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Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics. Instructor Available for free as a PDF file. A not-too- Dynamics: An Introductory Text. Boston. Atmosphere, ocean, and climate dynamics: an introductory text/editors .. a book about fluid dynamics illustrated by atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. For advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in atmospheric, oceanic, and climate science, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics is an.
Vegetation-climate interaction. How vegetation makes the global environment. Curry J. Webster Thermodynamics of atmosphere and oceans. International Geophysics series, volume Academic Press, pp. Denman, K. Brasseur, A. Chidthaisong, P. Ciais, P. Cox, R. Dickinson, D. Hauglustaine, C. Heinze, E. Holland, D. Jacob, U. Lohmann, S Ramachandran, P. Wofsy and X. Zhang Solomon, S. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. Averyt, M. Tignor and H. Miller Eds. Fasullo, J.
Trenberth, The annual cycle of the energy budget. Part II: Meridional structures and poleward transports. Climate Hartmann D. Global physical climatology.
IPCC Climate Change The Physical Basis. Kalnay, E. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society Kiehl J. Trenberth Earth's annual global mean energy budget. Marshall J. Plumb Atmosphere, ocean and climate dynamics: an introductory text. International Geophysics, volume Millero F. Alan, QC A8A During thistime, many people, especially the students taking the class and those assisting in its teaching,have contributed to the evolution of the material and to the correction of errors in both thetext and the problem sets.
Responsibility for the accuracy of the final text rests, of course, with the authors alone. John Marshall and R. Alan Plumb This page intentionally left blank Contents 0. Characteristics of the atmosphere 1 1. The global energy balance 9 2. The vertical structure of the atmosphere 23 3. Convection 31 4. The meridional structure of the atmosphere 61 5. The general circulation of the atmosphere 8. The ocean and its circulation 9. The wind-driven circulation The thermohaline circulation of the ocean Climate and climate variability It has been written for undergraduate students who have no priorknowledge of meteorology and oceanography or training in fluid mechanics.
We believethat the text will also be of use to beginning graduate students in the field of atmospheric,oceanic, and climate science. By the end of the book we hope that readers will have agood grasp of what the atmosphere and ocean look like on the large scale, and, throughapplication of the laws of mechanics and thermodynamics, why they look like they do.
The book is roughly divided in to three equal parts. The first third deals exclusivelywith the atmosphere Chapters 1 to 5 , the last third with the ocean and its role in climate Chapters 9 to Sandwiched in between we develop the necessary fluid dynamicalbackground Chapter 6 and 7.
Our discussion of the general circulation of the atmosphere Chapter 8 , follows the dynamical chapters. The text can be used in a number of ways. It has been written so that those interested primarily in the atmosphere might focus onChapters 1 to 8. Those interested in the ocean can begin at Chapter 9, referring back asnecessary to the dynamical Chapters 6 and 7.
It is our hope, however, that many will beinterested in learning about both fluids. Indeed, one of the joys of working on this text—andusing it as background material for undergraduate courses taught at the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology MIT —has been our attempt to discuss the circulation of theatmosphere and ocean in a single framework and in the same spirit. In our writing we have been led by observations rather than theory. We have not writtena book about fluid dynamics illustrated by atmospheric and oceanic phenomena.
Ratherwe hope that the observations take the lead, and theory is introduced when it is needed. Advanced dynamical ideas are only used if we deem it essential to bring order to theobservations. We have also chosen not to unnecessarily formalize our discussion. Yet, as faras is possible, we have offered rigorous physical discussions expressed in mathematical form:we build nearly everything up from first principles, our explanations of the observationsare guided by theory, and these guiding principles are, we hope, clearly espoused.
We make much use of the remarkable database and web-browsing facilities developed atthe Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. Thus the raw data pre-sented by figures on the pages of the book can be accessed and manipulated over the web,as described in Section A.
One particularly enjoyable aspect of the courses from which this book sprang has beenthe numerous laboratory experiments carried out in lectures as demonstrations, or studiedin more detail in undergraduate laboratory courses. We hope that some of this flavor comesthrough on the written page.
The experiments we chose to describe are simple and informative, andfor the most part do not require sophisticated apparatus. Video loops of the experimentscan be viewed over the Web, but there is no real substitute for carrying them out oneself. We encourage you to try. Details of the equipment required to carry out the experiments,including the necessary rotating turntables, can be found in Section A.
Before getting on to the meat of our account, we now make some introductory remarksabout the nature of the problems we are concerned with. PREFACE The circulation of the atmosphere and oceans is inherently complicated, involving thetransfer of radiation through a semi-transparent medium of variable composition, phasechanges between liquid water, ice and vapor, interactions between phenomena on scalesfrom centimeters to the globe, and timescales from seconds to millennia.
But one only hasto look at a picture of the Earth from space, such as that shown in Fig. This book is about the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere and ocean and theorganizing fluid mechanical principles that shape it. We will learn how the unusualproperties of rotating fluids manifest themselves in and profoundly influence the circulationof the atmosphere and ocean and the climate of the planet.
The necessary fluid dynamics willbe developed and explored in the context of phenomena that play important roles in climate,such as convection, weather systems, the Gulf Stream, and the thermohaline circulationof the ocean.
Extensive use is made of laboratory experiments to isolate and illustratekey ideas. Any study of climate dynamics would be incomplete without a discussion ofradiative transfer theory, and so we will also cover fundamental ideas on energy balance.
In the final chapters we discuss the interaction of the atmosphere, ocean, and ice and howthey collude together to control the climate of the Earth. The paleoclimate record suggeststhat the climate of the past has been very different from that of today.
A view of Earth from space over the North Pole. The Arctic ice cap can be seen in the center. Thewhite swirls are clouds associated with atmospheric weather patterns. PREFACE xvunderstanding gleaned from our study of the present climate to speculate on mechanismsthat might drive climate change. In these introductory remarks we draw out those distinctive features of the fluid mechanicsof the atmosphere and ocean that endow its study with a unique flavor. A typical context might be the following.
In a fluid of constant density, shearingeddies develop whenever circumstances force a strong shear velocity contrast over a shortdistance.
For example, flow past a solid obstacle leads to a turbulent wake see Fig. The kinetic energy of theeddying motion comes from the kinetic energy of steady flow impinging on the obstacle.
The problem can be studied experimentally by constructing a laboratory analog of themotion or mathematically by solving rather complicated differential equations.
The energy source for the eddies that form the turbulent wake in Fig. There is a superficial resemblance to theubiquitous large-scale eddies and swirls observed in the atmosphere, beautifully revealedby the water vapor images shown in Fig.
However, the energy for the eddies seen in Fig. Because of the overwhelming influence of gravity, pressure increasesdownward in the atmosphere and ocean. Schematic diagram showing a fluid of constant density flowing past a solid obstacle, as might happenin the flow of water down a stream. Shearing eddies develop in a thin layer around the obstacle and result in aturbulent wake in the lee of the obstacle. The kinetic energy of the eddying motion comes from the kinetic energyof the steady flow impinging on the obstacle.
A mosaic of satellite images showing the water vapor distribution over the globe at a height of6—10 km above the surface. Jet streams of the middle latitudesappear as elongated dark regions with adjacent clouds and bright regions. From NASA. Because of the overwhelming importance of gravity, pressure increases downward in the atmosphereand ocean.
For gravitational stability, density must also increase downward—as sketched in the diagram—withheavy fluid below and light fluid above. Buteverywhere around us in the atmosphere and ocean we find fluid doing just that: acting asa natural heat engine, generating and maintaining its own motion by converting thermalenergy into kinetic energy.
Such a fluid can convect by converting thermal energy into kinetic energy—it is full of lifebecause it can be energized thermally. Then, for example,convection can be triggered from the surface layers of the ocean by the formation of ice; fresh water is locked up in the ice,leaving brackish and hence heavy water behind at the surface. In contrast to Fig. Such a fluid can be energized thermally.
Rather than classical hydrodynamics we are concerned with natural aerodynamics orgeophysical fluid dynamics, the fluid dynamics of real fluids. The latter phrase, often goingby the shorthand GFD, is now widely used to describe the kind of fluid dynamics we aredealing with.
As we shall see duringthe course of our study, rotation endows fluids with remarkable properties. This constraint makes the two fluids more similarthan one might expect—the atmosphere and ocean can, and we would argue should, bestudied together. This is what we set out to do in this text. The unusual properties of rotating fluids can be demonstrated in the following verysimple laboratory experiment.
We observe the motion by introducing dye food coloring. But inthe rotating body of water something glorious happens. Try two different colors and watch theinterleaving of fluid columns see Fig. Taylor who discoveredthem see Chapter 7 , are a result of the rigidity imparted to the fluid by the rotation of thetank.
The water moves around in vertical columns which are aligned parallel to the rotationvector. It is in this sense that rotating fluids are rigid. As the horizontal spatial scales andtimescales lengthen, rotation becomes an increasingly strong constraint on the motion ofboth the atmosphere and ocean. Suppose that typical horizontal currents atmospheric or oceanic,measured, as they are, in the rotating frame are given by U, and the typical distance overwhich the current varies is L.
Taylor columns revealed by food coloring in the rotating tank. The water is allowed to come intosolid body rotation and then gently stirred by hand. Dyes are used to visualize the flow. At the top we show therotating cylinder of water with curtains of dye falling down from the surface. Below we show the beautiful patternsof dyes of different colors being stirred around one another by the rotationally constrained motion. A schematic diagram showing the interplay between radiative transfer and circulation.
The absorptionof radiation by the atmosphere is very sensitive to the distribution of water vapor. But the water vapor distributiondepends on the motion, which in turn depends on the heating, completing a closed cycle. If Ro is much greater than one, then the timescale of the motion is short relative to arotation period, and rotation will not significantly influence the motion.
If Ro is much lessthan one, then the motion will be aware of rotation. Thus rotation will be an important constraint on thefluid motion, as we have witnessed by the presence of Taylor columns in Fig. Let us estimate Ro for large-scale flow in the atmosphere and ocean. It is clear then that rotation will be of paramount importance in shaping the patternof air and ocean currents on sufficiently large scales. Indeed, much of the structure andorganization seen in Fig.
Holicism There is another aspect that gives our study of climate dynamics its distinctive flavor. The climate is a unity. Only if great care is taken can it be broken up and the parts studiedseparately, since every aspect affects every other aspect.
To illustrate this point, let usconsider the interplay between the transfer of radiation through the atmosphere knownas radiative transfer and the fluid motion.
As we shall see in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3,the radiative temperature profile depends on, among other things, the distribution of watervapor, because water vapor strongly absorbs radiation in the same wavelengths that theEarth principally radiates. But the water vapor distribution is not given because it dependson the motion, as can be clearly seen in Fig. The motion in turn depends on the heating,which depends on the radiative transfer. The closed cycle sketched in Fig.
PREFACE So the background may be ordinary physics—classical mechanics and thermodynam-ics applied to a fluid on a rotating, differentially-heated sphere—but the study of thewhole process has its own unique flavor. Chemical composition of the atmosphere1. Physical properties of air 1. Dry air 1. Moist air 1. Some parameters of Earth. Surface gravity 9. Inparticular, we will learn that warm air is with altitude and does not have a definitegenerally more moist than cold air, a fact top.
As we shall see in Chapter 3, its den-that has enormous implications for the sity decreases approximately exponentiallyclimate of the planet. For one thing, see Table 1. The thinness to scale of a shell of 1.
As The composition of air is a direct conse-Fig. Photosynthesis by plants makesthe atmosphere. Thus, unlike the ocean, the O2; nitrogenous compounds from livingatmosphere is not confined to basins. As it organisms are returned to the atmosphereflows around the globe, air is deflected by as N2 from metabolism. Lightning convertstopography but never completely blocked. N2 into usable molecules for life. Atmospheric water vapor is present in variable amounts typically 0.
Antarctica is over 2 km high, whereas the Arctic Ocean and the southAtlantic basin are about 5 km deep. Note how smooth the relief of the land is compared to that of the ocean floor. The most important atmospheric constituents. For example, theCO2 concentration of ppm was measured in see Fig. Note theseasonal cycle superimposed on the long-term trend. The trend is due to anthropogenic emissions. The seasonalcycle is thought to be driven by the terrestrial biosphere: net consumption of CO2 by biomass in the summertime due to abundance of light and heat and net respiration in wintertime.
The CO2 concen- portion of some constituents especiallytration in the atmosphere is controlled by chemically or physically active species, suchsuch processes as photosynthesis and res- as H2O is variable in space and time.