Garcinia gummi-gutta is an evergreen, small or medium-sized dioecious, understorey tree, 5 –20 m tall, about 70 cm dbh, with a rounded crown and horizontal. PDF | Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) Robs. (Clusiaceae) is an economically important fruit crop and the most widely distributed species in the. PDF | Garcinia gummi-gutta is endemic to Western Ghats in India. The plant is a good source of medicinally important phytochemicals.
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Abstract. Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) Robs. (Clusiaceae) is an economically important fruit crop and the most widely distributed species in the Western Ghats of. Among the different Garcinia species, G. gummi-gutta is the most widely distributed Keywords: Garcinia gummi-gutta, Hydroxy citric acid, Benzophenones. Abstract. The aim of the study is to know the anti-obesity property of Garcinia gummi-gutta. Obesity (BMI ≥. 30 kg/m2) is associated with several chronic and.
Saponins, D. Steroids, E.
Coumarins, F. Molischs, G.
Flavanoids, H. Phlobatannins, I. Leucoanthocyanines, J. Anthocyanines, K. Phenols, L. Emodines, M. Anthraquinones, N. Glycosides, O. Authors own image Figure 4. Details of phytochemical analysis of Garcinia gummi-gutta fruit water extract ; A. Authors own image Figure 5. Nutritional value of Garcinia gummi-gutta fruit extracts Table 2. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of Garcinia gummi-gutta fruit extracts Table 3.
Thomas College, Pala, Kerala, India Abstract In our society cholesterol related diseases are increasing day by day.
The major reason for this is our eating habit or food habit. Eating foods containing trans fats, which are often found in fast food and commercially baked breads, cookies, and snack foods. It was observed that while peoples taking the fruits of Garcinia gummi-gutta in their food preparations have low cholesterol level.
Some peoples are eating boiled fruits and drinking water in which the fruits peels are boiled in order to reduce the cholesterol level. This study was carried out to explore the phytochemical constituents of the solvent extracts of Garcinia gummi-gutta fruit and in vitro analysis of its cholesterol lowering effect. The cholesterol lowering effect was carried out in vitro using common fatty food materials like ghee, fats of pork and chicken, hen egg and cod liver oil.
From the data, pork and chicken fat, egg yolk and ghee shows significant reduction in the cholesterol level. From the present study it can be concluded that the constituents present in the extracts may be responsible for the cholesterol lowering activity.
Introduction Plants are the gifts of nature to human beings for basic preventive and curative healthcare since time immemorial. Plant extract contains various secondary metabolites that have been reported scientifically for biological activities and can also protect humans against infectious diseases Jeeva et al.
These metabolites include active ingredients like alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, terpenes and tannins Sukumaran et al. Due to wide range of biological activity these phytoconstituents can be used for the treatment of various diseases Dahanukar et al. To promote the proper use and to determine their potential as sources for new drugs, it is essential to study the medicinal plants Parekh et al.
The Genus Garcinia contains around species, where 35 species are found in the two ecosystems of India, the Western Ghats and the Himalayan foot hills Parthsarathy et al. It is a hardwood underutilized medicinal fruit crop, where its fruits are used in food preparations, especially in curries Heber, Previous studies had shown that, the leaf extract of the plant had shown increase the levels of erythrocytes, leucocytes, thrombocytes, hemoglobin and was found to decrease the level of glucose, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein LDL level in catfish.
This was due to the presence of a hypolipidaemic compound, hydroxy citric acid. It also increased immunity by increasing cellular immunological indicators Prasad et al. At present peoples are consuming more fatty food like meat and chicken, dairy products and palm and coconut oil. This fatty food product contains saturated fat.
It can be found in processed foods like biscuits, pastries and takeaway foods that have used ingredients like butter, palm oil, cheese and meat. The over consumption of saturated fat food increases the LDL level in the blood. They believe that some chemical present in the Garcinia gummi-gutta fruits will lower cholesterol level.
Hence this study was carried out to explore the phytochemical constituents of the solvent extracts of Garcinia gummi-gutta fruits and its cholesterol lowering efficiency. Review of literature Medicinal plants, medicinal herbs, or simply herbs have been identified and used from prehistoric times.
Plants make many chemical compounds for biological functions, including defence against insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. Over 12, active compounds are known to science. These chemicals work on the human body in exactly the same way as pharmaceutical drugs, so herbal medicines can be beneficial and have harmful side effects just like conventional drugs.
However, since a single plant may contain many substances, the effects of taking a plant as medicine can be complex.
Many plants produce chemical compounds for defence against herbivores. These are often useful as drugs Springbob et al. Plant medicines are ubiquitous in pre-industrial societies, while some 7, conventional medicines such as aspirin, digitalis, opium, and quinine derive directly from traditional plant medicines, accounting for around a quarter of the modern pharmacopoeia.
They are in general far cheaper, and many can be home-grown or picked for free. Further, pharmaceutical companies have made use of the herbal knowledge of indigenous people around the world to search for new drug candidates Duke, ; Kala and Sajwan, Traditional Chinese medicine makes use of a wide variety of plants, among other materials and techniques.
Plant medicines including opiates, cocaine and cannabis have both medical and recreational uses. Different countries have at various times made some uses of drugs illegal, partly on the basis of the risks involved in taking psychoactive drugs. Cholesterol is both our friend and foe. At normal levels, it is an essential substance for the body. However, if concentrations in the blood get too high, it becomes a silent danger that puts us at risk of a heart attack.
Cholesterol is found in every cell of the body and has important natural functions when it comes to digesting foods, producing hormones, and generating Vitamin D. It is manufactured by the body but can also be taken in from food. It is waxy and fat-like in appearance. Cholesterol is an oil-based substance and does not mix with the blood, which is water-based. It is carried around the body through the blood by lipoproteins.
Two types of lipoprotein carry the parcels of cholesterol: Low-density lipoprotein LDL - cholesterol carried by this type is known as 'bad' cholesterol.
High-density lipoprotein HDL - cholesterol carried by this type is known as 'good' cholesterol. Contributing to the structure of cell walls, making up digestive bile acids in the intestine, allowing the body to produce vitamin D, and enabling the body to make certain hormones.
High cholesterol is a major risk factor for coronary heart diseases, a cause of heart attacks. Reducing blood lipid levels may lower cardiovascular risk. Elevated levels of LDL lead to a build-up of cholesterol in the arteries, whereas HDL carries cholesterol to the liver for removal from the body. A build-up of cholesterol is part of the process that narrows arteries, called atherosclerosis, in which plaques form and cause restriction of blood flow.
Limiting intake of fat in the diet helps manage cholesterol levels. Cholesterol from animal foods, meat, and cheese. Regular exercise may help manage this risk factor.
The primary causes of high cholesterol are genetic - very high LDL levels are found in the inherited condition familial hypercholesterolemia. Unless routinely screened through regular blood testing, high cholesterol levels will go unnoticed and could present a silent threat of heart attack or stroke.
It is a sterol or modified steroids , a type of lipids molecule, and is biosynthesized by all animal cells, because it is an essential structural component of all animal cell membranes; essential to maintain both membrane structural integrity and fluidity.
Cholesterol enables animal cells to dispense with a cell wall to protect membrane integrity and cell viability , thereby allowing animal cells to change shape rapidly and animals to move.
In addition to its importance for animal cell structure, cholesterol also serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acid Hanukoglu, and vitamin D. Cholesterol is the principal sterol synthesized by all animals.
In vertebrates, hepatic cells typically produce the greatest amounts.
Ordinarily full fat milk is used for curd making which out of three products was selected from first sensory and that was adds natural quality to its texture being a high fat food. The compared with the commercial product in the second sensory production steps are illustrated in the Figure 01as stated in evaluation. The sensory attributes of curd were evaluated by Dassana .
Chemical parameters Cool the heated milk little above the room temperature about 40 0C Analysis of titratable acidity The titratable acidity of the products was determined according to the guidelines provided in the SLSI part 2: . Add the inoculum pH analysis The pH of the products was determined according to the guidelines provided in the SLSI part 2: by Mix properly cyber scan digital pH meter.
Identification of microorganisms Pour into individual containers clay pots Identification of microorganisms could be done upto the Genera level. Microorganisms present in the product were determined by inoculating samples onto different media. Loop full of curd samples were inoculated onto Sabouraud agar Oxoid Ltd. Samples spread on Rogosa agar Oxoid Ltd. The dried fruits were small amount of it was inoculated onto MRS agar medium soaked in water for several days prior to the pulp preparation.
A aseptically. Colonies which grew in different mediawere www. Isolated 80 colonies were sub cultured by streaking on agar plates in order to 70 obtain pure cultures. Streptococcusand 10 Leuconostoc were differentiated by gas production in MRS broth 0 with inverted Durham tubes. Growth in 6.
Highest sum of ranks agar. Drug Administration, . Based on the verbal communicationsdone with the panelists, it Total Plate Count TPC was found that when consume with sugar, the curd made from highest concentration of Malabar tamarind pulp inoculated starter Total plate counts were taken by inoculating 1 mL of diluted culture, gave a better taste.
Therefore,it was compared with a samples on solid total plate count agar by spread plate method as curd made from commercial starter culture in the second sensory described by Munsch-Alatossava, . Colonies were evaluation. Number of coliforms Table Mean score for tasting panelists for sensory properties Three-tube method was performed with MacConkey agar as of curd.
Criteria Curd made from Curd made from commercial starter newly developed Statistical analysis culture starter culture Odor 3. Data which Sourness 2. Data obtained from the Overall 3. The ranks given by the panelists for the products are summarized inthe Figure When little amount of Overall 2. On the spread plate of Sabouraud agar, four 0 different colonies were there.
Those were streaked to obtain pure cultures on the same media and incubate under same conditions as previous. Those were then Gram stained and observed under light microscope. Sourness taste were isolated on Sabouraud agar plates. To identify whether of curds Staphylococcus was present catalase test was performed which possibly give positive results for Staphylococcus.
To differentiate made from newly developed starter cultureandcurd made from between Streptococcus and Leuconostocgenera, gas production commercial starter culture when they were consumed with sugar. One species showed gas production Furthermore, Then as confirmation tests commercial product. As it was Leuconostoc no growth could be seen. Yeasts grown on both plates possess whitish, round Table pH and titratable acidity of curds. None of the species did not show growth of germ tube pH Titratable Acidity in blood serum which proved that the Candida albicans were 1st day 2nd 3rd day 1st day 2nd 3rd day absent.
TPC, yeast and mold counts and Coliform counts day day obtained for two products are summarized in the Table CSCFC 4. MTFC 4. There are no standards established for titratable acidity of curd.
Normally only the plates that possess colonies around 30 was drastically decreased. Catalase test, Endospore staining performed. Journal of dairy science, 78 12 , Evaluation of new isolates of lactic acid bacteria as a starter for cultured milk production.
The results of this study reveal that the Garcinia gummi-gutta  Dassana. Moreover, results showed that the sensory attributes of  Savadogo, A. Identification of exopolysaccharides-producing commercial starter culture, are more or less the same in sensory lactic acid bacteria from Burkina Faso fermented milk samples.
African Journal of Biotechnology, 3 3 , Therefore, it can be concluded that the Malabar  De Man, J. A medium for the tamarind pulp inoculated starter culturecan be used to produce a cultivation of lactobacilli. Journal of applied Bacteriology, 23 1 ,