View and download Approaches to Translation aracer.mobi on DocDroid. Newmark. Peter. A textbook of translation. 1. Translating and interpreting I hope you will read this book in conjunction with its predecessor, Approaches to. approaches to problems when emphasis is given to areas of meaning such as Chapter 3 presents Newmark's specific contribution to translation theory.
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Translation Translation is a complicated task, during which the meaning of the source-language text should be conveyed to the target-language readers. In other words, translation can be defined as encoding the meaning and form in the target language by means of the decoded meaning and form of the source language. Different theorists state various definitions for translation. The definition of general translation When a translator translates a text literally, translation strategies may not be needed.
It is necessary to understand the concept of translation as mentioned by many translation theorists to obtain an overall picture of the translation process.
Some of these concepts quoted by Jiraphatralikhit, Kaewjan, Klinpoon, Visitwanit 7 are as follows: Bensoussan states that translation is closely related to the reading process. Hatim and Mason suggest that translation is a process involving the negotiation of meaning between producers and receivers of the text. Picken defines that general translation is a method of transferring oral and written messages from writing to speech or from one language to another.
Larson states that in general translation communicates, as much as possible, the same meaning that was understood by the speakers of the source language, using the normal language form of the receptor language, while maintaining the dynamics of the original source language text.
She also expresses that the goal of a translator should be to produce a receptor language text a translation that is idiomatic; i.
Bell views translation as the replacement of a text in one language by an equivalent text in another language. Also, he views translation as a science, a skill, an art, and a matter of taste. Kelly defines translation as the skill of understanding the source text and rendering it in the target language by using the register, the background knowledge, and other language resources according to the intended purpose. Therefore, a translator is a mediator of the two languages and cultures who can transfer the SL to the TL.
What has been discussed above relates to translation theory, which identifies translation problems and recommends the most appropriate procedure for translation in order to solve the identified problems. So, translation can be explained as a decision-making process and a problem-solving task.
It is also a complicated task during which the translator encounters some problems or problematic issues which require observation, identification and finding the suitable solution. The means by which the translator deals with these problems are calledstrategies. Finding the adequate strategy for solving the above-mentioned problems takes place in the decision-making process. Translation strategies 2. What is a strategy? A list of more general definitions of the word strategy is given below: A strategy is a long-term plan of actions designed to achieve a particular goal Wikipedia Committee, n.
A systematic plan, consciously adapted and mentioned, to improve one's learning performance Instruction Curriculum Reading Glossary, n. A strategy is a planned, deliberate, goal-oriented has an identifiable outcome procedure achieved with a sequence of steps subject to monitoring and modification Curriculum Learning Literate-Futures Glossary, n. A set of explicit mental and behavioral steps used to achieve a specific outcome Deep Trance, n.
Clearly, these definitions are general and can be related to different fields of study. This study mainly concerns translation strategies, although the above-mentioned definitions can be narrowed down to this research field, as well.
Translation strategies have their own characteristics, through which one can gain an appropriate understanding of them. Bergen n. Therefore, problem-solving is the most important function of the strategies. Translation problems According to Dr. Lexical problems In the interpretation of lexical problems, Miremadi states that, although words are entities that refer to objects or concepts, a word in one language may not be substituted with a word in another language when referring to the same concepts or objects.
Lexical meaning Lexical meaning refers to words or phrases which seem to be equivalen, although in that situation this may not be the case; the translator must be aware of the intention beyond the words in order not to misrepresent the author's message. Metaphorical expression This subcategory refers to the problematic issues of translating idioms and similar expressions. Broeik quoted by Dr. Miremadi offers the following suggestions for translating idiomatic expressions: a Distinguishing between ordinary expressions and metaphors b Having access to the resources of translating a single metaphor c Being aware of different contexts and their constraints on using metaphors d Correctly realizing the constraints on the translation, and rendering the message.
The close equivalents may be found, although the exact equivalent cannot. According to Dr. Miremadi mentioned, that this case occurs when the systems of lexicalization of shared expressions are different from each other. Proper names The last but not the least sub-category in this group is the problem of proper names.
Although proper names refer to individuals and can be transcribed from one language into another, sometimes the specific meaning that they carry, which do not exist in the target speech community, may be lost e. Syntactic problems Syntactic problems are the other main category of translation problems; as Dr.
Miremadi quoted Nida , one can find no two languages that have the exact identical systems of structural organizations i. These differences include: Languages differ from each other in the internal word formation of language classification.
Grammatical relations This difference exists among the languages in the way that a constituent of a sentence functions within that sentence. Word order Style Pragmatic aspects Considering all these problems, a translator is expected to convey the message of the source text to target readers; however, there is no completely exact translation between any two languages and as Dr.
Miremadi quoted Werner , the degree of approximation between two language systems determines the effectiveness of the translation. Translation strategies' typologies Different scholars suggest various types, categorizations and classifications for the strategies according to their particular perspectives.
Here, some of these typologies are mentioned.
Chesterman , as Bergen n. As Chesterman believes, the general characteristics of translation strategies are as follows: 1. They involve text manipulation. They must be applied to the process. They are goal-oriented.
They are problem-centered. They are applied consciously. They are inter-subjective. It means the strategies must be empirical and understandable for the readers not the person who used them. Different scholars have various perspectives to the aspects of the act of translation, so, they define and describe different types of strategies.
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Peter Newmark. He was one of the main figures in the founding of Translation Studies in the English-speaking world in twentieth century. He was also very influential in the Spanish-speaking world. He is widely read through a series of accessible and occasionally polemical works: He w He was one of the main figures in the founding of Translation Studies in the English-speaking world in twentieth century. He was associated with the founding and development of the Centre for Translation Studies at Surrey.
He was chair of the editorial board of the Journal of Specialised Translation. Other books in the series. Language Teaching Methodology 1 - 10 of 49 books. Books by Peter Newmark. Pergamon Press, Language teaching methodology series. Print book: Subjects Translating and interpreting. Find a copy online Links to this item Table of contents Table of contents.
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