Fundamentals of packaging technology pdf

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Everything you ever wanted to know about "Packaging" but were afraid who to ask? This presentation is a collection of information from various. Packaging Technology By Walter Soroka [PDF] [EPUB] A vertical form fill 1 Perfect English GrammarMagic In Your Mind Bob Proctor Pdf. Packaging - a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, distribution, storage, retailing & use. Soroka, W. Fundamentals of Packaging Technology.

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Fundamentals Of Packaging Technology Pdf

Request PDF on ResearchGate | Fundamentals Of Packaging Technology | In the current market scenario, packaging provides the most important first point of. •For international trade/ exports local solutions are not going to work,. •Similarly in local market best packaging technology options may not. Fundamentals of Packaging Technology is divided into semesters to give you maximum flexibility in taking the seminar. 1. Take the.

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Digital temperature data loggers measure and record the temperature history of food shipments. They sometimes have temperatures displayed on the indicator or have other output lights, etc. These help identify if there has been temperature abuse of products and can help determine the remaining shelf life. Time temperature indicators integrate the time and temperature experienced by the indicator and adjacent foods. Some use chemical reactions that result in a color change while others use the migration of a dye through a filter media.

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To the degree that these physical changes in the indicator match the degradation rate of the food, the indicator can help indicate probable food degradation. Plastic packaging being used is usually non-biodegradable due to possible interactions with the food.

Also, biodegradable polymers often require special composting conditions to properly degrade. Normal sealed landfill conditions do not promote biodegradation.

Biodegradable plastics includes biodegradable films and coatings synthesized from organic materials and microbial polymers.

Fundamentals of Packaging Technology

Some package materials are edible. Today, examples of the use of paper and paperboard packaging are found in many places, such as supermarkets, traditional street markets, shops and departmental stores, as well as for mail order, fast food, dispensing machines, pharmacies, and in hospital, catering, military, educational, sport and leisure situations. Papers and paperboards are sheet materials comprising an intertwined network of cellulose fibres.

They are printable and have physical properties which enable them to be made into various types of flexible, semi-rigid and rigid packaging. There are many different types of paper and paperboard. Appearance, strength and many other properties can be varied depending on the type s and amount of fibre used, and how the fibres are processed in fibre separation pulping , fibre treatment and in paper and paperboard manufacture.

In addition to the type of paper or paperboard, the material is also characterised by its weight per unit area and thickness. The papermaking industry has many specific terms and a good example is the terminology used to describe weight per unit area and thickness. Alternative units of measurement used in some parts of the industry would be pounds per square feet or pounds per square feet.

Appearance is characterised by the colour and surface characteristics, such as whether it has a high gloss, satin or matte finish. Paperboard is thicker than paper and has a higher weight per unit area. Paper and paperboard, in many packaging forms, meet these needs because they have appearance and performance properties which enable them to be made into a wide range of packaging structures cost-effectively. They have physical properties which enable them to be made into flexible, semi-rigid and rigid packages by cutting, creasing, folding, forming, winding, gluing, etc.

Paper and paperboard packaging is used over a wide temperature range, from frozen-food storage to the temperatures of boiling water and heating in microwave and conventional ovens.

Whilst it is approved for direct contact with many food products, packaging made solely from paper and paperboard is permeable to water, water vapour, aqueous solutions and emulsions, organic solvents, fatty substances except grease-resistant papers , gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, aggressive chemicals and volatile vapours and aromas.

Whilst paper and paperboard can be sealed with several types of adhesive, it is not itself heat sealable. Paper and paperboard can acquire barrier properties and extended functional performance, such as heat sealability, heat resistance, grease resistance, product release, etc. Papers can be impregnated with a vapour-phase metal-corrosion inhibitor, mould inhibitor or coated with an insect repellent. Packaging made solely from paperboard can also provide a wide range of barrier properties by being overwrapped with a heat-sealable plastic film, such as polyvinylidene chloride PVdC coated oriented polypropylene OPP or as it is sometimes referred to BOPP.

Several types of paper and paperboard-based packaging may incorporate metal or plastic components, examples being as closures in liquid-packaging cartons and as lids, dispensers and bases in composite cans. They can also be incinerated with energy recovery and if none of these options is possible, they are biodegradable in landfill.

We have defined paper and paperboard and summarised the reasons why this type of packaging is used. We now need to discuss the underlying reasons why paper and paperboard packaging is able to meet these needs. Cotton, wool and flax are examples of fibres and we know that they can be spun into a thread and that thread can be woven into a sheet of cloth material. Papers and paperboards are also based on fibre, but the sheet is a three-dimensional structure formed by a random intertwining of fibres.

The fibres are prepared by mixing them with water to form a very dilute suspension, which is poured on to a moving wire mesh. The paper structure is formed as an even layer on the wire mesh, which acts as a sieve. Most of the water is then removed successively by drainage, pressure and heat. So why does this structure have the strength and toughness which makes it suitable for printing and conversion for use in many applications, including packaging?

To answer this question we need to examine the choices which are available in the raw materials used and how they are processed.

According to tradition, paper was first made in China around the year AD using fibres such as cotton and flax. Such fibres are of vegetable origin, based on cellulose, which is a natural polymer, formed in green plants from carbon dioxide and water by the action of sunlight.

The process initially results in natural sugars based on a multiple-glucose-type structure comprising carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in long chains of hexagonally linked carbon atoms, to which hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl OH groups are attached.

This process is known as photosynthesis, oxygen is the by-product and the result is that carbon is removed fixed from the atmosphere.

Large numbers of cellulose molecules form fibres — the length, shape and thickness of which vary depending on the plant species concerned. Pure cellulose is non-toxic, tasteless and odourless. The fibres can bond at points of interfibre contact as the fibre structure dries during water removal.

It is thought that bonds are formed between hydrogen H and hydroxyl OH units in adjacent cellulose molecules causing a consolidation of the three-dimensional sheet structure.

The degree of bonding, which prevents the sheet from fragmenting, depends on a number of factors which can be controlled by the choice and treatment of the fibre prior to forming the sheet. The resulting non-woven structure which we know as paper ultimately depends on a three-dimensional intertwined fibre network and the degree of interfibre bonding.

It is flat, printable, creasable, foldable, gluable and can be made into many two and three dimensional shapes. These features make paper and paperboard ideal wrapping and packaging materials. Over the centuries, different cellulose-based raw materials, particularly rags incorporating cotton, flax and hemp, were used to make paper, providing good examples of recycling.

During the nineteenth century the demand for paper and paperboard increased, as wider education for the increasing population created a rising demand for written material. This in turn led to the search for alternative sources of fibre.

Esparto grass was widely used but eventually processes for the separation of the fibres from wood became technically and commercially successful and from that time onwards wood has become the main source of fibre. Primitive Packaging - Glass containers, the ancient packaging materials, core- formed ancient Egyptian glass containers Figure 1.

From Rome To The Renaissance 1. How packaging changed as social structures changed - Many societal changes leading to the corresponding changes in packaging: The invention of the glass blowpipe, wood barrels - The Romans in about 50 B. From Rome To The Renaissance 3. From Rome To The Renaissance 5. Ancient printing - In , the oldest existing printed objects Japanese Buddhist charms ; in , the oldest existing book the Diamond Sutra printed, found in Turkistan.

The Renaissance - In about , the European awoken, neglected crafts revitalized, the arts revived and trade increased, by the s, the art of printing born. From Rome To The Renaissance - ate what they raised, found or caught - consumer needs: The Industrial Revolution 1. The I. The Industrial Revolution 2. The Industrial Revolution 3. The dramatic changes in how we lived - The changes increased the demand for barrels, boxes, kegs, baskets, and bags to transport the new consumer commodities and to bring great quantities of food into the cities.

The Evolution of New Packaging Roles 1. How the Industrial Revolution affected packaging The evolution of selling and informing as vital packaging roles - Bulk packaging was the rule, with the barrel being the workhorse of the packaging industry. The Evolution of New Packaging Roles 3.

The Evolution of New Packaging Roles 4. The new packaging material-plastics - The first plastic based on cellulose , made in The Evolution of New Packaging Roles 6. Changes in the way we traveled and shopped, changes in the retail store - The small community general store was no longer enough. Packaging In The Late 20th Century 1. Changes in demographics - Demographics, the study of population structure and trends, universally realized to be an important factor in designing products and packages.

Fast food and other institutional markets - Fast-food appeared and created a demand for disposable single-service packaging. Packaging In The Late 20th Century 3. Legislated changes - In the s and early s, many aspects in packaging legislated: Packaging In The Late 20th Century 5. The advent of microwave ovens, the vanishing domestic housewife - Devising products and packaging specifically for the microwave. Modern Packaging 1. The trend toward more intensive marketing - marketers aimed at lifestyles, emotional values, subliminal images, features, and advantages beyond the basic product itself; - the package has become the product, and occasionally packaging has become entertainment.

Why packaging is important to our food supply - Food is organic in nature an animal or plant source ; - One characteristic of such organic matter is that it has a limited natural biological life. Freedom from geographical and seasonal food production - Most food is geographically and seasonally specific.

Modern Packaging - In a world without packaging, we would need to live at the point of harvest to enjoy these products, and our enjoyment of them would be restricted to the natural biological life span of each. Modern Packaging 3. Advantages of central processing and prepackaged food - Central processing allows value recovery from what would normally be wasted.

Packaging in developed countries - To agonize over choice of package type, hire expensive marketing groups to develop images to entice the targeted downloader and spend lavishly on graphics.

Modern Packaging 2. Packaging in less-developed countries - At the extreme, consumers will bring their own packages or will consume food on the spot, just as they did 2, years ago; - Packagers from the more-developed countries sometimes have difficulty working with less- developed nations;. The United Nations and packaging.

Waste Management and Environmental Issues 1. The sources of waste material - A discussion of packaging today means eventually turning to environmental issues. Hence, packaging is garbage. Waste Management and Environmental Issues 2. The percentage of waste that is packaging - The University of Tennessee provides the following breakdown of total landfill waste Residential waste: The materials in the waste stream Waste Management and Environmental Issues 4.

Consumer perceptions of packaging - North American consumers have a basic distrust of manufacturers; to them, manufacture is a dirty business. Jurisdictions - Most waste-management issues: Waste Management and Environmental Issues 6. Waste Management and Environmental Issues 7. The four Rs hierarchy and what it means - Reduce: Waste Management and Environmental Issues Table 1.

Waste Management and Environmental Issues 8. Recycling realities - The public myths: Placing material in a blue box constitutes recycling. Recycling does not occur until someone uses the material collected. Recycled material should be economical. In many instances, recycled material is more costly, and its use needs to be supported in some way. Waste Management and Environmental Issues d Environmentalists maintain that recycling is an issue of the environment, not of economics.

Money expended to recycle a material represents an investment in fuel, water and other resources. When the resource investment to recover a material exceeds the value of the material recovered, then the harm to the environment is greater, not less.

Waste Management and Environmental Issues - significant investment in sophisticated equipment. Waste Management and Environmental Issues www. Waste Management and Environmental Issues 3. One or another of the many materials used for packaging is more environmentally friendly.

There is no magic material. Laminate constructions are, in fact, environmentally friendly. The Modern Packaging Industry 1. To this point, packaging becomes a materials application science. The company forming the physical package will also print or decorate the package.

Professional packaging associations IoPP: World Packaging Organization www. The Modern Packaging Industry 3. Other organizations having a major impact on packaging activities ISO: International Safe Transit Association www. The Modern Packaging Industry www. Lesson 2 Packaging Functions www. Introduction 1.

Introduction 2. The first wrap or containment of the product that directly holds the product for sale. A wrap or containment of the primary package.

A wrap or containment whose prime purpose is to protect the product during distribution and to provide for efficient handling. A number of distribution packages bound together and unitized into a single entity for purposes of mechanical handling, storage, and shipping.

Fundamentals of Packaging Technology

Introduction Figure 2. Introduction 3. A package that will ultimately reach the consumer as a unit of sale from a merchandising outlet. A package for delivering goods from manufacturer to manufacturer. Industrial packaging usually, but not always, contains goods or materials for further processing.

Specifics on what will cause loss of value damage must be known. Examples of protective packaging problems Table 2. Examples of preservation packaging problems Table 2. Its organic nature makes it an unstable commodity in its natural form.

Food Preservation 2. Volatiles can permeate packaging materials and making the problem of contamination or isolation even more difficult.

In addition to biological action, fatty tissue is susceptible to oxidation, and the entire mass can lose water. Moisture loss is more rapid with lettuce than with a turnip because of the large available surface area. Few fruits will ripen below 50C. Trade-offs for many produce items: Fresh produce, for example, continues to respire after harvesting and would shortly consume all the oxygen in an oxygen-barrier package.

This would lead to reduced shelf life. Plastic bags for produce commonly have vent holes punched in them to allow for a free exchange of atmospheric gases.

Food Preservation 3. The propagation and spread of molds and yeasts is typically slower than for bacteria because of the reproduction method. Prefer ambient conditions, C Psychrophilic: Prefer cool conditions, C Thermophilic: Food Preservation 4. Six basic methods, which are used alone or in combination, can extend the normal biological shelf life of food: Ice crystals can pierce cell walls, destroying the texture of many fruits and vegetables.

Rapid freezing reduces this damage. Snug, good moisture-barrier packaging with a minimum of free air space will reduce freezer dehydration. Complete filling of the package is desirable. Prepared birds, placed into bags, pass through a vacuum machine that draws the bag around the bird like a second skin. The tight barrier prevents water loss and freezer burn for extended periods, as well as preventing passage of oxygen that would oxidize fats and oils.

The degree of treatment depends on the: The high temperature is enough to kill most pathogens. In the s, aseptic packaging was adapted to institutional bag-in-box systems. Foods with acidities high enough to prevent harmful pathogens from propagating can be heat-processed by immersion in boiling water. Its largest customer is the military.

Jams and marmalades having high sugar contents do not require refrigeration for this reason. H is the atmospheric humidity condition under which a food will neither gain nor lose moisture to the air. Table 2. H for some common foods. Food Preservation Table 2. These foods require a barrier package that will not permit the entry of atmospheric moisture.

Dried foods such as potato chips and instant coffee require packaging materials with high moisture-barrier properties. In-package desiccants and oxygen scavengers are sometimes used to increase the shelf life of very sensitive products. Dried foods with E.

Depending on the food, oxygen or other barriers may still be needed. Foods with an E. If the food has a high oil content, oxygen barriers may be needed. Bacteriological activity is rarely a problem with low- or reduced-moisture foods since one of the essentials of bacterial growth has been removed.

High E. A cake with an E. The packaging challenge is to control moisture loss, retarding it as much as possible, but not to the extent that a high humidity is established within the package.

Some, such as lactic, acetic, propionic, sorbic and benzoic acids, produce acid environments. Others, such as alcohol, are specific bacteriostats. Carbon dioxide, found in beers and carbonated beverages creates an acid environment and is also a bacteriostat.

Smoking and curing of meat and fish is partly a drying process and partly chemical preservation. Aliphatic and aromatic wood distillation products many related to creosote are acidic and have variable bacteriostatic effects. Varying amounts of salt pretreatment accompanies most smoking. Antioxidants and oxygen absorbers can reduce oxidation. It has the effect of eliminating some or all oxygen that might contribute to degradation.

Food Preservation Disadvantages: The integrity of all seals is of paramount importance.

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