May 15, BOOK REVIEWS. Muscles and meridians: the manipulation of shape. Edited by Phillip Beach. Published by Churchill Livingstone,. Edinburgh. Downloaded from aracer.mobi on May 7, - Published by aracer.mobi com Book reviews BOOK REVIEWS Muscles and meridians: the manipulation of . Request PDF on ResearchGate | Muscles and meridians: the manipulation of shape | Edited by Phillip Beach. Published by Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
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Why not share! An annual anal Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. The distant effect of needling is mainly obtained by shear force- and stress-induced tissue displacement during manual manipulation.
Therefore, it is understandable that Langevin used the rotation to produce connective tissue deformation as the model of mechanical signal transduction. Electrical properties at the acupoints were studied by Nakatani and others, 20—23 These studies revealed that the acupoints have higher electrical conductance and lower impedance than adjacent points. Electricity measurements at the acupoints have been shown to have clinical significance in health and diseases such as coronary heart disease, 24 lung cancer, 25 , 26 and chronic pelvic pain.
The review also suggests that EDA testing at the Jing-Well acupuncture points, on the tips of the fingers and toes, may assist in monitoring the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment. This review also highlighted the heterogeneity of approaches to EDA assessments and the discrepancies between common clinical practice and the scientific evidence to support that practice. Needling-produced tissue injury is minimal and self-heals, according to clinical observation.
More importantly, the injury initiates a healing process. In other words, the small needle injury treats greater pain and health issues. These factors may, directly or indirectly, affect and influence their neural receptors, target cells, or tissues locally and systematically. In , Goldman et al. The antinociceptive action of adenosine requires adenosine A1—receptor expression. Inhibition of the enzymes involved in adenosine degradation potentiated the acupuncture-elicited increase in adenosine as well as its antinociceptive effect.
These observations indicate that adenosine mediates the effects of acupuncture and that interfering with adenosine metabolism may prolong the clinical benefit of acupuncture. This mechanism is proposed for acupuncture pain management. They have their corresponding receptors on afferent nerve terminals. In an acupuncture treatment, the neuronal, biophysical and biochemical reactions take place after needling. Then, certain changes may be manifested in patients, such as erythema at acupoints and special sensations at the acupoints or along the meridians.
Erythema is a visible phenomenon, and the special sensations are perceptible phenomena. The following two sections address how the needling-induced reactions play role in the healing process. Erythema—Inflammation That May Initiate the Healing Process Erythema around needles is common in acupuncture treatment, particularly in the back and the abdominal area. The flare may remain for a few minutes and become a white wheal.
The majority of patients who receive Aggressive Energy AE treatment report feeling better. They report beneficial effects. Substance P causes dilatation of arterioles that, in turn, cause the erythema or flare. Substance P also activates mast cells to release histamine. In turn, histamine increases capillary permeability, leading to a local accumulation of tissue fluids—the wheal response. Thus, as a form of inflammation, erythema may be seen as an early sign of a therapeutic outcome.
One-sided needling at LI 4 may cause a blood flow increase at LI 4 on the opposite side of the body. When Qi is regulated by acupuncture stimulation, Qi arrives and manifests as some special sensations, such as soreness, numbness, heaviness, distension, warmth, and aching around the inserted needles and along the meridians. The specific sensations induced by acupuncture are more important than the specific stimulation sites for inducing cerebral hemodynamic and autonomic responses. The autonomic responses during acupuncture, which might be important for therapeutic efficacy, may be mediated through brain-activity changes, as exemplified by the cerebral hemodynamic responses during acupuncture.
It is well-demonstrated that needling sensations are mediated by specialized neural receptors in the skin and muscles and transmitted by different afferent fibers.
Needling muscle-rich acupoints causes more numbness, heaviness, and distension. Superficial needling within the skin leads to more aching and soreness. In conclusion De Qi is a strong predictor for positive healing outcomes, although perception of the needling sensation may vary widely in individuals and with different needle techniques. Healing is a very complex process that may be mediated by neuronal and humoral pathways induced by acupuncture stimulation, in addition to other modalities, such as acupressure, massage, and moxibustion.
Positive responses may also relate to an individual's health state and lifestyle. However, De Qi indicates a beginning of healing, and consistent treatment is needed to embody the functions of the neuro—immuno—endocrine network, which deserve to be well-discussed in research.
Discussion Acupuncture is becoming widely accepted in the West mainly because of its efficacy and safety. However many more questions regarding why and how it works are challenging acupuncture researchers and practitioners. Traditionally, needle insertion is the first step in acupuncture treatment.
This review has offered significant evidence that, in this first step, three types of reactions occur at the acupoints and mediate healing processes.
The study of neural and humoral pathways could have profound implications in clinical and basic research. With further study on these effects and mechanisms, solid explanations will be provided to patients and other medical professionals and more people will receive the benefits of acupuncture. Similar to other modalities in conventional medicine, Chinese medicine and acupuncture can be used to treat a variety of physical diseases and symptoms. The disease-centered health care system uses acupuncture as a technique or a tool in its regimen.
On the one hand, biomedical science study in acupuncture indeed provides some solid scientific explanations. On the other hand, unfortunately, the beauty of the ancient wisdom gets lost. That is the true mission of a medicine system—healing of the body and mind.
Chinese medicine as a form of holistic medicine particularly emphasizes wholeness of body, mind, and spirit. Although this review focused on the acupoints at the physical levels—neural reactions, biophysical reactions and biochemical reactions—it is important for holistic medicine practitioners to know that many other factors may affect healing. Therefore it is necessary to discuss what constitutes healing under a bigger umbrella of healing instead of focusing on physical disease if we wish to pursue healing physically, mentally, and emotionally in patients.
Healing means to restore to wholeness, wellness and soundness in body and mind. The healing process is initiated not only by physical needling but also from good rapport, emotions, communication, lifestyle changes, and wellness coaching. A recent systematic review reported that evidence of a relationship between indices of psychologic stress and biologic parameters was limited and inconsistent.
There was some evidence of a consistent relationship between natural-killer cells and lymphocyte subpopulations. With special techniques, a bodily map of emotions may be drawn. Conclusions Needling is the first step of traditional acupuncture therapy.
Needling reactions are the beginning of the healing process. There is existing research on the three major needling reactions. These reactions are neuronal, biophysical, and biochemical in nature. Healing may be potentiated through the messengers in neuronal and humoral pathways.
The reactions manifest as erythema and De Qi—both of which are common phenomena used as positive signs in acupuncture treatment—which provide interesting evidence regarding the mechanisms of acupuncture actions. Disclosure Statement No competing financial conflicts exist. References 1. NIH Consens Statement. Xu S, Lao X. From basic science studies to clinical trials: What recent acupuncture research tells us. Med Acupunct.
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Nakatani Y. On the nature of the acupuncture points and meridians. J Jpn Orient Med. Voll R. Twenty years of electroacupuncture diagnosis: A progress report in Germany. Am J Acupunct. Electrophysiological correlates of acupuncture points and meridians.
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Evoked electrical conductivity on the lung acupuncture points in healthy individuals and confirmed lung cancer patients. Am J Acpunct. Transcutaneous computed bioconductance measurement in lung cancer: A treatment enabling technology useful for adjunctive risk stratification in the evaluation of suspicious pulmonary lesions. J Thorac Oncol. Electrodermal measures of Jing-Well points and their clinical relevance in endometriosis-related chronic pelvic pain. J Altern Complement Med.