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Introduction to the Java Swing Toolkit. About this tutorial. This is an introductory Swing tutorial. The purpose of this tutorial is to get you started with the Java. Java Swing tutorial is a part of Java Foundation Classes (JFC) that is used to create window-based applications. It is built on the top of AWT (Abstract Windowing. Learn about event-driven programming techniques. • Practice learning and using a large, complex API. • A chance to see how it is designed and learn from it.
Copy following code into an editor import javax. Copy the following code into an editor. Buttons are getting overlapped.
There are many layout managers, but the most frequently used are- Java BorderLayout A BorderLayout places components in up to five areas: top, bottom, left, right, and center.
It simply lays out components in a single row one after the other. Java GridBagLayout It is the more sophisticated of all layouts. It aligns components by placing them within a grid of cells, allowing components to span more than one cell. Step 8 How about creating a chat frame like below?
Try to code yourself before looking at the program below. SOUTH, panel ; frame.
RED, Color. BLUE, Color. CYAN, Color. SOUTH ; cp. WEST ; cp. To create a menu-bar, construct a JMenuBar. A menu contains menu-item JMenuItem. Menu-A contains 2 menu-items Up and Down.
Menu-B has 1 menu-item Reset. JOptionPane provides standard pre-built diglog boxes to interact with user for both input and output.
To create a dialog box, use one of the static methods JOptionPane. Each of these methods also comes has a showInternalXxxDialog version, which uses an internal frame to hold the dialog box. Example: Input, Confirm and Message Dialogs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 import javax. Furthermore, you can use JOptionPane directly under main to prompt user for input, similar to text-based input via Scanner.
Example: Prompting User for Input with Validation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 import java.
The "look" refers to the appearance of the widgets JComponent ; while the "feel" refers to how the widgets behave e.
You can choose to use the default Java look and feel, the native system's look and feel Windows, Linux, Mac , or the newer cross-platform Nimbus look and feel. Pluggable look and feel is supported in Swing's components by separating the components into two classes: JComponent in package javax.
Nonetheless, you shall not interact with the UI delegate directly.
These look and feel are supported in packages javax. There are a few ways to set the Look and Feel. Via UIManager. You can either use the static method UIManager. MetalLookAndFeel] javax. NimbusLookAndFeel] javax. MotifLookAndFeel] javax. WindowsLookAndFeel] javax.
Nimbus is a polished cross-platform look and feel introduced in the JDK 1. Nimbus is highly customizable. You can use the Nimbus look and feel as is, or you can skin customize the look with your own brand.
Use command-line option "swing. You can choose the size via: myButton. You can customize the look and feel, which is beyond the scope of this article. All content-panes default to BorderLayout with hgap and vgap of 0.
Second add will override the first add. Absolute Positioning without LayoutManager shall be avoided, as it does not adjust well on screens with different resolutions; or when the window is resize. Hints on sizes and alignments You can provide hints on the minimum, preferred and maximum sizes of a component via setMinimumSize , setPreferredSize and setMaximumSize methods.
However, some layout managers ignore these requests, especially the maximum size. You can also do these by extending a subclass and overriding the getXxxSize call-back methods.
The setSize method must be issued at the correct point, or else it will not work as it was overridden by another implicit setSize.
BoxLayout honors them but other layout managers may ignore these hints. You can also extend a subclass and override the getAlignmentX and getAlignmentY call-back methods.
Methods validate and doLayout If you change a property of a LayoutManager, such as hgap or vgap of GridLayout, you need to issue a doLayout to force the LayoutManager to re-layout the components using the new property. A container has only one LayoutManager. You need to follow with a validate to ask the container to re-layout the components. Code Example This example creates 6 buttons, which are arranged in 3x2 and 2x3 GridLayout alternately upon clicking any button. You can also use aContainer.
You need to issue a validate call to the container after adding or removing components.