Disadvantages. – Cannot connect different network architectures, such as Token Ring and Ethernet. – Do not reduce network traffic. • They repeat everything. All but the most basic of networks require devices to provide connectivity and functionality. Understanding how these networking devices operate and identifying. Repeater – A repeater operates at the physical layer. Its job is to regenerate the signal over the same network before the signal becomes too weak or corrupted.
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perhaps the most simple and common network device used today: the hub. Hubs are simple network devices, and their simplicity is reflected in their low cost. This tutorial explains the functions of the most common and the essential networking devices (such as Hub, Switch, Router, Bridge, Modem. Hub is one of the basic icons of networking devices which works at physical layer and hence connect networking devices physically together. Hubs are.
SWITCH: The Switch is the star of the network, it is the most active device, in charge of making sure that frames go where they need to go. You should also know about how a Switch communicates.
This means that each one of its ports is able to send and receive data at the same time and this is because in Full-Duplex communication, two wires inside the network cable are used, one for transmitting and the other for receiving. This communication type makes it impossible for Collision to occur. Vlans is a topic for future discussions and it is not needed to understand the function and inner workings of a Switch.
A networked device that has the physical address of Type: How this MAC address was learned.
Ports: On which port the frame came into the Switch. This is the final piece of information needed. Now the Switch knows that a device with MAC address So, from now on, when the Switch receives a frame destined for Switches are used to connect network devices, like this: Now, notice that the Switch is connected to a Router.
The Router, if needed, is used to get out of the local network LAN and access a different network. A Router receives a packet and examines the destination IP address information to determine what network the packet needs to reach, and then sends the packet out of the corresponding interface.
In the picture above, we have two different networks, that is Network A and Network B. In order for these two networks to be able to communicate with each other, a Router is needed to connect both networks. When Router receives the packet, it examines the destination IP address contained in the packet and looks at its Routing Table to see if it knows where the destination network is located.
In this case, it finds an entry in its Routing Table that says that network If the network was learned through a Routing Protocol NOT directly connected , these lines will start with a different code 4.
Finally, it shows to what interfaces are these networks connected 5. So for example, the first lines reads; Network It is a 2 port device. A hub connects multiple wires coming from different branches, for example, the connector in star topology which connects different stations.
Hubs cannot filter data, so data packets are sent to all connected devices.
In other words, collision domain of all hosts connected through Hub remains one. Also, they do not have intelligence to find out best path for data packets which leads to inefficiencies and wastage.
Types of Hub Active Hub :- These are the hubs which have their own power supply and can clean , boost and relay the signal along the network.
It serves both as a repeater as well as wiring center. These are used to extend maximum distance between nodes.
Passive Hub :- These are the hubs which collect wiring from nodes and power supply from active hub. Bridge — A bridge operates at data link layer. A bridge is a repeater, with add on functionality of filtering content by reading the MAC addresses of source and destination.
It is also used for interconnecting two LANs working on the same protocol. It has a single input and single output port, thus making it a 2 port device.
These bridges makes use of two processes i. Source Routing Bridges :- In these bridges, routing operation is performed by source station and the frame specifies which route to follow. The hot can discover frame by sending a specical frame called discovery frame, which spreads through the entire network using all possible paths to destination.