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Learn how to teach vocabulary using both indirect and explicit methods of instruction with our free eBook, Guide to Teaching Vocabulary!. to. Teaching: Vocabulary. Issue 1, Volume 1. • How Important is Vocabulary Instruction? • Indirect vs. Explicit Vocabulary Instruction. • Methods of Vocabulary . Editorial Reviews. Review. Teaching Vocabulary in All Classrooms is not just a “ cookbook” of Kindle Store; ›; Kindle eBooks; ›; Education & Teaching.

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Ebook Teaching Vocabulary

Learn how to teach vocabulary more effectively using both indirect and explicit methods of instruction with our free eBook, Guide to Teaching Vocabulary. Format: e-book (Android, aracer.mobi, Kobo, RM Books, Apple devices, OLF) How much classroom time should be spent teaching vocabulary. The best way. This teacher created book list includes tips for classroom use. eBook. · Essential Strategies for Word Study. Professional Book Books for Teaching Vocabulary Building Strategies From Lesson Plan: Vocabulary Builders.

Or, get it for Kobo Super Points! See if you have enough points for this item. Vocabulary is the foundation of successful language learning. Research shows that students learn the most easily when they are interested and having fun. Games and activities that engage students, whether they are adults or children, will help them create stronger memories and store these memories for longer. This book is divided into three sections: Introducing new vocabulary Reviewing and remembering vocabulary Assessment opportunities and provides 50 ideas plus one bonus tip! Photos and downloadable worksheets are included. The "Fifty Ways to Teach" series gives you a variety of drills, games, techniques, methods, and ideas to help your students master English. Most of the ideas can be used for both beginning and advanced classes. Many require little to no preparation or special materials. The ideas can be used with any textbook, or without a textbook at all.

With regard to vocabulary, that means having students identify difficult words themselves and pool their knowledge to get the meaning. Ann Marie Longo, director of the Boys Town Reading Center, argues that teens can't use context effectively when their vocabularies are limited.

Limited vocabulary is the most common problem among weak readers she's worked with.

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Longo begins with indirect instruction in words and their meanings and then provides high-interest opportunities to use the words. Vocabulary expert Isabel Beck of the University of Pittsburgh embraces both approaches.

For her, there are four ways to learn vocabulary: wide reading, hearing unfamiliar words in speech, direct instruction in words and "gimmicks" to boost students' interest. Beck suggests teachers incorporate difficult words into their classroom routines and encourage students to look for the words in reading outside class. Longo agrees that students need to put new words to use in writing and conversation as well as reading.

Memory and Storage Systems Understanding how our memory works might help us create more effective ways to teach vocabulary. Research in the area, cited by Gairns and Redman offers us some insights into this process. It seems that learning new items involve storing them first in our short-term memory, and afterwards in long-term memory. We do not control this process consciously but there seem to be some important clues to consider.

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First, retention in short-term memory is not effective if the number of chunks of information exceeds seven. Therefore, this suggests that in a given class we should not aim at teaching more than this number. However, our long-term memory can hold any amount of information.

Word frequency is another factor that affects storage, as the most frequently used items are easier to retrieve.

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We can use this information to attempt to facilitate the learning process, by grouping items of vocabulary in semantic fields, such as topics e. Oxford suggests memory strategies to aid learning, and these can be divided into creating mental linkages grouping, associating, placing new words into a context , applying images and sounds using imagery, semantic mapping, using keywords and representing sounds in memory , reviewing in a structured way and employing action physical response or sensation, using mechanical techniques.

The techniques just mentioned can be used to greater advantage if we can diagnose learning style preferences visual, aural, kinesthetic, tactile and make students aware of different memory strategies. More meaningful tasks also require learners to analyse and process language more deeply, which should help them retain information in long-term memory.

Forgetting seems to be an inevitable process, unless learners regularly use items they have learnt. Therefore, recycling is vital, and ideally it should happen one or two days after the initial input. After that, weekly or monthly tests can check on previously taught items. The way students store the items learned can also contribute to their success or failure in retrieving them when needed.

Most learners simply list the items learnt in chronological order, indicating meaning with translation. This system is far from helpful, as items are de-contextualised, encouraging students to over generalise their usage. It does not allow for additions and refinements nor does it indicate pronunciation.

Teachers can encourage learners to use other methods, using topics and categories to organise a notebook, binder or index cards. Meaning should be stored using English as much as possible. Why Vocabulary is Important Teachers may wonder why it is important to teach vocabulary. Well, there is a very clear answer to that question, namely that vocabulary is critical to reading success for three reasons, which I will explain now briefly.

First of all, comprehension improves when you know what the words mean. Since comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading, you cannot overestimate the importance of vocabulary development. Secondly, words are the currency of communication. A robust vocabulary improves all areas of communication which are listening, speaking, reading and writing.

Last but no least, when children and adolescents improve their vocabulary, their academic and social confidence and competence improve, too. In turn, a deficit in vocabulary knowledge causes comprehension problems, and comprehension problems prevent people from improving their vocabulary knowledge on their own. Intensive vocabulary instruction can be effective in turning this situation around.

Research shows that there are three kinds of word knowledge. Firstly, there is a lack of word knowledge where the meaning is completely unfamiliar. Secondly, there is acquired word knowledge where the basic meaning is recognized after some thought.

And last, there is established word knowledge where the meaning is easily, rapidly and automatically recognized Beck, McKeown, and Omanson, Words from the third category are already established in the personal vocabulary bank and are the words you would use in conversation and writing.

Teaching Vocabulary 2. Which Words Should be Taught When making instructional decisions as to which words to teach, it is helpful to have a framework for decision-making in this area.

Knowing what words to teach is the first step in providing effective vocabulary practice. Graves and Prenn, for instance, classify the words that should be devided into three types, each requiring a higher investment of teacher and learner time for instruction. With words that are already in the student's oral vocabulary, the students need only to identify the written symbol for such a word.

When the word is one for which the student has acquired no concept and it appears frequently in the context, the teacher must take time to develop the concept through instruction. When the word is in the student's listening vocabulary, it may be taught though writing experiences and activities. Focus should be on helping students become independent learners; they should be encouraged to become actively involved in selecting words.

I will shortly mention a practical guide that helps teachers to remember the types of words that they should teach explicitly. First of all, there are Type A Words. These words belong to academic language and the content areas. Academic language describes the language of schooling, words used across disciplines like genre and glossary.

Content area words are specific to the discipline, words like organization in social studies and organism in science. Then there are Type B Words which are the basics. There are hundreds of high-frequency words.

Students must be able to read words like the, is, and, are, been and because. The so-called Type C Words are connectors and act as signal words.

There may be some overlap with the basic words. Students need to understand the signals for cause and effect relationships, sequence and other important indicators of how text is organized. In Type D Words the D stands for difficult - words with multiple meanings are a challenge for all students and may be especially so for learners of the English language.

When considering words with multiple meanings teachers should also pay attention to the consonant-vowel-consonant words children encounter when first learning to read - for example words like jam and ham.

These words have accessible meanings if you think of something you may eat with eggs in the morning ham or of the sweet, sticky stuff on toast jam. But jam also describes a music playing session.

So learning to decode should not be meaning-free, but should provide a good opportunity for teaching the meanings of words including multiple ones.

Discover How to Teach Vocabulary [Free eBook]

This kind of experience with words improves comprehension. At last there are also Type X Words which are the extras. These are the words that will not be encountered frequently but in a certain story or context they are important for decoding meaning.

I just tell kids what words like this mean without any special teaching. Basic Functional Vocabulary In order to understand, speak, read and write a language, the students must acquire the basic functional vocabulary.

New words are carefully selected, gradually introduced, and graded to make language learning smooth and easy. The following overview will demonstrate which words are considered basic functional vocabulary.

Basic vocabulary items begin with names of objects, the nouns, which include people, parts of the body, and clothing. Teachers can encourage learners to use other methods, using topics and categories to organise a notebook, binder or index cards.

Meaning should be stored using English as much as possible. Teachers may wonder why it is important to teach vocabulary. Well, there is a very clear answer to that question, namely that vocabulary is critical to reading success for three reasons, which I will explain now briefly.

First of all, comprehension improves when you know what the words mean. Since comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading, you cannot overestimate the importance of vocabulary development. Secondly, words are the currency of communication. A robust vocabulary improves all areas of communication which are listening, speaking, reading and writing. Last but no least, when children and adolescents improve their vocabulary, their academic and social confidence and competence improve, too.

In turn, a deficit in vocabulary knowledge causes comprehension problems, and comprehension problems prevent people from improving their vocabulary knowledge on their own. Intensive vocabulary instruction can be effective in turning this situation around. Research shows that there are three kinds of word knowledge. Firstly, there is a lack of word knowledge where the meaning is completely unfamiliar. Secondly, there is acquired word knowledge where the basic meaning is recognized after some thought.

And last, there is established word knowledge where the meaning is easily, rapidly and automatically recognized Beck, McKeown, and Omanson, Words from the third category are already established in the personal vocabulary bank and are the words you would use in conversation and writing. When making instructional decisions as to which words to teach, it is helpful to have a framework for decision-making in this area.

Knowing what words to teach is the first step in providing effective vocabulary practice. Graves and Prenn, for instance, classify the words that should be devided into three types, each requiring a higher investment of teacher and learner time for instruction. With words that are already in the student's oral vocabulary, the students need only to identify the written symbol for such a word.

When the word is one for which the student has acquired no concept and it appears frequently in the context, the teacher must take time to develop the concept through instruction. When the word is in the student's listening vocabulary, it may be taught though writing experiences and activities.

Focus should be on helping students become independent learners; they should be encouraged to become actively involved in selecting words. I will shortly mention a practical guide that helps teachers to remember the types of words that they should teach explicitly. First of all, there are Type A Words.

These words belong to academic language and the content areas. Academic language describes the language of schooling, words used across disciplines like genre and glossary. Content area words are specific to the discipline, words like organization in social studies and organism in science. Then there are Type B Words which are the basics. There are hundreds of high-frequency words. Students must be able to read words like the, is, and, are, been and because. The so-called Type C Words are connectors and act as signal words.

There may be some overlap with the basic words. Students need to understand the signals for cause and effect relationships, sequence and other important indicators of how text is organized. In Type D Words the D stands for difficult - words with multiple meanings are a challenge for all students and may be especially so for learners of the English language. When considering words with multiple meanings teachers should also pay attention to the consonant-vowel-consonant words children encounter when first learning to read - for example words like jam and ham.

These words have accessible meanings if you think of something you may eat with eggs in the morning ham or of the sweet, sticky stuff on toast jam. But jam also describes a music playing session.

So learning to decode should not be meaning-free, but should provide a good opportunity for teaching the meanings of words including multiple ones. This kind of experience with words improves comprehension. At last there are also Type X Words which are the extras. These are the words that will not be encountered frequently but in a certain story or context they are important for decoding meaning.

I just tell kids what words like this mean without any special teaching. In order to understand, speak, read and write a language, the students must acquire the basic functional vocabulary. New words are carefully selected, gradually introduced, and graded to make language learning smooth and easy. The following overview will demonstrate which words are considered basic functional vocabulary.

Basic vocabulary items begin with names of objects, the nouns, which include people, parts of the body, and clothing. Moreover, there are classroom objects such as table, cupboard, book, desk, and chalkboard. Home objects such as pot, saucepan, stool, basket, and bed demonstrate another area of basic vocabulary. Besides that, there are objects from the environment, such as church, shop, and market, and garden objects like hoe, spade, etc.

In addition to nouns, action words i. By nature, children are very active and need to move. They love to work and play; therefore, they need to know how to use English to describe what they do. The verbs are carefully selected to relate to the activities which children do at home and in school.

Other word classes which are taught are pronouns I, you, they, he, she, it, we , prepositions on, under, near, in, to, from , adjectives good, dirty, clean, short, red, etc. These items should not be taught in isolation. Content words are vocabulary to be fitted into the structure to produce meaningful sentences e. This is a….

The question is which strategies are most successful in teaching vocabulary? Vocabulary instruction which requires active student involvement seems to improve comprehension more than passive vocabulary activities. Other than free voluntary reading and the teaching of words that are essential to the learning of specific concepts, there seems to be no strategy that is consistently superior.

Methods using a variety of techniques seem to be advantageous. Repeated exposure to chosen words aids in learning those words.

Books for Teaching Vocabulary Building Strategies

Good teaching provides the learner with strategies not only for learning the task at hand but for independent learning beyond the task at hand. Students should be responsible for learning a variety of methods to acquire word meanings.

Active involvement and deep processing of words are important. Students should connect words to meaningful contexts or known synonyms. First of all, we have to understand what concepts are. Concepts are categories into which experiences are organized and the larger network of intellectual relationships brought about through categorization.

Understanding a concept requires some level of critical thinking in order to make associations between words and ideas according to certain criteria. Objects or events are sorted into concept categories according to their basic characteristics or critical attributes.

The critical attributes must be present in a particular sequence, relationship or patterns to qualify for category placement. These represent the concept criteria. The specific ordering of attributes is known as the concept definition or rule.

Word meanings are best learned through conceptual development. This approach stresses in-depth understanding as opposed to surface understanding. Existing concepts can be used as a basis for acquiring new concepts. For example, a student who knows what a horse is can relate the new concept of unicorn to horse in order to understand the new concept.

Word meanings should be learned in context. The contextual setting gives student clues to word meanings. The teacher should provide examples in which the new word is used correctly and students should have opportunities to apply the word's meaning.

Vocabulary instruction should be based on learner-generated word meanings. Learner involvement increases understanding and memory; thus, when students use their experience and background knowledge to define words, they learn better. The words serve as labels for concepts and students associate words to a larger vocabulary and experiences.

Vocabulary should focus on usable words. The use of vocabulary related to a theme or instruction in "word webs" is helpful. Students should be taught how to figure out related words. Students should be taught the use of contextual clues and structural analysis skills prefixes, suffixes, root words. This is the reason why vocabulary is an essential element of effective language teaching.

Cut & Paste Vocabulary Sentences Open eBook

So how do students learn all the words they need to know? The combination of direct instruction and wide reading is a good formula for word learning. In the following overview I will briefly mention some methods that encourage word learning. Often, it is best to pre-teach key words.

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