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For further information: Read the Jane The River The Yard The Stables Entrance Toilets Example Melanie could not borrow any books from the library because A the librarian was out. C the books had already been borrowed. B it was a really big assignment. B problems with assignment deadlines. C personal illness or accident.
Choose your answers from the box and write the letters A—G next to questions 23— Choose your answers from the box below and write the letters A—H next to questions 28— Adults and children are frequently confronted with statements about the alarming rate of loss of tropical rainforests. For example, one graphic illustration to which children might readily relate is the estimate that rainforests are being destroyed at a rate equivalent to one thousand football fields every forty minutes — about the duration of a normal classroom period.
In the face of the frequent and often vivid media coverage, it is likely that children will have formed ideas about rainforests — what and where they are, why they are important, what endan- gers them — independent of any formal tuition. It is also possible that some of these ideas will be mistaken. These misconceptions do not remain isolated but become incorpo- rated into a multifaceted, but organised, conceptual framework, making it and the component ideas, some of which are erroneous, more robust but also accessible to modification.
These ideas may be developed by children absorbing ideas through the popular media. Sometimes this information may be erroneous. It seems schools may not be providing an opportunity for children to re-express their ideas and so have them tested and refined by teachers and their peers.
The aim of the present study is to start to provide such information, to help teachers design their edu- cational strategies to build upon correct ideas and to displace misconceptions and to plan programmes in environmental studies in their schools.
Secondary school children were asked to complete a questionnaire containing five open-form questions. Some children described them as damp, wet or hot. The second question concerned the geographical location of rain- forests. The commonest responses were continents or countries: Some children also gave more general locations, such as being near the Equator.
Fewer students responded that rainforests provide plant habitats, and even fewer mentioned the indigenous populations of rainforests. The fourth question concerned the causes of the destruction of rainforests. Here, children are confusing rainforest destruction with damage to the forests of Western Europe by these factors.
While two fifths of the stu- dents provided the information that the rainforests provide oxygen, in some cases this response also embraced the misconception that rainforest destruction would reduce atmospheric oxygen, making the atmosphere incompatible with human life on Earth. In answer to the final question about the importance of rainforest conservation, the majority of children simply said that we need rainforests to survive.
This is surprising considering the high level of media coverage on this issue. Some children expressed the idea that the conservation of rainforests is not important. The results of this study suggest that certain ideas predominate in the thinking of children about rainforests. Pupils did not volunteer ideas that suggested that they appreciated the complexity of causes of rainforest destruction.
In other words, they gave no indication of an appreci- ation of either the range of ways in which rainforests are important or the complex social, economic and political factors which drive the activities which are destroying the rainforests. One encouragement is that the results of similar studies about other environmental issues suggest that older children seem to acquire the ability to appre- ciate, value and evaluate conflicting views.
Environmental education offers an arena in which these skills can be developed, which is essential for these children as future deci- sion-makers.
Answer the following questions by choosing the correct responses A—P. Write your answers in boxes 9—13 on your answer sheet. A There is a complicated combination of reasons for the loss of the rainforests. B The rainforests are being destroyed by the same things that are destroying the forests of Western Europe.
C Rainforests are located near the Equator. D Brazil is home to the rainforests.
E Without rainforests some animals would have nowhere to live. F Rainforests are important habitats for a lot of plants.
G People are responsible for the loss of the rainforests. H The rainforests are a source of oxygen. I Rainforests are of consequence for a number of different reasons. J As the rainforests are destroyed, the world gets warmer.
K Without rainforests there would not be enough oxygen in the air. L There are people for whom the rainforests are home. M Rainforests are found in Africa. N Rainforests are not really important to human life. O The destruction of the rainforests is the direct result of logging activity.
P Humans depend on the rainforests for their continuing existence.
Write your answer in box 14 on your answer sheet. Which of the following is the most suitable title for Reading Passage 1?
What Do Whales Feel? An examination of the functioning of the senses in cetaceans, the group of mammals comprising whales, dolphins and porpoises Some of the senses that we and other terrestrial mammals take for granted are either reduced or absent in cetaceans or fail to function well in water. For example, it appears from their brain structure that toothed species are unable to smell.
Baleen species, on the other hand, appear to have some related brain structures but it is not known whether these are functional. Similarly, although at least some cetaceans have taste buds, the nerves serving these have degenerated or are rudimentary.
The sense of touch has sometimes been described as weak too, but this view is prob- ably mistaken. This contact may help to maintain order within a group, and stroking or touching are part of the courtship ritual in most species.
The area around the blowhole is also particularly sensitive and captive animals often object strongly to being touched there. On the other hand, the position of the eyes in most dolphins and porpoises suggests that they have stereoscopic vision forward and downward. Eye position in freshwater dolphins, which often swim on their side or upside down while feeding, suggests that what vision they have is stereoscopic forward and upward.
By comparison, the bot- tlenose dolphin has extremely keen vision in water. Such variation can no doubt be explained with reference to the habitats in which indi- vidual species have developed. The South American boutu and Chinese beiji, for instance, appear to have very limited vision, and the Indian susus are blind, their eyes reduced to slits that probably allow them to sense only the direction and intensity of light.
Most species are highly vocal, although they vary in the range of sounds they produce, and many forage for food using echolo- cation1. Large baleen whales primarily use the lower frequencies and are often limited in their repertoire. Notable exceptions are the nearly song-like choruses of bowhead whales in summer and the complex, haunting utterances of the humpback whales.
Toothed species in general employ more of the frequency spectrum, and produce a wider variety of sounds, than baleen species though the sperm whale apparently pro- duces a monotonous series of high-energy clicks and little else. Write your answers in boxes 15—21 on your answer sheet. Write your answers in boxes 22—26 on your answer sheet. Visual Symbols and the Blind Part 1 From a number of recent studies, it has become clear that blind people can appreciate the use of outlines and perspectives to describe the arrangement of objects and other surfaces in space.
However, when you practice listening at home, you can listen to it over and over again.
Every time you listen, you will definitely learn something new and your listening skills will be greatly improved. Listen to the same section over and over, and with each listening you focus on different aspects: For example, with the first listening, focus on listening and understanding the meaning of the whole conversation or grasp the main idea of it.
For the second listening, you can focus on listening to the verbs, and see how they are stressed during the listening. Next, pay attention to the pronunciation, stress, or intonation of speakers, and finally try listening to words like articles or prepositions ….
First of all, take a test within 60 minutes to see which score you get. Next, do the test again with no time limit. Try focusing on just one type of question, for example: true, false, not given.
Do the test with a dictionary to see if you can improve your score when knowing more vocabulary Or you can try reading a passage to know whether you understand it or not. Alternatively, you can check the answers first and try to locate the answers in the reading passage.