of the effects of global warming beyond the Antarctic region. E They are less affected by the temperature of deep water than they would be if atmospheric temperatures were to increase.
The passage suggests that Martinson believes which of the following about deep waters in the Antarctic region? A They rise to the surface more quickly than they would if global warming were to occur. B They store heat that will exacerbate the effects of increases in atmospheric temperatures. C They would be likely to be significantly warmed by an increase in atmospheric temperatures.
D They would be more salty than they currently are if global warming were to occur. E They are less likely to be stirred up when surface waters are intensely salty than when surface waters are relatively unsalty.
According to the passage, which of the following is true about the sea ice that surrounds the Antarctic continent? A The amount of sea ice that forms in the winter has been declining.
B Most of the sea ice that forms in the winter remains intact in the summer. C Even small changes in the amount of sea ice dramatically affect the temperature of the surface waters.
D Changes in the amount of sea ice due to global warming would significantly affect the stability of the Antarctic environment. E Changes in the amount of sea ice affect the degree of saltiness of the surface waters. Medium For each of Questions 1 to 11, select one answer choice unless otherwise directed. Question 1 is based on this passage. That sales can be increased by the presence of sunlight within a store has been shown by the experience of the only Savefast department store with a large skylight.
The sky- light allows sunlight into half of the store, reducing the need for artificial light. The rest Line of the store uses only artificial light. Since the store opened two years ago, the depart- 5 ments on the sunlit side have had substantially higher sales than the other departments. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A On particularly cloudy days, more artificial light is used to illuminate the part of the store under the skylight. B When the store is open at night, the departments in the part of the store under the skylight have sales that are no higher than those of other departments. C Many customers download items from departments in both parts of the store on a single shopping trip. D Besides the skylight, there are several significant architectural differences between the two parts of the store.
E The departments in the part of the store under the skylight are the departments that generally have the highest sales in other stores in the Savefast chain. Questions 2 to 4 are based on this passage.
These were chosen by Renaissance teachers after much deliberation, for works written by and for the sophisticated adults of pagan Rome were not always considered suitable for the Renaissance young: Thus, I believe that a modern reader cannot know the associations that a line of ancient Roman poetry or prose had for any particular educated sixteenth-century reader.
Reading Comprehension 3. A The student recalls a line of Roman poetry in conjunction with a point learned about grammar. B The student argues that a Roman poem about gluttony is not morally offensive when it is understood in its historical context. C The student is easily able to express thoughts in Latin.
D The student has mastered large portions of the Roman classics. E The student has a sophisticated knowledge of Roman poetry but little knowledge of Roman prose. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the assertion made in the passage concerning what a modern reader cannot know? A Some modern readers are thoroughly familiar with the classics of ancient Roman literature because they majored in classics in college or obtained doctoral degrees in classics.
B Some modern readers have learned which particular works of Roman literature were taught to students in the sixteenth century. C Modern readers can, with some effort, discover that sixteenth-century teachers selected some seemingly dangerous classical texts while excluding other seemingly innocuous texts. D Copies of many of the classical texts used by sixteenth-century teachers, including marginal notes describing the oral lessons that were based on the texts, can be found in museums today.
E Many of the writings of the best sixteenth-century Renaissance scholars have been translated from Latin and are available to modern readers.
Reading Comprehension Questions 5 and 6 are based on this passage. In humans, the pilomotor reflex leads to the response commonly known as goose bumps, and this response is widely considered to be vestigial—that is, something formerly having a greater physiological advantage than at present. It occurs when the Line tiny muscle at the base of a hair follicle contracts, pulling the hair upright.
In animals 5 with feathers, fur, or quills, this creates a layer of insulating warm air or a reason for predators to think twice before attacking.
But human hair is too puny to serve these functions. Goose bumps in humans may, however, have acquired a new role.
Like flushing—another thermoregulatory heat-regulating mechanism—goose bumps have become linked with emotional responses, notably fear, rage, or the pleasure of, say, 10 listening to beautiful music. They may thus serve as a signal to others. A Emotional responses in humans can be triggered by thermoregulatory mechanisms. B The perceptibility of emotional responses to other humans offers some kind of benefit. C If human hair were more substantial, goose bumps would not have acquired a new role.
D Goose bumps in animals with feathers, fur, or quills may also be linked to emotional responses. E In humans, goose bumps represent an older physiological response than flushing. A It makes a distinction between two types of mechanisms. B It corrects a common misconception about the role of goose bumps in humans. C It suggests reasons for the connection between emotional responses and goose bumps in humans. D It suggests that flushing and goose bumps signal the same emotional state.
E It helps explain a possible role played by goose bumps in humans. Reading Comprehension Questions 7 to 10 are based on this passage. This passage is adapted from material published in Frederick Douglass was unquestionably the most famous African American of the nineteenth century; indeed, when he died in he was among the most distinguished public figures in the United States.
He has no rival in the history of the 15 nineteenth-century United States as an insistent and effective critic of the doctrine of innate racial inequality. He not only attacked racist ideas in his speeches and writings, but he offered his entire career and all his achievements as living proof that racists were wrong in their belief that one race could be inherently superior to another.
The fact is that Douglass was attracted to these democratic-capitalist ideals of his time because they could be used to attack slavery and the doctrine of White supremacy. His favorite rhetorical strategy was to expose the hypocrisy of those who, while professing 25 adherence to the ideals of democracy and equality of opportunity, condoned slavery and racial discrimination. It would have been strange indeed if he had not embraced liberal idealism, because it proved its worth for the cause of racial equality during the national crisis that eventually resulted in emancipation and citizenship for African Americans.
Reading Comprehension 7. The passage as a whole can best be described as doing which of the following? According to the passage, Douglass used which of the following as evidence against the doctrine of innate racial inequality?
A His own life story B His vision of a composite American nationality C The hypocrisy of self-professed liberal idealists D The inevitability of the emancipation of African Americans E The fact that most prominent intellectuals advocated the abolition of slavery Reading Comprehension Question 11 is based on this passage.
The plant called the scarlet gilia can have either red or white flowers. It had long been thought that hummingbirds, which forage by day, pollinate its red flowers and that hawkmoths, which forage at night, pollinate its white flowers.
To try to show that this Line pattern of pollination by colors exists, scientists recently covered some scarlet gilia 5 flowers only at night and others only by day: Which of the following, if true, would be additional evidence to suggest that hummingbirds are attracted to the red flowers and hawkmoths to the white flowers of the scarlet gilia?
A Uncovered scarlet gilia flowers, whether red or white, became pollinated at approximately equal rates. B Some red flowers of the scarlet gilia that remained uncovered at all times never became pollinated. C White flowers of the scarlet gilia that were covered at night became pollinated with greater frequency than white flowers of the scarlet gilia that were left uncovered. D Scarlet gilia plants with red flowers covered by day and scarlet gilia plants with white flowers covered at night remained unpollinated.
E In late August, when most of the hummingbirds had migrated but hawkmoths were still plentiful, red scarlet gilia plants produced fruit more frequently than they had earlier in the season. Hard For each of Questions 1 to 10, select one answer choice unless otherwise directed. Supernovas in the Milky Way are the likeliest source for most of the cosmic rays reaching Earth. However, calculations show that supernovas cannot produce ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays UHECRs , which have energies exceeding electron Line volts.
But UHECRs tend to collide with photons of the cosmic microwave background—pervasive radiation that is a relic of the early universe. Consequently, no cosmic ray traveling much beyond million 10 light-years can retain the energy observed in UHECRs. It can be inferred that the author of the passage would agree with which of the following about the origin of UHECRs that reach Earth?
A The origin is something other than supernovas in the Milky Way.
B The origin is most likely something other than very distant quasars or gamma-ray bursts. C The origin is most likely no more than a little over million light-years away from Earth.
A It explains a criterion that was employed earlier in the argument. B It shows that an apparently plausible position is actually self-contradictory. C It is a conclusion drawn in the course of refuting a potential explanation. D It overturns an assumption on which an opposing position depends.
E It states the main conclusion that the author is seeking to establish. Reading Comprehension Questions 3 to 5 are based on this passage. The massive influx of women cyclists—making up at least a third of the total market— was perhaps the most striking and profound social consequence of the mids cycling boom.
Although the new, improved bicycle had appealed immediately to a few Line privileged women, its impact would have been modest had it not attracted a greater 5 cross section of the female population. It soon became apparent that many of these pioneer women bicyclists had not taken up the sport as an idle pastime.
Rather, they saw cycling as a noble cause to be promoted among all women as a means to improve the general female condition. Not only would cycling encourage healthy outdoor exercise, they reasoned, it would also hasten long-overdue dress reform. To feminists, 10 the bicycle affirmed nothing less than the dignity and equality of women. Which of the following statements about women cyclists is supported by the passage?
A The newly improved bicycle of the mids appealed mostly to women in a privileged position. B The great majority of women in the mids considered cycling an idle pastime. C Women bicyclists promoted cycling as a healthy form of outdoor exercise. Which of the following does the passage suggest about pioneer women cyclists? A They saw cycling as a means to promote the advancement of women.
B They argued that cycling would encourage women to get involved in a variety of noble causes. C They provided several reasons for a cross section of the female population to use the bicycle.
A It corrects a common misconception regarding the use of the bicycle in the mids. B It elaborates on a claim made in the previous sentence regarding a social consequence of the cycling boom.
C It provides a context in which to understand the increased popularity of bicycle riding among privileged women.
D It explains why cycling attracted such a significant cross section of women. E It describes the demographic characteristics of the consumer market for bicycles in the mids. Reading Comprehension Questions 6 to 9 are based on this passage. What causes a helix in nature to appear with either a dextral right-handed, or clockwise twist or a sinistral left-handed, or counterclockwise twist is one of the most intriguing puzzles in the science of form.
Most spiral-shaped snail species are Line predominantly dextral. But at one time, handedness twist direction of the shell was 5 equally distributed within some snail species that have become predominantly dextral or, in a few species, predominantly sinistral.
What mechanisms control handedness and keep left-handedness rare? It would seem unlikely that evolution should discriminate against sinistral snails if sinistral and dextral snails are exact mirror images, for any disadvantage that a sinistral 10 twist in itself could confer on its possessor is almost inconceivable.
But left- and right-handed snails are not actually true mirror images of one another. Their shapes are noticeably different. Sinistral rarity might, then, be a consequence of possible disadvantages conferred by these other concomitant structural features.
In addition, perhaps left- and right-handed snails cannot mate with each other, having 15 incompatible twist directions. Presumably an individual of the rarer form would have relative difficulty in finding a mate of the same hand, thus keeping the rare form rare or creating geographically separated right- and left-handed populations. But this evolutionary mechanism combining dissymmetry, anatomy, and chance does not provide an adequate explanation of why right-handedness should have 20 become predominant.
It does not explain, for example, why the infrequent unions between snails of opposing hands produce fewer offspring of the rarer than the commoner form in species where each parent contributes equally to handedness. Nor does it explain why, in a species where one parent determines handedness, a brood is not exclusively right- or left-handed when the offspring would have the same genetic 25 predisposition. In the European pond snail Lymnaea peregra, a predominantly dextral species whose handedness is maternally determined, a brood might be expected to be exclusively right- or left-handed—and this often occurs.
However, some broods possess a few snails of the opposing hand, and in predominantly sinistral broods, the incidence of dextrality is surprisingly high. In the case of Lymnaea peregra, studies indicate that a dextral gene is expressed during egg formation; i. In 35 experiments, an injection of cytoplasm from dextral eggs changes the pattern of sinistral eggs, but an injection from sinistral eggs does not influence dextral eggs.
One explanation for the differing effects is that all Lymnaea peregra eggs begin left-handed but most switch to being right-handed. Thus the path to a solution to the puzzle of handedness in all snails appears to be as twisted as the helix itself.
The second paragraph of the passage is primarily concerned with offering possible reasons why A it is unlikely that evolutionary mechanisms could discriminate against sinistral snails B sinistrality is relatively uncommon among snail species C dextral and sinistral populations of a snail species tend to intermingle D a theory based on a developmental mechanism inadequately accounts for the predominance of dextrality across snail species E dextral snails breed more readily than sinistral snails, even within predominantly sinistral populations 8.
Which of the following accurately describes the relationship between the evolutionary and developmental theories discussed in the passage? A Although the two theories reach the same conclusion, each is based on different assumptions.
B They present contradictory explanations of the same phenomenon. C The second theory accounts for certain phenomena that the first cannot explain. D The second theory demonstrates why the first is valid only for very unusual, special cases. E They are identical and interchangeable in that the second theory merely restates the first in less technical terms. Reading Comprehension Question 10 is based on this passage. Either van Gogh or another painter covered the first painting with the portrait now seen on the Line surface of the canvas.
Because the face of the woman in the underimage also appears on 5 canvases van Gogh is known to have painted, the surface painting must be an authentic self-portrait by van Gogh. The conclusion is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed? A If a canvas already bears a painted image produced by an artist, a second artist who uses the canvas to produce a new painting tends to be influenced by the style of the first artist.
B Many painted canvases that can be reliably attributed to van Gogh contain underimages of subjects that appear on at least one other canvas that van Gogh is known to have painted.
C Any painted canvas incorrectly attributed to van Gogh would not contain an underimage of a subject that appears in authentic paintings by that artist. D A painted canvas cannot be reliably attributed to an artist unless the authenticity of any underimage that painting might contain can be reliably attributed to the artist.
E A painted canvas cannot be reliably attributed to a particular artist unless a reliable x-ray examination of the painting is performed. Easy 1. Choice E: Choice B: Ragwort can supplant the plants normally eaten by cattle. People are unlikely to make a connection between a meal they have eaten and a subsequent illness unless the illness strikes a group who are in communication with one another.
Choice C: African American newspapers would have experienced constraints on their content similar to those experienced by large national dailies.
Choice A: They assumed that advertising in African American newspapers would not significantly increase the sales of their products. There was a steady decline in the yearly revenues generated by the energy tax in Frieland. They are more likely to sink and stir up deep waters than they would be if atmospheric temperatures were to increase. They rise to the surface more quickly than they would if global warming were to occur.
Changes in the amount of sea ice affect the degree of saltiness of the surface waters. Medium 1. When the store is open at night, the departments in the part of the store under the skylight have sales that are no higher than those of other departments. Choice D: The student recalls a line of Roman poetry in conjunction with a point learned about grammar.
Copies of many of the classical texts used by sixteenth-century teachers, including marginal notes describing the oral lessons that were based on the texts, can be found in museums today. The perceptibility of emotional responses to other humans offers some kind of benefit. It helps explain a possible role played by goose bumps in humans. His own life story Scarlet gilia plants with red flowers covered by day and scarlet gilia plants with white flowers covered at night remained unpollinated.
Hard 1. The origin is something other than supernovas in the Milky Way. AND Choice B: The origin is most likely something other than very distant quasars or gamma-ray bursts. AND Choice C: The origin is most likely no more than a little over million light- years away from Earth. It is a conclusion drawn in the course of refuting a potential explanation. Women bicyclists promoted cycling as a healthy form of outdoor exercise. They saw cycling as a means to promote the advancement of women.
They provided several reasons for a cross section of the female population to use the bicycle. It elaborates on a claim made in the previous sentence regarding a social consequence of the cycling boom. A smaller shell opening that restricts mobility and ingestion relative to that of a snail of the commoner form 7. The second theory accounts for certain phenomena that the first cannot explain.
Any painted canvas incorrectly attributed to van Gogh would not contain an underimage of a subject that appears in authentic paintings by that artist.
This points to Choice E as the correct answer choice. Nothing in the passage suggests that the proliferation of ragwort coincided with a decline in agriculture Choice A , occurred faster than it might have done Choice B , or made the plants more toxic Choice C. There is a suggestion that ragwort honey might not be safe for humans, but there is no indication that this made the timing of the proliferation particularly unfortunate.
Reading Comprehension For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply. Explanation Choice B is correct. The question asks about the problems ragwort poses to dairy farmers. Choice A is incorrect: The passage does not mention the effect of ragwort consumption on the milk produced by cows.
Choice B is correct: Question 3 is based on this passage. Reading Comprehension Explanation The question calls for an explanation of why more cases of reported food poisoning might be attributed to catering services than to restaurants. Choices A and B both provide reasons why restaurants should account for more cases, so they are incorrect. Choice C would suggest that there would be negligible differences between the likelihood of food poisoning at restaurants and at catered events, so it also sheds no light on the paradox and is therefore incorrect.
Since the argument does not pertain to the location of catered banquets, Choice D is incorrect. That leaves Choice E. People who attend banquets are more likely than restaurant patrons to be part of a group that communicates with one another, so Choice E would help explain the higher number of reported food poisonings and is the correct answer. Description The passage discusses challenges and opportunities faced by African American newspapers in the s. Reading Comprehension Explanation Choice C is correct.
The question asks about the consequences of more advertising in African American newspapers. The passage states that publishers of African American newspapers felt compelled to publish sports and society news even without any pressure from advertisers, so advertising revenue was not a factor in their editorial decisions.
Choice B is incorrect: The passage says that lack of advertising revenue made African American newspapers more expensive than the large national dailies, implying that if advertisers had downloadd space, the difference in price would have been smaller; but nothing in the passage supports the claim that African American newspapers would have been cheaper than the large national dailies.
Choice C is correct: Therefore Choice A is correct. Reading Comprehension Question 6 is based on this passage. Explanation Since the energy tax is based upon the number of units of nonrenewable energy consumed, and since the number of units of nonrenewable energy declined, revenues generated by the energy tax must have declined as well.
Choice A is therefore the correct answer. The passage gives no information on changes in the total amount of energy consumed, changes in the amount of energy from renewable sources that was used, or what revenues raised by the tax were used for, so all the other choices are incorrect.
Explanation Choice C is correct. The passage states that rising temperatures would decrease the amount of sea ice formed in the winter, and that this change would result in surface water that is less salty, and thus less likely to sink.
The current situation, then, results in the opposite: Choices A and D are incorrect because the passage gives no information about how fluctuating temperatures would affect less salty water or about the relationship between the Antarctic region and the rest of the planet. Choices B and E are incorrect because they are both the opposite of what the passage implies about surface waters in the current environment. Reading Comprehension 8. Explanation Choice A is correct. He must believe, then, that the water currently rises to the surface more quickly.
As for Choice B, while the passage indeed states that deep waters in Antarctica store heat, it also suggests that this heat would be less likely to reach the surface and worsen global warming. Choice B is therefore incorrect. Choice E is incorrect because it contradicts information given in the passage. Explanation Choice E is correct: Choice A is incorrect because the passage does not compare current amounts of sea ice with past quantities; it instead proposes a hypothetical scenario involving a possible future decline of sea ice formation.
Explanation The passage compares sales of items in the sunlit part of the store with sales of items in the artificially lit part of the store and concludes that since the former are greater than the latter, the presence of sunlight increases sales.
The assumption underlying this argument is that the only significant difference between the two parts of the store is the presence of sunlight—otherwise, the inherent popularity of goods sold in different locations, or some other factor, might account for the increased sales.
Choice B helps rule out the possibility that other factors might be involved, by showing that sales are no greater when the sunlight is taken out of the equation. Therefore it is the correct answer. Choices D and E both suggest that factors besides sunlight might explain the discrepancy between sales; therefore they weaken rather than strengthen the argument, and so are incorrect.
Neither Choice A nor Choice C point to differences between the two areas of the store; therefore they are both incorrect as well. Reading Comprehension Questions 2 to 4 are based on this passage.
These were chosen by Renaissance teachers after 5 much deliberation, for works written by and for the sophisticated adults of pagan Rome were not always considered suitable for the Renaissance young: Description The passage contrasts the way in which Renaissance scholars studied and contextualized classic Roman texts with the ways in which students of the era were taught snippets of Latin excerpted from them.
The methods and motives of Renaissance teachers are explained, and the passage concludes by asserting that this pedagogical practice prevents modern readers from understanding the meanings that such snippets held for most Renaissance readers. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing the A unsuitability of the Roman classics for the teaching of morality B approach that sixteenth-century scholars took to learning the Roman classics C effect that the Roman classics had on educated people in the Renaissance D way in which the Roman classics were taught in the sixteenth century E contrast between the teaching of the Roman classics in the Renaissance and the teaching of the Roman classics today Explanation The passage focuses primarily on the way Roman classics were taught during the Renaissance, so Choice D is the correct answer.
The approach that sixteenth-century scholars took is mentioned, but it serves only to introduce and contrast with the pedagogical methods used in schools; therefore Choice B is incorrect. Choices C and E are also incorrect, since the passage does not discuss the effect of Roman classics on educated Renaissance people or the teaching of Roman classics today.
The passage specifically mentions syntax as one of the subjects that the pieces of text served to illustrate; therefore it is logical that students would associate the text with the grammar point it was used to teach. Choices B and D are incorrect because the passage implies that students were not given the context or tools to place Roman classics in context, or to read and master large portions of works.
Choices C and E are also incorrect, since the passage makes no mention of Latin composition being taught, or of any differences in the ways in which Roman poetry and prose were treated in schools. Explanation The passage asserts that modern readers cannot know the associations Roman poetry had for Renaissance readers, because those associations arose from the specific ways Roman texts were presented in schools.
This assertion assumes that there is no way for modern readers to know how such texts were taught during the Renaissance. Choice D shows a way that scholars can recover this pedagogical context and is therefore the correct choice. Explanation The passage addresses the question of why the pilomotor reflex has survived in human beings despite the fact that its original functions—to insulate and to appear larger to predators—are no longer useful. This assumes that the ability to send such a signal is useful to human beings; therefore Choice B is correct.
Reading Comprehension Explanation The next-to-last sentence says that goose bumps in humans now serve as an outward sign of strong emotion. If so, this would explain how they could have taken on another role, so Choice E is correct. The sentence does not make a distinction Choice A , correct a misconception Choice B , suggest any reason for the connection between emotion and goose bumps Choice C , or suggest that flushing and goose bumps sig- nal the same state Choice D.
Questions 7 to 10 are based on this passage. Frederick Douglass was unquestionably the most famous African American of the nineteenth century; indeed when he died in he was among the most distinguished public figures in the United States. Reading Comprehension Description The passage discusses the views of the nineteenth-century African American intellectual Frederick Douglass and asserts their continuing relevance to the issues of the modern era.
This indicates that Choice E is correct. This points to Choice E as correct. Reading Comprehension 9. Thus Choice A is correct. Explanation The results reported in the last sentence of the passage suggest that hummingbirds do pollinate red-flowered plants and that hawkmoths do pollinate white-flowered plants. Choice D states that such plants remain unpollinated, so it is the correct answer.
Of the other options, both Choices C and E could suggest the opposite of what is required, so they are incorrect. Choice A is incorrect because the comparative frequency at which uncovered gilia flowers are pollinated has no bearing on the argument. Likewise, the presence of some quantity of unpollinated flowers of either color does not affect the argument, so Choice B is also incorrect. Description The passage discusses two hypotheses about the origins of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays UHECRs and presents evidence suggesting that both hypotheses are probably false.
Explanation All three choices are correct. The question asks about claims the author would agree with. Choice A is correct: Reading Comprehension Explanation The last sentence is the conclusion of an argument in the last half of the passage; it puts a constraint on the possible origin of UHECRs relative to Earth and thereby rules out the possibility, mentioned earlier in the passage, that distant quasars and gamma-ray bursts could be the origin of UHECRs. Therefore Choice C is correct.
Questions 3 to 5 are based on this passage. Description The passage discusses the widespread popularity of bicycling among women in the s and mentions several reasons why this activity was seen as beneficial for women.
The question asks which of three statements about women cyclists are supported by the passage. Explanation Choices A and C are correct. The question asks what the passage suggests about pioneer women cyclists.
The passage states that bicycle pioneers saw cycling itself as a noble cause but does not mention any other noble causes to which cycling would lead.
Choice C is correct. The passage mentions that pioneer women cyclists saw at least two independent reasons for all women to use bicycles: Since the influx of women cyclists is the social consequence of the cycling boom mentioned in the previous sentence, the highlighted sentence describes this consequence in more detail.
Therefore, Choice B is correct. The second sentence does not correct any misconceptions Choice A , provide help in understanding the appeal of the bicycle to privileged women Choice C , explain the attraction cycling held for a significant cross section of women Choice D , or describe demographic characteristics of the consumer market for bicycles Choice E.
Description The passage addresses the question of what determines the dextral clockwise or sinistral counterclockwise shape of snail shells and discusses two possible explanations of the distributional patterns of shell shapes in snail populations: Evidence against the evolutionary theory is presented, and the developmental theory is offered as a more plausible explanation.
Reading Comprehension 6. A A shell and body that are an exact mirror image of a snail of the commoner form B A smaller population of the snails of the rarer form C A chip or fracture in the shell caused by an object falling on it D A pattern on the shell that better camouflages it E A smaller shell opening that restricts mobility and ingestion relative to that of a snail of the commoner form Explanation Choice A is incorrect: Choice D is incorrect, as better camouflage is an advantage, not a disadvantage.
The correct answer is Choice E: Thus Choice B is correct. The paragraph starts by dismissing the idea that evolution could be working against left-handedness itself, but Choice A is incorrect because the paragraph is not concerned with offering reasons for that dismissal. The paragraph does not even suggest that opposite-handed populations tend to intermingle Choice C or that dextral snails breed more rapidly Choice E , and it does not discuss developmental mechanisms Choice D.
Explanation The correct answer is Choice C. The next paragraph offers an alternative theory developmental that seems to do a better job of explaining these outcomes. Choices A, C, D, and E give plausible reasons for why this might happen: Therefore, the correct answer is Choice B: This argument assumes that another artist would not have painted over the original image of the woman, so the correct answer is Choice C.
The sets are arranged in order of increasing difficulty, one easy, one medium, and one hard. Each explanation is pre- sented with the corresponding question, so that you can easily see what was asked and what the various answer choices were. Sharpen your GRE Verbal Reasoning skills by working your way through these ques- tion sets, remembering to use the Tips for Answering given in Chapter 2. Easy For each of Questions 1 to 9, select one entry for each blank from the corresponding column of choices.
This composer has never courted popularity: A ignore B discount C woo D teach E cow 2. The sight of a single actor portraying several characters in the same scene is no longer a shock to the average moviegoer, such special-effects trickery having become so. A expensive B specialized C sinister D commonplace E unreliable 3.
Early studies often concluded that the public was the propagandistic influence of mass communications, but one recent study indicates that, on the contrary, mass communications seldom produce marked changes in social attitudes or actions. A unaware of B scornful of C susceptible to D unimpressed by E coping with 4. That the pair won when their rivals were ii too is also impressive. Text Completion 5. In his initial works, the playwright made physical disease i factor in the action; from this, his early critics inferred that he had a predilection for focusing on ii subject matter.
Most of the vertebrates have been assessed, but our challenge will be the assessment of invertebrates and plants. This task is ii not only because of the high number of species, but also because of the diversity, each species requiring a different approach. Nevertheless, independent analysts argue that those statistics are iii. These analysts maintain that the company has consistently underestimated both the probability and the likely effects of accidents in the sensitive and poorly understood environment in which the company is operating.
Researchers trying to make it possible to trace counterfeit documents to the printer that produced them are i the fact that the rotating drums and mirrors inside laser printers are imperfect devices that leave unique patterns of banding in their output. Although these patterns are ii to the naked eye, they can be iii and analyzed by computer programs that the researchers have spent the past year devising. Text Completion 9.
In her startlingly original writing, she went further than any other twentieth- century author in English perhaps in any language in i literary language and form, ii stylistic conventions, and iii a rich and diverse structure of meaning. Medium For each of Questions 1 to 8, select one entry for each blank from the corresponding column of choices. The media once portrayed the governor as anything but ineffective; they now, however, make her out to be the epitome of.
A fecklessness B brilliance C dynamism D egoism E punctiliousness 2. For most of the first half of the nineteenth century, science at the university was in state, despite the presence of numerous luminaries. A a scintillating B a pathetic C a controversial D an incendiary E a veracious 3. In a recent history of the Renaissance, by showing how the artistic efflorescence of that era was i linked to its commercial vitality, Jardine demonstrated that the spirit of acquisitiveness may be ii that of cultural creativity.
The setting in which the concert took place i: The governor has long been obsessed with excising the media from the politician- public relationship.
Female labor was essential to the growth of eighteenth-century European textile industries, yet it remains difficult to i. Despite significant ii in research about women, the role of female labor remains the single most glaring omission in most economic analyses of the history of European industrialization. Women far outnumbered men as workers in the textile industries, yet wage indices and discussions of growth, cost of living, and the like iii about the male labor force.
It is a sad but just indictment of some high school history textbooks that they frequently report as i claims that historians hotly debate or that are even completely ii by iii primary sources. The reason minimum temperatures are going up more rapidly than maximums may involve cloud cover and evaporative cooling. Greater amounts of moisture in the soil from additional precipitation and cloudiness ii the daytime temperature increases because part of the solar energy is iii the evaporation of that moisture.
Hard For each of Questions 1 to 8, select one entry for each blank from the corresponding column of choices. In searching for norms in the sense of authoritative standards of what ought to be, rather than in the sense of what is average and thus can be considered normal, normative ethics aims to. A predict B mitigate C question D dictate E personalize 2. When she first came to France from Bulgaria, she was hardly the student she later made herself out to be, since she had access to considerable family wealth.
Researchers have observed chimpanzees feigning injury in order to influence other members of the group, thus showing that the capacity to is not uniquely human. A cooperate B instruct C conspire D dissemble E dominate 4.
Instant celebrity is often i asset because if there is no ii to interest the public—no stage or screen triumphs, no interesting books, no heroic exploits—people quickly become bored.
At their best, i book reviews are written in defense of value and in the tacit hope that the author, having had his or her ii pointed out, might secretly agree that the book could be improved.
Thus, to miss out on what our orchestras are up to is not to ii much. The serious study of popular culture by intellectuals is regularly credited with having rendered obsolete a once-dominant view that popular culture is inherently inferior to high art.
Yet this alteration of attitudes may be somewhat i. Although it is now academically respectable to analyze popular culture, the fact that many intellectuals feel compelled to rationalize their own ii action movies or mass-market fiction reveals, perhaps unwittingly, their continued iii the old hierarchy of high and low culture. Thus the correct answer is woo Choice C. A expensive B specialized C sinister D commonplace E unreliable Explanation The blank calls for a term that would explain why the special effects that once aston- ished moviegoers no longer do so.
None of the other options suggests a change that would result in desensitizing moviegoers to the special effects on-screen.
Thus the correct answer is commonplace Choice D. Text Completion 3. A unaware of B scornful of C susceptible to D unimpressed by E coping with Explanation The recent study found that mass communications had negligible effects on the public. Thus the correct answer is susceptible to Choice C. Thus the correct answer is irksome Choice B and terrific Choice D.
Thus the correct answer is complete Choice B and daunting Choice F. Blank i must then be answered with a choice that reflects the more positive view of accident prevention that deceptive statistics might provide.
Finally, the word for Blank ii describes something related to potentially dangerous incidents that would indicate improved safety if it were to decline.
Text Completion 8. The answers to Blank ii and Blank iii must therefore reflect this contrast. Blank i calls for a characterization of the relationship between the researchers and the inevitability of imperfections in printing technology.
Therefore each blank must be filled with a word that reflects innovative rather than conventional ways of writing. It follows that the phrase completed by the blank will have the opposite meaning. To be the epitome of something is to be representative of that trait, so the blank must be filled with a word that implies incompetence. Thus, the correct answer is fecklessness Choice A. A a scintillating B a pathetic C a controversial D an incendiary E a veracious Explanation Since the presence of numerous luminaries, a positive thing, is portrayed as a factor that runs counter to the general state of science at the university, that general state must be negative.
Therefore the word that fills the blank must describe a generally negative at- mosphere. Thus the correct answer is a pathetic Choice B. Thus the correct answer is intimately Choice B and inseparable from Choice E. Furthermore, the quality of the sound must be in contrast with the apparent energy of the performers.
Thus the correct answer is exacted a toll Choice A and tepid Choice E. Thus the correct answer is erode Choice B and end Choice F. Blank i Blank ii Blank iii A track D advances G incorporate data only B overestimate E gaps H suppress most information C ignore F disinterest I too rarely talk Explanation The second sentence asserts that the role of women is generally left out from most analyses of industrialization.