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It is defined as three for this demonstration, but can be changed to eliminate conflicts if necessary. It is set at the maximum size of 64 bytes to provide maxi- mum potential throughput, but it can be changed to any of 8, 16, 32, or 64 bytes if needed. It is set at the maximum size of 64 bytes to provide maximum potential throughput, but it can be changed to any of 8, 16, 32, or 64 bytes if needed. Keep in mind that, in a USB environment, communication occurs at speeds defined by the USB protocol and most hosts will set the line coding parameters as desired.
None the less, the default values reported can be changed by changing the following macros.
In general terms, customizing the demo application is a three-step process. Modify the main application. Modify the application-specific USB support. Configure USB stack options. Implement and test any non-USB application-specific support desired.
Alternately, copy the demo application, rename the project and applica- tion files as desired, and add any non-USB code required.
Then, call USBTasks in a loop as shown in the example application. It is vital that no code executed within the main polling loop blocks or waits on anything taking longer then a few microseconds. If greater customization is required, the developer can design and implement a custom USB function driver. However, doing so is beyond the scope of this docu- ment. The most important changes are related to the descriptor table. Unless additional USB-function behavior is added, no additional descriptors should be needed.
This section will discuss changes that will need to be made to these descriptors when modifying the application. Modifying the Device Descriptor The device descriptor provides information that applies to the overall device. This includes the device class, vendor and product ID numbers, the number of config- urations, and endpoint zero information. The following are key fields that may need to be changed when designing a new CDC serial device.
If the size of the Endpoint zero buffer is changed, this field must be changed as well. Each vendor is responsible for allo- cating and tracking PIDs for products it pro- duces.
It should be changed to match the revision of the product design. String Indices: The iManufacturer, iProduct, and iSeri- alNum fields contain indices into the string descriptor table to string descriptors that describe the manufacturer, product and serial number in Unicode strings. Those string descriptors will need to be changed to provide appropriate descriptions for the product, but the index numbers placed in the device descriptor do not need to change unless the positions of these descriptors in the table are changed.
All of the other fields should remain the same unless very major changes are being made to the application such as adding additional configurations. Modifying the Configuration Descriptor The sample code implements a single configuration.
Thus, there is only one set of configuration-specific descriptors, beginning with a single configuration descriptor. The configuration descriptor is defined using the follow- ing data type: This field indicates the amount of current required for the device to operate in this config- uration.
The value placed in the descriptor is one-half of the desired current. So a value of 50 represents a maximum draw of mA for this configuration of the device to operate properly.
Each increment in this value indicates in incre- ment of 2 mA in the maximum current draw. A USB device may request a maxi- mum of mA from the bus, but low- power hosts or hubs may only be able to supply a maximum of mA from the bus. If your device is intended to oper- ate with such a host, be sure that it only draws the amount of current sup- ported by that host.
It provides a num- ber identifying the interface, the class information for the interface, and the number of endpoints required for the interface. The interface descriptor is defined using the following data type: However, the two fields discussed below may be of interest.
However, if additional USB functional- ity is integrated with this application, you may need to change the interface number for the CDC communication management interface by changing this value to allow the host to uniquely identify each interface in the device. No sample string descriptor was provided or required for this interface.
If you desire to add one, its index in the string descriptor table will need to be placed in this location. The only changes to these descriptors that may be necessary are changes to the values that indicate which interface numbers are used for the CDC function.
These changes are only necessary if changes were made to the interface ID numbers for either the communication management interface or the data class interface. Any other changes may cause the host to expect behavior that is not supported by the CDC function driver and may induce errors. This number indicates to the host which inter- face will be used as the master communication interface, primarily used for device notifications. It will need to be changed if the ID of the com- munication management interface was changed.
The slave interface is the bulk transfer data interface. If the ID of the data interface was changed then this number will need to be changed as well. This value should be the same as the bSlaveIntf0 value. It is duplicated in the call management functional descriptor to indicate that call management is embedded into the data stream. However, no call management capabili- ties are identified. Modifying the Notification Endpoint Descriptor The notification endpoint descriptor identifies the type of transfer supported by the endpoint, its direction, buffer size and polling period.
The descriptor may need to be changed if there is some reason to change which endpoint is used. The values identified below are the ones most likely to be changed. Changing others may cause the endpoint to stop functioning as required. Endpoint descriptors are defined by the following data type. This value identifies which endpoint is used for notifications to the host.
As mentioned above, it may be changed if there is a conflict with any additional USB functions integrated with this application. This value indicates to the host what the size of the buffer is that is associated with the notifica- tion endpoint. This buffer only needs to be large enough to send a CDC notification 8 bytes.
However, if some application has a need to send larger notifications, then this value could be increased to 16, 32, or This value determines the polling interval in mil- liseconds, from 1 to for the notification end- point. As an interrupt transfer endpoint, it is regularly polled by the host for data. This polling frequency could be modified to match the needs of the application.
The communication device class def- inition allows for devices with multiple data interfaces. Thus, this descriptor can be expanded to include additional slave interface ID values. However, this implementation only uses slave Interface zero 0. If any changes to these interface ID numbers are made by changing the values of these macros, then the changes to the union func- tional and call management func- tional descriptors will happen automatically.
If the endpoint number is changed by changing the value of this macro, then the bEndpointAddress value in the notifi- cation endpoint descriptor will be changed automatically. It is important that the direction and trans- fer type do not change or the CDC function driver will not work.
DSA-page 19 AN Modifying the Data Interface Descriptor The data interface descriptor provides the number identifying the data interface, the class information, and the number of endpoints. Normally, there will be no need to change any fields in the data interface descriptor. However, if additional USB functionality is being integrated with the applica- tion, the following fields may need to be changed.
No two USB interfaces may have the same interface number unless one is an alternate set- ting of the other. So, if additional USB function- ality is integrated with this application, you may need to change the interface number for the data interface by changing this value to allow the host to uniquely identify each interface in the device.
No sample string descriptor was provided or required for the data interface. If you desire to add one, its index in the string descriptor table will need to be placed this value. Modifying the Data Endpoint Descriptor The data endpoint is used in both directions to transmit and receive data. Thus, it has two endpoint descriptors.
Like the notification endpoint descriptor, the data end- point descriptors identify the type of transfer, direction, and buffer size. Unlike the notification endpoint, the data endpoints support the bulk transfer protocol.
Thus, there is no polling period it is specified as zero. Refer to Figure 8 for the data type used to define the data endpoint descriptors. This value identifies which endpoints are used for data transfer to-and-from the host.
This may be changed if there is a conflict with any addi- tional USB functions integrated with this applica- tion. If the endpoint numbers are changed by chang- ing the value of this macro, then the bEndpointAddress values in the data end- point descriptors will be changed automatically. This value indicates to the host what the sizes of the buffers are that are associated with the data endpoints. These values could be 8, 16, 32, or 64, according to the needs of the application.
Smaller buffers would consume less memory space on the device and larger buffers would provide greater data throughput efficiency. Refer to Figure 7 for the data type used to define this descriptor. It is important that the transfer type not be changed or the CDC function driver will not work. Instead, it uses the applica- tion-defined buffers for all transfers via data endpoints. AN DSA-page 20!
Modifying the String Descriptors The string descriptor table provides human-readable information in Unicode strings that help the host repre- sent the device to the user. Strings may be supported in many different languages.
The first entry in the string descriptor table identifies the list of languages supported. The example only supports English United States.
In the example code, string descriptors are provided for the vendor description, product description, and serial number. Each of these should be changed to represent the application being developed.
The table also identifies which function driver will service events that occur for each endpoint. The only exception is that Endpoint zero is configured automatically by the USB device stack and is not included in the endpoint configuration table. Normally, the endpoint configuration table will not need to be modified. However, if additional USB functionality is integrated with this application, then additional entries will need to be added.
Each entry in the table consists of the fol- lowing data structure: This field defines how many bytes this endpoint can transfer in a single packet.
This field provides the information used to con- figure the behavior of the endpoint. The following flags are defined: This field identifies which endpoint the structure describes.
Every device should have a unique serial number, or only one such device can be attached to a given host at a time. Also, the host system may require the user to re-install the driver software every time the device is connected to a different USB port; rather then just once, when the device is first connected. These fields identify which device configuration, interface and alternate interface setting uses the configuration described in this structure.
It does this by providing the index into the function driver table. The only reason to modify the function driver table is if the application is modified to integrate another USB function.
Each new driver supported will require an entry of its own in the table. Of course, the CDC func- tion must have an entry as well if it is used. The following data structure defines an entry in the function-driver table.
The initialization routine is called when the host chooses the device configuration appropriate to the function driver identified by the entry given in the table. When called, the initialization routine is passed the flags parameter which is ignored by the CDC driver. Some of the information contained in the endpoint configuration table duplicates information defined in the descriptor table. This redundancy is required to eliminate the additional code that would otherwise need to parse the descriptor table to retrieve the information.
However, it does place a burden on the programmer to ensure the two tables are coherent.
Refer to Appendix A: To ensure that the USB stack is built so that it behaves like a USB device, be sure this macro is defined no value required. This macro indicates the highest endpoint number used by the function. In the case of the CDC serial driver, it is defined as three 3 , since Endpoint 3 is used for the data interface. This value may be changed to integrate additional USB functionality that required additional endpoints.
This macro must be defined if the application supports alternate settings for any of its USB interfaces. Since the CDC serial driver does not use alternate interface settings, this should not be changed unless this appli- cation is integrated with another application that does require alternate interface settings. Endpoint zero can support buffer sizes of 8, 16, 32, or 64 bytes. For the CDC serial driver, this value is defined as eight 8 bytes. A very small decrease in the time necessary to enumerate the device could be obtained by increasing this to one of the larger sizes at the cost of additional RAM dedicated to the Endpoint zero buffer.
The USB firmware stack only allocates buffer space for Endpoint 0. The macros are described below: This is the routine that provides the address and size of a requested descriptor.
This is the routine that provides the address of the endpoint configuration table as well as the number of entries it contains. This is the routine that provides the address of the function driver table. These options may be changed depending on the needs of the intended application.
Since the CDC driver only supports a single configuration, this value should not need to be changed unless this appli- cation is integrated with additional USB functionality with multiple configurations. This macro defines the interface ID value of the communication management interface. Its value should not change unless additional USB func- tionality is integrated with the application. This macro defines the endpoint number of the notification endpoint used as part of the commu- nication management interface.
It could be changed to optimize endpoint and memory usage or if this application is integrated with another USB function and there are conflicts in the endpoints used. This macro defines the size in bytes of the end- point buffer used for CDC notifications. It should not change unless there is a need for larger notification data.
This macro defines the ID of the data interface. Its value should not change unless additional USB functionality is integrated with the applica- tion. This macro defines the endpoint number used by the bulk data interface. It could be changed to optimize endpoint and memory usage or to resolve endpoint conflicts if this application is integrated with other USB functionality.
It affects the size of data packets received from host. It is set at the maximum of 64 bytes to maximize data through- put. However, it could be reduced to 8, 16, or 32 in order to reduce RAM requirements for data buffering. It affects the size of data packets sent transmitted to the host.
It is set at the maximum of 64 bytes to maximize data throughput. The USB firmware stack does not allo- cate the buffer space for any endpoint except Endpoint zero.
It will change the packet sizes in which data is transferred to or from the host. However, the use of these parameters is completely up to the application.
They do not effect the communication over USB. Also, the host will most likely send new line coding parameters as part of enumeration. This routine is called by the CDC serial driver asynchronously when the line coding changes or when encapsulated communications com- mands are received from the host.
If the device is intended to be bus powered, this macro should not be defined.
If it does not, this macro should not be defined. AN DSA-page 26! Usually, implementing a USB device would require the development of firmware to handle USB protocols for device identification, control, and data transfer.
The sample code provided only requires minor modifications to adapt it to most applications that would otherwise use a traditional UART. This allows the device designer to provide a solution that lets the end user enjoy the benefits of the USB with minimal effort. AN DSA-page 28! None Valid Values: Device configuration numbers must begin at one 1.
Interface ID numbers must begin at zero 0 and must not conflict with any other active interface on the same device. Endpoint numbers must be between one Endpoint 0 is dedicated and 15, inclusive, and must not be used more then once in per direction. Normal use of this endpoint dictates it be defined as eight 8 bytes.
This macro must be defined as 8, 16, 32, or Interface ID numbers must begin at zero, and must not conflict with any other active interface on the same device. The following options are all defined by the application. Thus, the example for each is also the default as defined by the demo application.
Allo- cating unused endpoints in this range will cause unused memory to be allocated. Endpoint numbers must be between one Endpoint 0 is dedicated and 15, inclusive, and must not be used more then once in per direction..