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Go to http: download It Now. Description Details Environmental Science: A Global Concern is a comprehensive presentation of environmental science for non-science majors which emphasizes critical thinking, environmental responsibility, and global awareness. This book is intended for use in a one or two-semester course in environmental science, human ecology, or environmental studies at the college or advanced placement high school level.
As practicing scientists and educators, the Cunningham author team brings decades of experience in the classroom, in the practice of science, and in civic engagement. Although air and water quality have improved dramatically in most developed countries, we still emit more pollution than can be cleaned up by ecological systems.
These improvements are due to better public understanding of environmental issues and demands for protective legislation. An ecological footprint is a measure of our environmental impacts.
Section 1. Conservation usually means wise use of resources to make them last as long as possible, but still use, nonetheless. Gifford Pinchot was an important proponent of conservation. Preservation emphasizes the protection of organisms and resources for their own sake regardless of their utility to us. John Muir pioneered many of our ideas about preservation. Silent Spring was concerned with the dangers of chemical pollution and especially its effects on human health. In what ways is environmental quality tied to social progress?
Increasingly, environmental activists are linking environmental quality and social progress on a global scale. A core belief is that as we become wealthier and more technologically advanced, we become more interested in environmental quality, we have the resources and technology to improve our environment. List any three quality of life indicators table 1. How do they differ between wealthy and poor countries? Why is affluence a liability?
Give an example. Affluence makes it possible for us to follow our worst impulses to the detriment of our own health and well-being as well as the quality of our environment.
Why are many ecologists skeptical about the idea of sustainable development? Development generally means more resource consumption. Many ecologists doubt we can do that sustainably.
Think of five ecosystem services on which you rely. Photosynthesis, carbon capture, nutrient recycling, water purification, and temperature regulation as well as food and fuel supply. List any two of the factors that can help communities manage a commons. However, there are many cases of successful longterm management of common-property resources, such as sustainable fisheries, common forests, and grazing lands, in communities around the world.
List several concerns of the Millennium Development Goals. Many of these goals emphasize health and rights for women and children, who traditionally have little access to resources, education, health care, or political rights in many developing areas. Explain the idea of moral extensionism, and give an example. Moral extensionism expands our concepts of inherent value—that someone or something has value for its own sake-from ourselves to our community, to other groups, and other organisms or even the whole universe.
Have both transformed our understanding of this idea. How does inherent value differ from instrumental value? Inherent value implies moral standing and intrinsic rights while instrumental value is based on usefulness to someone else. You have intrinsic rights, but your hammer has only instrumental value. Why is stewardship important in many faiths?
Many faiths believe that God or Gods created the earth and entrusted it to our stewardship. What is environmental justice? Environmental justice combines civil rights with environmental protection to demand a safe, healthy, life-giving environment for everyone. Which factor shown has the largest effect?
The second largest? Which is smallest?
Finally, which factor has increased the most since ? Think of a parent or grandparent who was an adult in In what ways was his or her energy use different from yours? Answers: Carbon footprint energy use has the largest effect, followed by cropland.
That area could be far from the location of the consumer. One hectare is an area m x m.
All factors have increased, but the most dramatic increase has been in carbon footprint. Our energy use has increased in terms of transportation, resources consumed, food processing, air conditioning and lighting and electric appliances, and many other factors. Discuss with other students: Are you more convinced of a problem when you see data?
Why or why not? Do you, or those around you, feel that environmental data is easy to understand when you see it? Answers: Responses will vary; seeing data makes many people feel more convinced, provided they trust the source of the data. It is useful for students to discuss how easy or hard it is to understand environmental data when they see it. Describe in your own words how increasing wealth affects water contamination, air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Why might greenhouse gas emissions rise?
Describe and explain the air pollution curve. Answers: Increasing wealth is associated with decreasing water pollution, increasing greenhouse gas emissions, and a rise, then fall in air pollution. Greenhouse gas emissions rise as wealth allows us to drive more, use more electric appliances, and consume more manufactured goods.
Water pollution tends to decline with increasing oversight and regulation of pollution. Air pollution tends to rise before it falls, because the pollutants are more diffuse and invisible, so regulation often increases later.
Understanding how to carefully frame a question, gather information, evaluate information, find a reliable conclusion, and understand aspects of uncertainty in that conclusion are all critical skills for students and citizens.
This chapter closely examines each of these aspects of the process of science. The chapter opens with a case study showing how we can understand invisible but powerful processes such as impacts of climate change on forests and forest soils. Basic principles of science are then emphasized Table 2. This study focuses on multiple aspects of a forest system—one of the ideas that is emphasized in this chapter.
An important idea for students to practice in this chapter is how to form a hypothesis—a testable statement, which allows us to find out whether our expectations are supported by evidence. Students can practice forming and testing hypotheses in many ways, and this topic is a good one for discussion, small group work, or writing. Students should also leave this chapter with a basic understanding of how and why statistics are used to answer questions.
The orderly structure of the scientific method is necessary for finding answers in complex, interacting systems such as this. What is a mean? How would you use one?