Title: Passages 1, second edition, student book, Author: Efraín Leota, Name: You've already learned the basics and have progressed to the high-intermediate level. . Choosing the best topic sentence • Writing a paragraph giving advice on When her cell phone rings, she looks at you and says insincerely, 'Oh, sorry. ter Oaeraiew Each chapter in Select Read,ings includes the eight sections described below Suggested Matura Explorer Pre-intermediate Student s book. Select Readings books for Kids by Oxford Download for free American English Select Readings also helps students prepare for exams, with the new Testing Tests · Select Readings Second Edition Pre-Intermediate Students Book · Select .
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Requested Bach/18 Short Preludes (Palmer) Book() CD (rec. Popular Piano Selections () Beethoven/Selected Intermediate to Early Advanced of His (Palmer) () Mozart/Selected Piano Sonata Mov nI ings without Wor s Easiest. Select Readings 2nd Pre Intermediate - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read Select Readings, Second Edition is a reading course for students of English. 92 Chapter 10 I Mobile Phones: Hang Up or Keep Talling?. Welcome to the Select Readings, Second Edition Audio Download Center. This premium content Intermediate · Upper-Intermediate Students and teachers may download this audio content for personal or classroom use. AddThis Sharing .
To take you further, Passages, Second Edition, emphasizes new and sophisticated grammar and vocabulary, listening and reading texts on more challenging topics, academic writing activities, and thought-provoking discussions. Each unit consists of two four-page lessons. Each lesson contains a variety of exercises, including starting point, vocabulary, grammar, listening, discussion, writing, and reading.
Here is a sample unit. Useful expressions boxes help you manage conversations. For example, this lesson teaches ways to start and end a small-talk conversation. Lesson 8 is a complete four-page lesson, with new grammar and vocabulary, and a new twist on the unit topic. Grammar "noticing" activities help you find more examples of the new grammar in context. Listening activities develop ski lls such as listening for main ideas, making inferences, and note taking.
More resources Communication reviews after every three units include progress checks and additional listening and speaking activities. The Teacher's Edition includes additional games, projects, and readings, as well as written and oral quizzes. A woman uses the Internet to get money to payoff a frivolous debt. Talking about what's average Discussing what makes you typical or unique Discussing the effect of major life changes Giving advice in a role play.
Discussing how to handle irritating situations Comparing styles of complaining Role-playing complaints Stating consumer complaints Describing how difficult situations make you feel.
Two brides deal with a bad consumer experience. Taking a survey on scruples Comparing what you would do about different ethical dilemmas Discussing your experiences with unreliable people or services Talking about values that are important to you Explaining what you would choose if you were given three wishes.
Describing personalities Expressing likes and dislikes Describing personal change Stating advantages and disadvantages Talking about rules.
Describing types Talking about appropriate behavior Starting a conversation Making small talk Reporting what someone else has said. Describing routines and habits Giving advice Explaining reasons and conditions Giving interpretations of meaning. Talking about your past mistakes Comparing reactions to a news story Discussing what might have caused three mysterious events Making guesses about unusual questions Comparing opinions about a real -life unexplained event.
Explaining why you'd like to visit a particular city Choosing the right city for a particular purpose Deciding which city is best to live in Describing your hometown Discussing quality-of-life issues. Discussing personal energy levels Talking about how to deal with stress Giving advice on sleep and energy levels Talking about sleeping habits Interpreting dreams. Discussing conversational styles Discussing awkward social situations Determining appropriate topics for small talk Comparing who you confide in Recounting an interesting conversation.
Determining if a story is true or false Presenting a recent news story Discussing how you follow the news Telling stories about uncomfortable situations Creating a story with your classmates. Talking about frustrating situations Participating in a debate Talking about future trends Giving opinions.
Comparing customs and habits Presenting contrasting information Making generalizations Talking about past habits. Describing job qualifications Offering solutions to problems Commenting on facts Analyzing reasons. Describing everyday irritations Describing complaining styles Making and responding to complaints Identifying solutions to problems.
Comparing and contrasting customs Predicting the future Making hypotheses Giving advice Explaining preferences. I enjoy going to parties where I don't know everyone. I avoid expressing my feelings and ideas in public. I insist on making my own decisions. I don't mind giving up my time to help other people.
I never worry about getting places on time. Pair work Compare your responses to the survey. Find two ways you and your partner are different. How about you? A Which statement from the survey above best matches these personality traits?
Write the correct number. Then compare answers with a partner. Pair work Choose another partner. Find two traits you have in common. Find one way that you're different. I like taking it easy and. Useful expressions Same traits So am I. I am too. I'm the same way. So do I. I do too.
Neither do I. I don't either. Different traits I'm not like that. I'd say I'm more I don't. That's not true for me. Use the gerund or infinitive form after these verbs. Use the gerund form after these verbs. Use the gerund form after these expressions containing prepositions. I always feel like going acting! I'm into going out to new foreign restaurants.
A Look at the starting point on page 2 again. Can you find other expressions that are followed by gerunds? Which of them can also be followed by infinitives? B Pair work How do you feel about these things? Discuss your answers using verbs or expressions followed by gerunds and infinitives.
I guess I'm just afraid of making them even angrier. Which person is most similar to you? B Group work Write a similar profile for yourself. Don't write your name.
Your teacher will take your profile and give you another. Ask questions around the class to find the writer. H ow did they change? Complete the chart with the expressions from the box.
Which person do you think would be more likely to do these things this weekend? How have you changed? What do you want to change now? Complete the chart. B Pair work Compare your charts. Ask follow-up questions. I used to watch a lot of Tv. Now I don't. What made you change? Useful expressions Describing how you've changed I used to I think I've become more. Topic sentences The main idea is usually found in the first sentence of the paragraph. This sentence is called the topic sentence.
Read these paragraphs about people's best and worst qualities. Underline the topic sentence in each paragraph. I think that my most positive quality is that I'm always pretty calm and cool, especially when something breaks. I'm really into solving tricky problems and finding solutions to things. My specialty is electronics. People come to me if something goes wrong with their laptops or their MP3 players or even their cell phones. For example, two days ago, my dad's brand new computer suddenly froze up.
He was afraid of causing more damage, so he asked me to figure out the problem. It only took me 15 minutes to fix it, and I loved doing it! My most negative quality is that I'm not very neat and tidy. Sometimes I worry about being so disorganized, but I never feel like doing anything about it. My apartment is always a mess, so I can never find anything.
Last week, for example, I finished doing some homework and then started to make dinner. In the morning, I couldn 't find my assignment anywhere, so I had to redo it. I really want to change my bad habits, but I don't know where to start.
B Think about your own personal qualities. Make a list. Then decide which quality is most positive and which is most negative. Circle each one. Write a paragraph about either your most positive or your most negative quality. Make sure your paragraph has only one main idea. What is your partner's topic sentence? Underline it. What examples did your partner give? What did you find most interesting about your partner's paper?
The only trouble with being a two-income family is we don't spend as much time together. The big advantage of having her at home is that she can baby-sit more often.
The only bad thing about living in our house is thert;'s only one bathroom! That's a disadvantage. Listen to Paul and Andrea talk about their families.
What kind of family did each person grow up in? How have their families changed? Match the people on the left with the phrases on the right. C Pair work Is your family similar to Paul's or Andrea's?
How is it similar? How is it different? A noun clause is a part of a sentence that has both a subject and a predicate. That is optional in noun clauses after be. Also notice the prepositions used in each sentence. The only trouble with being a two-income family is that we don't spend as much time together.
The big advantage of having Grandma at home is that she can baby-sit more otten. Grammar Plus: See page A Look at the starting point on page 6 again. Can you find the noun clause in the last example? Which preposition is used in the first part of the sentence?
B Combine the sentences. I'm the youngest in the family. The nice thing is I get a lot of attention. I have a younger sister. The trouble is she always wants to borrow my clothes. I'm away at college. The bad part is that I miss my family. I work at night.
The worst thing is I can't have dinner with my family. I'm the oldest in the family. One bad thing is that I always have to baby-sit. C Complete the sentences with your own ideas. An advantage of being a twin is. A problem with being an only child is One benefit of being the oldest is. A big disadvantage of having an older sibling is The best thing about having a big family is. What's the best thing about spending time with your family?
What's the worst thing? What's one advantage of having a close family? What are some rules that people have to follow in your family? What's a benefit of having strict parents? Are you most likely to confide in a parent, a sibling, or a friend?
Do you believe mothers and fathers should do the same chores? What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a two - income family? B Group work Discuss the questions you chose. Ask follow-up questions and make sure everyone in your group participates. Compound family terms A Match the family members on the left with the definitions on the right.
B Which of the family members in the box can be combined with a prefix or suffix in the chart? Complete the chart with a partner.
What does each term mean? Family reunion Listen to Victor tell a friend about his family reunion. What were they celebrating at the reunion? Listen again. In addition to immediate family, what other relatives of Victor's were there? Group work What's the size of an average family where you're from?
Jim Silcock. There are 30 boys in this close-knit household and Anne Belles is their mom. Belles has wanted to help children since she was a kid. I told my mom, 'That's what I want to do.
I want to adopt orphans. All of them are challenged in some way. She doesn't focus on what her kids can't do, only on what they can.
They go to mainstream schools, take karate, go skatin g at the roller rink, and even act on television. In an interesting twist. Every day, a small army of childcare workers, nurses, and volunteers comes in to help cook and clean , wash 30 loads of laundry a day, and take care of health needs. To find out how much such a large family costs, we followed Jim Silcock to the grocery store.
There's also clothing. How do the kids feel? Says 17 -year-old Anthony. Under all this chaos, I feel like I am loved. And everything about what I'm doing was everything I wanted to happen in my life," says Anne Belles. I couldn't ask for it to be better maybe a bigger house, you know. B Read the article and answer the questions. What reason does Anne Belles give for adopting so many children? What's special about the children that Belles and her husband adopt? What are the total monthly expenses for this family?
I was supposed to be studying this weekend for a math test. But my friends made me go to the beach with them instead. I mean, I didn't have to go with them, but I did. Now the test is in two hours, and I' m totally unprepared. I should have stayed home and studied! In high school, I had to wear a uniform, so I didn't have a lot of fashionable clothes.
When I started college, I thought I needed to have more, so I wasted a lot of money on trendy outfits. But I really shouldn't have done it. Now I'm broke! We weren't supposed to cook in our dorm rooms, but I had a microwave anyway. The cafeteria was right next door, so I really didn't need to have it. Anyway , I got caught making popcorn last week, and the school took the microwave away. Pair work What should each person do differently in the fu ture?
Compare ideas. She shouldn't have let them influence her like that. Liste n to Frank talk about a bad declSlon he made. What was hiS decision? Why was it a bad one? Are these statements true or false? I the correct answer.
True 1. Frank and his neighbor were good friends. Frank knew he was allergic to cats. Frank marked his calendar to remember to feed the cat. Frank forgot what time his train was going to leave. Frank remembered to feed the cat on Saturday. Should have, was supposed to, had to, and needed to all describe obligations in the past, although they sometimes have different uses. It was a good idea, but I didn't do it.
I was supposed to be studying this weekend. It was required, but I didn't do it. I had to wear a uniform. We were forced to do this. I didn't have to go with my friends, but I did. There was no obligation. I thought I needed to have more clothes. I thought this was necessary. A Look at the starting point on page 10 again. Can you find other examples of past modals and phrasal modals of obligation?
What does each one mean? B Choose the answer that best describes what these sentences mean. I shouldn't have invited them. I didn't invite them. I invited them. That was a secret! You weren't supposed to tell anyone! You didn't tell anyone. You told someone. We didn't have to study for the test. We forgot to study. We were prepared for the test. I know Jane didn't like my cooking, but she didn't need to be so rude about it. Jane was rude to me.
Jane wasn't rude to me. C Complete the sentences with information about yourself. After I started high school, I had to I made someone angry once because I wasn't supposed to.. I wasted a lot of money once because I thought I needed to.. When I had the opportunity, I should have JPast experiences " " A Look at the survey and check the items that are true for you.
Pair work Discuss your answers. At myoId job, l wasn't supposed to take a long lunch. But I took long lunches at the park, anyway. These verbs are often used to talk about problems. Use the verbs to replace the boldfaced words and phrases in the sentences below.
My friend never does anything about his problems. Maria can look at a broken bicycle and find the problem right away. My sister is never afraid to try to take care of a difficult problem. Gil Dong always makes his problems worse. Ruby always follows the recipe closely to prevent problems when she cooks.
Ming always unexpectedly encounters problems when he tries to fix things. Carla is great at completely fixing any kind of problem at work. Al is the kind of student who always makes problems for teachers. Pair work Do you know anyone similar to the people in the sentences above? Tell your partner. Her car is always making strange noises, but she never does anything about it. What did each person finally do about the problem? Write the correct letter. Briefly describe each person's problem.
Brainstorming Brainstorming means making a list of ideas about a topic. Then you can use this list to come up with a topic sentence and ideas to support it.
Living on a tight budget is easy if you follow some simple rules when you go shopping. First of all, you should never download something at the first store you visit. You need to check at least a few other stores to compare prices. Second, don't be in a hurry! If you take your time, you might find a sale. If there are no sales right now, ask a salesperson if there's going to be one soon. Third, consider downloading used or secondhand items.
You can check in the newspaper or online to find what you're looking for. Finally, you might get a better price at some stores by paying cash instead of using a credit card, so be sure to ask about cash discounts. How many brainstorming ideas did your partner use?
Do you think he or she chose the best ones? Do you have any questions about your partner's paragraph? Is there anything you disagree with?
Can you think of a good title for your partner's paragraph? Explain your choice. Do you have any guesses?
A Read the news story and the comments to the right. Which comments do you agree with? TOKYO - More than children were rushed to hospitals Tuesday after suffering convulsions, vomiting, and irritated eyes after watching a popular Japanese cartoon.
The network said it plans to cancel next week's show if the cause of the incident remains unclear. Most of the children developed the symptoms after a scene featuring five seconds of flashing red light in the eyes of the show's most popular character. TV executive Hironari Mori said the scene passed inspection before broadcast, but in hindsight "we believe there may have been problems.
Yukio Fukuyama, an expert on the brain, said that "television epilepsy" can be triggered by flashing, colorful lights.
Fukuyama says parents should be made aware of the danger. Chi cagoMom: The children shouldn't have been sitting so close to the TV! The TV network should have been more careful. To express degrees of certainty, use must not , can't, could not , might not , or may not. I'm certain the flashing lights must have caused the seizures. The seizures might have been caused by stress.
To express obligation, advice, or opinions, use should not. Do not use must not have for obligations, advice, or opinions about the past. A Look at the starting point on page 14 again. What does each modal express? Which ones are used in the passive? B Use modals to write reactions to these situations. You and your friend planned to meet, but your friend never arrived. How would you explain them? Useful expressions B Group work Discuss your explanations.
I mean, it doesn't look like a normal plane. Disagreeing I don't know. I'm not so sure. Well, maybe, but.. I know what you mean, but.. Why do giraffes have long necks? Why do some buildings not have a thirteenth floor? Is there intelligent life on other planets? What should you do if you get sprayed by a skunk? What color is an insect's blood? Why doesn't a haircut hurt? Still unsolved mysteries Do you think that things like UFOs and alien abductions really happen?
Listen to a radio program about a famous claim of alien abduction in Canada. What did the Hills say happened to them? Which ones support the Hills' story? Which ones don't? The Hills saw an object flying beside their car. Betty saw creatures looking at them from the object. The creatures spoke to the Hills in a strange language. Betty found pink powder on her dress the next day. This happend to one Texas couple, when the groom came down with amnesia days after their wedding. Amy and Sean McNulty's wedding day started well, but ended with a shock.
One of Sean's good friends was in a coma because of a serious car accident. Nevertheless, Amy and Sean decided to make their honeymoon trip according to plans. Psychiatrist Dr. Daniel Brown says Sean's amnesia might have been caused by a series of stressful moments, like his friend's car accident. According to Dr. Brown, Sean's brain didn't connect with his identity anymore. At the airport, Sean realized he'd left his wallet in their car after they'd parked.
He said to Amy, "I'll be right back. You know it's there but you can't find it," said Brown. The day before their first anniversary, Sean's memories flooded back in an instant. He soon remembered everything,. Amy contacted the police, who found Sean wandering near a motel three days later. He was confused and covered in bug bites. Sean could not remember any personal details from his life, not even his mother.
Sean views the experience as a chance to confirm he picked the right bride. How is our experience. I couldn't have found a better relationship going to work? B Read the article. Sean's amnesia began after he was in a serious car accident. Sean shoved cake in Amy's face when he remembered who she was.
C Group work Discuss these questions. Then share your answers with the class. What do you personally think might have caused Sean's amnesia?
Which city would you most like to visit? Barcelona is famous for museums and seafood - and for the architect Antoni Gaudi, who designed several of the city's most distinctive buildings. The restaurants here stay open until midnight, when many locals are still enjoying dinner.
Tourists who come here for the first time are amazed by the crowds, the busy streets, and the constantly changing skyline. Seoul is well known for its spicy food and its shopping areas, where you can find everything from antique pottery to custom-made clothing.
The place where most tourists go first in Sydney is the famous Opera House, but this Australian city also has great restaurants and museums. The spring and fall are the seasons when most people come to visit. It's got the ocean on one side and mountains on the other. It's really beautiful, but it's expensive.
Where in the world J Listen to Diana and Matt talk about two cities. Who is talking about Athens and who is talking about Seoul? Who mentions these topics, Diana D or Matt M? A defining relative clause defines or gives essential information about a noun. The Myeong-dong area has dozens of shops that sell the latest fashions. A non-defining relative clause gives optional information about a noun and cannot begin with the pronoun that. Notice the use of commas. Beijing has many popular tourist attractions, which include the Great Wall of China.
A Look at the starting point on page 18 again. Can you find more relative clauses? B Underline the relative clauses in the sentences and add commas where necessary. Write D for a defining and ND for a non-defining relative clause.
Hong Kong was a British colony until when it was returned to China. Busan is a busy port city that is located in South Korea. Bogota which is situated on a high plateau in central Colombia has frequently changing weather. Montreal is a sophisticated city where some of the best cuisine in Canada is found. Sao Paulo which is the biggest city in Brazil is also one of the world's most populated cities.
C Join the sentences using non-defining relative clauses. Then compare answers. You can see fabulous sculptures there. Seoul's name comes from the ancient word Seorabeol. Seorabeol means capital. The center of Beijing is Tiananmen Square. It is the world's largest public square. A great time to visit Seoul is in the fall. This is when Korean people celebrate the Chuseok festival. Japanese restaurants are now popular in Barcelona.
They have started appearing in recent years. Australia's first European settlers came to Sydney in the s. They were originally from Great Britain. Write three sentences. Use relative clauses where appropriate.
Ii What makes a city? Put the voca u ary words in the columns. Add ideas of your own. B Pair work Use the features above to talk about your city. Give examples and add extra information. Acaraje is one of the most popular foods, and it's really delicious. It's a deep-fried cake that's made from mashed beans. Listen to Carlos and Vicki talk about San Francisco. Who seems to like the city better?
B Pair work Discuss your answers. New York is incredibly expensive. I'm not sure I agree. Maybe, but don't you think.. I know what you mean, but Organizing ideas Making a mind map is a good way of organizing your brainstorming ideas.
Mind maps help you map out the supporting details about your topic. A Look at the phrases in the box about Cuzco, Peru. Choose the main idea and write it in the center of the mind map. Then write the supporting details in the mind map. Read the paragraph about Cuzco. Underline the ideas from the mind map in the paragraph. CtaCO has something fOr everyone. People who are interested in architecture will love the nearby Inca ruins or Machu Picchu and the palace or Inca Roqa.
CtaCO has many places to stay, which range rram firstclass hotels to cozy inns. There are also many cares and restaurants where you can eat unique local dishes or international cuisine. When you visit CtaCO, you should try to experience all it has to offer. C Choose a place you know and make your own mind map. Be sure the main idea is general and contains several supporting ideas. E Pair work Exchange paragraphs with a partner.
Then answer the questions. Is there any information you would like your partner to add? Does the content of the paragraph refl ect the ideas in the mind map? Would you like to visit the place your partner wrote about? Why or why not? Complete the descriptions with the sentences below. Most evenings you can choose from a movie, a concert, or even a museum. There's something to do in all four seasons.
But there's not much act ion here at night. However, housing costs are high. So, even though our streets are safe, the evenings can be dull. But be careful - in spite of all the late-night activity, the crime rate is high. On the other hand, it can sometimes be difficult to find a job. Although it's fast, clean, and cheap, it's pretty crowded during rush hour. Nevertheless, it's still the most popular way for people to get to work. Despite the nearby shops, you'll still want a car.
There are no buses here. These compound terms describe different types of towns. How would you define each one? B Pair work Which of the terms above best describes your hometown? Which best describes the town where you'd like to live someday? A Look at the starting point on page 22 again.
Can you find more sentences that have two or more modifiers? B Write descriptions of places you know. You can use these words and phrases to connect contrasting ideas. Look at the starting point on page 22 again. What words and phrases connect the contrasting ideas?
B Circle the words that are true for you. Then complete the sentences. Even though I woul? On the other hand, In spite of that, C Pair work Discuss your answers. Ask and answer follow-up questions. Where would you move? I hope someplace cheaper, but still near here. A Listen to Maria and Ian talk about life in Sydney. Who seems to enjoy enmg living there more? Which person has these opinions?
Maria Ian Both 1. It's easy to get around Sydney. The beaches are great. The rents are expensive. It's a fun place to live. The restaurants are all expensive. Life is better in a smaller town. Can you add one more to the list? B Pair work How important are the points above in your town?
Which three are the most important to you personally? I'd love to find a place I could afford that was near someplace fun. But for me, I guess low crime rates are probably the most important. I want to live somewhere where I feel safe. I don't mind if it's a little boring.
C Class activity Share your answers with your classmates. Which issues were mentioned most often? Pair work What do you know about Melbourne and Sydney? Read the first two paragraphs. Then tell you partner. Melbourne has quaint old buildings and parks. Sydney has spectacular beaches, but Melbourne's are less crowded. Talk to Melbournians, and they'll say their city is best.
Talk to Sydneysiders, and they'll say Sydney is the number one place to live. According to many Melbournians, inhabitants live a life of ideas, discussion, and debate. People are active in the arts, and live well. Then again, that's what Sydneysiders say about their city, too. Talk to Melbournians, and they'll tell you their city has friendlier and more outgoing people than Sydney.
Most Sydneysiders won't disagree about their city being less friendly. Nevertheless, they'll be quick to tell you that it's a dynamic, world-class city with tons of things to do and see.
Sydneysiders say they are always busy enjoying all that their city offers - such as the crashing surf at Bondi,. People in downtown Sydney are always on the move, rushing to make contacts, cutting deals, and gaining influence. In Melbourne, eating out is a pastime and the pace of life is slower and easier. Melbourne may not have the great surfing of Sydney, the beautiful Darling Harbor, or the Opera House; instead, it's low key and savvy.
You have to dig a little to get under its surface, but once there, you'll find a perfect example of a chic, ultra-modern city. Sydney looks internationally for inspiration, but Melbourne tends to look regionally - to Japan, for example. In a word, if you were to compare them to American cities, Sydney would be sunny L. B Read the article again. Culture and Language Notes. On pages , students will find explanations for cultural references and language usage that appear in blue type in the readings.
Notes are provided on a wide range of topics from scientific information, to geographical references, to famous people. Each location featured in a reading passage is clearly marked on one of the maps found on pages Numbered lines. For easy reference, every fifth line of each reading passage is numbered. Recorded reading passages. Listening to someone reading a text aloud helps language learners see how words are grouped in meaningful chunks, thus aiding comprehension.
Circling words, writing questions in the margins, and taking notes are three ways in which students can make reading a more active and meaningful experience.
As they listen to the recording, students can lightly underline or circle the groups of words. After You Read: Understanding the Text Following each reading, there are two to three post-reading activities that give students the chance to a clarify their understanding of the text, b practice reading skills previously introduced, and c discuss the issues raised in the reading.
Questions are also labeled to highlight the reading skill required to answer the question. The process of discussing questions and answers gives students an opportunity to check their comprehension more critically. Building Vocabulary Reading extensively is an excellent way for students to increase their vocabulary base. Considering this, we pay careful attention to developing students' vocabulary-building skills in each chapter of Select Readings, Second Edition.
A variety of vocabulary-building skills are introduced and recycled throughout the book. Each Building Vocabulary section starts out with a short explanation and examples of the skill in focus.
In the activities that follow the explanation, students typically scan the reading to gather and analyze various types of words and then use the words in a new context. Encourage them to ask any questions they have about the explanations or examples. Present various ways in which students can organize the words in their notebook: Reading Skill At the beginning of each Reading Skill section, students encounter a short explanation of the skill in focus and, when appropriate, an example of how that skill relates to the reading in the chapter.
The first task following this explanation asks students to return to the reading to think about and use the new reading skill. The new Apply the Reading Skill sections then give students the opportunity to apply the strategy to a new short reading that is related to the topic of the main reading passage. Then have them apply the new reading skill as they work with the second reading passage in this section. Discussion and Writing At the end of each chapter, students have an opportunity to talk and write about a variety of issues.
The activities in this section provide students with a chance to broaden their views on the topic of the reading and to address more global issues and concerns. This allows them to apply what they learned in their first discussion of the question. Words to Remember Each chapter ends with a list of Words to Remember. A majority of these words are Oxford keywords, and many are also highlighted on the Academic Word List.
This section provides an efficient means for students to keep track of important new vocabulary by chapter. In addition, the new Mini-Dictionary on pages features carefully crafted definitions of each Word to Remember from the new Oxford Basic American Dictionary for learners of English, giving students an alphabetical reference of the words and their definitions all in one place.
The reading tests included on the new Testing Program CD-ROM with Student Book Answer Key were written and approved by testing experts to ensure a close connection to the widely-used standardized tests above. Each test features a reading passage followed by questions designed to measure comprehension as well as reading- and vocabulary-skill proficiency.
All unit tests feature new and different reading passages to test the skills learned in that unit. Giving students the opportunity to listen to a fluent English speaker as they follow along in the text significantly aids comprehension and supports listening and speaking skill development. This is particularly useful for aural learners, who absorb information best through hearing it presented.
Each Class Audio CD features a variety of accents to expose students to the many sounds of English around the world today. Audio Download Center. Students and teachers can visit www. This publication is not endorsed or approved by ETS. Connect with the topic. Check w" your answers to these questions about sleep.
How many hours a night do you D fewer than 6 hours usually sleep? D between 6 and 8 hours D more than 8 hours 2. How do you feel when you wake D great up in the morning? D okay D terrible 3. How often do you feel sleepy D often during the day? D sometimes D almost never. Pair work. Compare answers to Activity A with a partner. Do you have the same sleep habits? Example A: I usually sleep fewer than eight hours a night.
Me too! I want to sleep more, but I'm too busy. Preview the reading. Move your eyes quickly over the reading on pages Look at the reading for only minutes. Then complete the Previewing Chart below. Title of the reading: Names of people and places in 3. What words appear the reading. List 2 more.
AUDI www. Are You Getting Enough Sleep? What happens if you don't get enough sleep? Randy Gardner, a high school student in the United States, wanted to find out. He designed an experiment 1 on the effects of sleeplessness2 for a school science project. With Dr. William C. Dement from Stanford University and two friends s watching him carefully, Gardner stayed awake for hours and 12 minutes.
That's eleven days and nights without sleep! What effect did sleeplessness have on Gardner? After 24 hours without sleep, Gardner started having trouble reading and watching television. The words 10 and pictures were too blurry. By the third day, he was having trouble doing things with his hands.
By the fourth day, Gardner was hallucinating. For example, when he saw a street sign, he thought it was a person.
He also imagined he was a famous football player. He also had trouble remembering things. By the eleventh day, Gardner couldn't pass a counting test.
He couldn't 20 remember what he was doing. When Gardner finally went to bed, he slept for 14 hours and 45 minutes. The second night he slept for twelve hours, the third night he slept for ten and one-half hours, and by the fourth night, he had returned to his normal sleep schedule.
They say that people should not repeat Randy's experiment. Tests on white rats have shown how serious sleeplessness can be. After a few weeks without sleep, the rats started Culture and losing fur. Eventually,6 the rats died. She went hours without sleep in That's 18 days and 17 hours! But why? What is the purpose of sleep? Surprisingly, scientists don't know for sure.
Sleep researchers now know, however, that our brains are very active when we sleep. Some scientists think we sleep in order 40 to replenish8 brain cells. Other scientists think that sleep helps the body to grow and relieve stress. Word Count: About Sleep Each night, we pass through 1 0 five stages, or periods, of sleep. In Stage 1, we fall asleep.
We sleep lightly in Stage 2. We have deep, or sound, sleep in Stages 3 and 4. This is the time when we dream. These stages last about one and one-half hours. After each REM stage, we return to Stage 2 light sleep and begin the cycle again. Deep, slow-wave sleep. Dreaming stage. After You Read irLanguage. Scanning for Details Read each statement below and check.! True or False.
True False 1. Randy Gardner was a university student when he did D D his experiment. During the experiment, Gardner slept for several D D hours every night. During the experiment, Gardner had trouble speaking D 0 clearly. It took two weeks for Gardner to recover from the D D experiment.
Going without sleep is not dangerous for white rats. Maureen Weston stayed awake a little over seven and 0 0 one-half days longer than Gardner. The author does not tell us how Gardner stayed awake D 0 for eleven days. According to this article, scientists are not sure why D 0 we need to sleep. Vocabulary Underline these words in the reading passage on pages Then match each word with its definition to the right.
Consider the Issues Work with a partner to answer the questions below. What are the effects of sleeplessness? List three more ideas from the reading passage.
Think of three more possible effects of sleeplessness. Complete the sentences below. Compare ideas with a partner. You might have trouble driving a car. That's right. And you could have trouble What is your opinion of Gardner's experiment? D I think it was a dangerous experiment. D I think it was an interesting experiment. D I don't think the experiment was very scientific. D Share your opinion with your partner. Example I think Randy Gardner's experiment was interesting because I learned a lot about the importance of sleep.
Building Vocabulary Using Collocations irLanguage. For example, it's natural for native speakers to say sleep schedule, but not sleep timetable or sleep program. We form collocations by combining different parts of speech.
Below are some examples of collocations that include sleep:. Use th e words in th e box below to form collocations and complete th e sentences. What time did you go sleep last night? How long does it take you to asleep? Do you h ave a regular or irregular sleep? Do you h ave the same sleep every day?
Ask a partner th e questions in Activity A. W h at time do you usually go to sleep? I usually go to sleep at View means to look at. Before you read something, it's important to look it over, or preview it. This will help you understand the reading better.
When you preview a reading, you: I Identify the topic. To do this: Analyze the Reading Look at the title, the names of people, and the key words in the paragraph below. Then answer the questions. Babies, sleep-REM. What do you know about the topic of the paragraph? Add one more idea to the list. What would you like to learn about this topic? Add two questions to the list. Apply the Reading Skill Follow these instructions to preview the reading below.
Look only at the title of the reading. What do you think the topic of the reading might be? List one more possibility. Look quickly over the reading. What names of people and places do you see? List two more. What words are repeated several times key words? What do you think the topic of the reading is now? Complete the sentence.
I think this reading is probably about. Write two questions. The biggest night-owls in the world are the 1. The second-ranked 3. Following 5. Of the top ten night-owl places in the 7.
The other three 8. Complete the chart with your own answers. Whal "! I - - drink water. Then choose one of the topics and wnte a paragraph explaining your opinion. What are the effects of using a computer too much? Computers help us do many things, but they can be bad f or yo u, too.
If you use the computer for a long time without a break, your eyes may begin to hurt. You might also get a headache. Computers are good for chatting with friends or sending e-mail. Ho wever, if you only talk with your friends on the computer, you can't do fun things with them. Make sure you have en ough time with your friends away from the computer, too. Imagine you are going to study in another country.
Check v" and write your answers to the questions below. Have you ever studied in another D Yes, I have. D No, I haven't. Would you like to study abroad?
D Yes, I would. D No, I wouldn't. What foreign country would you prefer to study in? Take turns asking and answering the questions above. Have you ever studied in another country? No, I haven't.
What about you? Yes, I have. I studied in Canada. Previewing Chart www. Key words. Mika Tanaka, a college student from Japan, had a wonderful homestay in Lo11don. She lived with a British family and studied English for a month.
Maps On February 11, I left Japan. On the plane, I worried about being all pages But when I met the Flannery family my host family , their warm welcome3 made me feel at ease. Both my Culture and host father and mother were very kind and treated me like their own Language Notes 10 daughter. I homestay period during which a visitor in a foreign country lives with a local family 2 all alone by myself; without someone r know 3 warm welcome friendly greeting 4 treated me like their own daughter were kind and ood to me, like l was their own dau hter g g.
Also, there weren't many Japanese students at Oxford 15 House. I took my parents' advice and requested that my homestay family have both a mother and a father, be native-born, non-smoking, middle-class British people, and live near a subway station.
I later found that this was very good advice, since some of my friends at the English school were 20 having problems with their host families. Living in London Potatoes! It took me a little time to get used to the many kinds of potato dishes served: My host mother was a good cook.
She 30 made delicious pasta and chicken dishes and even cooked rice for me. Nadiege, a French girl, was another homestay student living with us, and we went around London together.
On Saturdays, my host family would have a party at home with friends or family. When we returned from touring London, Nadiege and I would join the party.
On Saturday 35 evenings, Mr.
Flannery would go to their favorite pub 5 to spend time together. Although I selected a school with few Japanese students, there were still at least two in each class.
In class, I tried to speak a lot, but many Japanese students didn't use their English very much even if they had large 40 vocabularies , and spoke only Japanese with their friends. Sometimes, I asked other people their impressions of Japan.
My teacher thought that Japanese people were very rich. I did not agree with these points, 6 but I was interested in knowing what foreign people thought. One month 45 in London made me realize that speaking English was very important because it is the language that people from many countries use the most. I would like to be more open-minded about people from different countries, like my host family is. Reading Time: Scanning for Details Read the statements and check.
True False I. For her 19th birthday, Mika asked for a homestay D D in London. Mika went to England alone. Mika lived with a host family for two months. Mika did things in London with the Flannerys' D D youngest daughter.
Mika's teacher thought all Japanese people were rich. Vocabulary What is the meaning of each highlighted word in the passage? Circle your answers below.
Before going to London, I did some research on English schools in London and chose Oxford House College, mainly because it had reasona6l e fees I later oun that this was very good advice, since some of my friends at the English school were having problems with their host families. The word "reasonable" in the passage is closest in meaning to expensive I not expensive. The word "requested" in the passage is closest in meaning to asked for I refused.
The word "native-born" in the passage is closest in meaning to born in Britain I born outside Britain. The word "middle-class" in the passage is closest in meaning to over 50 years old I not rich or poor. The word "found" in the passage is closest in meaning to heard I realized. Do you think Mika Tanaka would agree or disagree with the opinions below? You should do some research before you travel abroad. It's good to live with a host family. Traveling abroad is a good way to learn English.
Do you agree with Mika's opinions? Mika made several important decisions before she went to London. For each decision, list an advantage and a disadvantage. Example Mika's decision: She decided to live with a family that had both a mother and father. She would experience living with at least two British people. Disadvanta ge: She would not experience a family setting different from her own in Japan.
Mika's decision: She decided to go to a school with few Japanese students. She decided to go to London alone. She decided to live with native-born British people. These compound words are usually nouns or adjectives. Some are written as one word.
Some are written with a hyphen - between them. Some are written as two separate words. My host father took me to the so I could download some stamps and send postcards to my friends back home. My brother and are hosting two students from Thailand in their home this summer. When I did my homestay in France, I had a hard time using the computer. Some of the letters are in different places than on my American one.
When I arrived in Osaka for my homestay, my host family was at the to welcome me. Instead, you can move your eyes quickly over the text to find the information. This is.
Analyze the Reading Look at the questions below. Then scan don't read the passage and find the answers. What date did Mika leave for her homestay? On February 11, I left Japan.
On the plane, I worried about being all alone there-a stranger to London. But when I met the Flannery family my host family , their warm welcome made me feel at ease Before going to London, I did some research on English schools in London and chose Oxford House College, mainly because it had reasonable fees.
Also, there weren't many Japanese students at Oxford House On Saturdays, my host family would have a party at home with frie. On Saturday evenings, Mr. Flannery would go to their favorite pub to spend time together. In class, I tried to speak a lot, but many Japanese students didn't use their English very much even if they had large vocabularies , and spoke only Japanese with their friends. Apply the Reading Skill Look at the topicsbelow.
Scan the passage and fill in information for each topic. If there isno information about a topic, write no information. I left Boston and arrived in Paris on June I met my host family at the airport. My host parents were Marc and Gabrielle Lapierre. They also had a daughter, Sophie, who was 14 years old. The Lapierres lived in an apartment in Paris. It was very close to a subway station , so it was easy for me to travel around the city.
I visited all the famous sites in Paris. I study art history, so the museums were my favorite places. Every evening I practiced speaking French with my host family, and I also helped Sophie practice her English. The food in Paris was amazing. I tried a lot of different dishes, but the crepes were my favorite.
You can download crepes almost anywhere in the city. My favorite ones had tomatoes and cheese inside, or chocolate. Gabrielle taught me how to make crepes, and now I make them at home. I was sad when I left Paris on August 12, but I'll never forget my wonderful time there.
Marc and Gabrielle told me that they want to send Sophie for a homestay with my family and me in a few years. I can't wait! If you went on a homestay, what would your ideal host parents be like? I' your answers below.
Then add two more ideas. Write sentences about your ideal host parents. Then read your sentences to a classmate. Example My ideal host parents would be friendly. They would also live near a subway station and have a daughter my age. They would What are some good reasons for studying abroad? Think of a way to complete each sentence below.
Then compare your ideas with another pair's ideas. Example It's a good idea to study abroad because you can learn to cook different kinds of food. Ifs a good idea to study abroad because How do different colors make you feel?
Write "djectives next to the colors. Use the adjectives in the box or your own ideas. Compare your answers with a partner. Red makes me feel excited because That's interesting. Red makes me feel angry What words appear several times? List 5 more. It's Not Always Black and White. You can find the names of colors in a lot of English expressions.
For example, the expression black and white can have different meanings. If something is black and white, it means it is clear, easy to understand. Some people have to see something in black and white to know that it is true; this black and white talks about seeing something printed, as in a newspaper. If something is printed in a newspaper, it must be true, right? You can listen to red-hot jazz music or eat red-hot chili peppers. If you roll out the red carpet for someone, you are giving them a big welcome.
On TV, you may see stars walking on the red carpet at the opening night 1 of a Hollywood movie or at the Academy 15 Awards. After a big night like this, the stars often paint the town red, which means that they celebrate and have fun, going to parties or nightclubs all over town. However, red isn't always fun.
If you do something embarrassing, like spill 2 coffee on your teacher's desk, perhaps your face is beet 3 -red. Your teacher's face might be 20 red with anger,4 too! Or if you see a person doing something bad on purpose, 5 like taking someone's wallet, you can say that you caught the person red-handed.
Whether it's good or bad, red usually means something interesting is happening. Blue is different. When people are blue, or 25 have got the blues, it means they feel sad.
They might listen to blues music, which usually tells sad stories. Blue isn't always a sad color, though. If something good happens to you when you're not expecting it, like when you get a good idea, or if you Culture and 30 run into6 an old friend, you can say it happened out of Language Notes the blue.
In the past, being green was almost always something negative. For example, if you ride on a boat and feel seasick,? If someone 35 has something nice that you really want, like a new car or an expensive watch, you may also be green with envy. Now, however, green is usually good.
Being green more often means 40 doing good things for the environment. Many companies are going green, which means they are recycling 10 more or are trying to use less energy. In fact, some companies are moving to new, green buildings, which may use solar power 11 or grow plants on their roofs.
So if someone asks you how green 45 you are, it probably means they want to know if you do good things for the environment.
Learning new expressions with colors can be fun, but it's not always easy. As you can see, their meanings can sometimes be very different. Try looking for these expressions in the things you read.
If you learn more so about how these expressions are used, you may add a little color to your writing, or even pass your next English test with flying colors.
Comprehension For each item below, fill in the correct circle. Scanning for Details The following colors are mentioned in the reading: Then complete the sentences. Sheila is an important phone call this afternoon from her boss. That man in the jeans and T-shirt is the president of the company. You really can't a person by what he's wearing.
We have to try to get the we need from things other than oil. Read the situations. Which color expression from the reading completes each sentence? Peter didn't get the job. I just got my first paycheck from my new job! Let's go out and. Roberta seems really ever since she and her boyfriend broke up. I wish I could make her feel better.
Is everything okay? I saw you in the office talking to Mark, and your face was. What did he do? I really liked riding the rollercoaster, but when we were done, Mike looked. Poor guy. Which words in the sentences helped you guess the right answers?
Take turns asking and answering these questions with a partner. Look at your answers for Activity A on page Think about how each color makes you feel. Then choose three expressions using colors and write a sentence using each one.
Building Vocabulary Understanding Idioms There are a lot of idiomatic expressions, or idioms, in English. Idioms are expressions whose meaning cannot be easily guessed just from the words in the idiom itself. The reading on pages contains several idiomatic expressions using the names of colors.
What do you think the expressions below mean? Read each sentence and match the idiom with the correct meaning. Underline the words that helped you guess the meaning. Carl's business was doing really well, but he lost some big customers and now he's in the red. O losing more money than he's making O making more money than he needs.
After the car accident, Sarah's nose was black and blue for days. O had too much makeup O was dark and bruised from being hit. I thought Max was a nice guy, but yesterday he really showed his true colors. He yelled at Eric for making a really little mistake. O showed what he's really like O showed that he likes to get angry. The manager gave us the green light for our new project. I can't wait to get started.
O permission to move forward O a lot of money. Do you know these idioms? Work with a partner to guess the meanings. Skimming When you skim a reading selection, you read it quickly to learn about its content and organization. You don't read every word. Instead, your eyes move very quickly over the selection, trying to find general information. For example, look at the reading on pages again. Read very quickly. How many colors does the reading talk about? You don't have to read every word to see the words black and white, red, blue, and green.
Analyze the Reading Take just one minute to skim the Scope and Sequence on pages vi-vii. Which chapter s might have a reading about technology? Which words in the Scope and Sequence helped you find your answers? Write them below. Apply the Reading Skill First, read the questions below. Then take one minute to skim the article for the answers. Discuss your answers with a partner.
What does your favorite color say about the kind of person you are? Some people think that you can understand a lot about a person by his or her favorite color. A person who likes red is usually strong and healthy. Red people like to see the good things in other people and don't like to feel sad.
They like to try new things and don't like to stay home all day. For a really fun time, talk to a person who likes orange. They like to be around friends all the time and love parties. Orange people are strong, and they like a lot of drama in their lives.
Green people like to be around people, too, but sometimes they are too nice, which is not always good. People who like blue are also very loving people. They are calm and strong, and they like other people to see this.
They are very different from those who like purple. Purple people are funny, loud, and usually like art. They are happy to be different from others. So, does your favorite color describe you? Try asking your friends and see if their color matches their personality.
Have fun! What is the topic of the reading selection? Which words helped you find the answer to question 1? Where would you probably see this kind of reading? Which words helped you find the answer to question 3?
In the reading, you learned several expressions using color. Which expressions have a positive meaning? Which are negative? I your answers. Do you judge each situation individuaHy, or do you D D see everything in black and white? Do you roll out the red carpet when people visit your home? What do you do when you feel blue? Have you ever felt green with envy?
Thinking about the environment, how green are you? Take turns asking and answering the questions in the chart above. Give examples or reasons for each answer. Write your partner's answers. My Partner's Answers Question Read these dictionary definitions and answer the questions below. They're asking for volunteers lo I volunteered to do the dishes. Think of something you volunteered to do for a friend, family member, or organization. Who did you help? What did you do?
What volunteer organizations do you know? What do they do? Fill in the chart below. Discuss your answers to Exercise A with a partner. Jqpan build. Since , volunteers for Habitat have built more than , houses worldwide. According to Habitat, however, there are still more than 1.
She has traveled to the Philippines three times to help build housesfor people who need them. For me, the idea of building somebody's house abroad was very exciting. Tue next year I returned to Negros Island as a Habitat volunteer. Their lifestyle reminded us of the meaning and value of life.
The people also helped us appreciate the more valuable things in life, such as spending time with your family, friends, and neighbors; developing close 20 relationships; helping each other; and appreciating what you do have. These things are sometimes forgotten in an afl: We thought we came to the Philippines to help the Filipino people, but they helped us to see something valuable.
They generously offered their food, space, and hearts5 in a way we were unaccustomed to. Would you 25 give up your bed for a stranger and sleep on the uncomfortable cement floor at your own house? When I took my third trip to the Philippines as a Habitat volunteer, I was assigned to6 a house with young people from around the world. Some of us are actively involved in Habitat in different countries.
Habitat brings people together and helps us realize that people all 35 over the world care about each other. Habitat sends the very important message that we can all be friends. Being involved with Habitat for Humanity has changed my life. I've learned that I can make a difference9 in the world. Word Count Reading Time: Scanning for Details Which statement is true? Habitat for Humanity is more than 30 years old. The writer is an employee of Habitat for Humanity. Scanning for Details How many classmates went with Mariko on her second trip?
In paragraph 3 lines , what does Mariko Asano say are the valuable things in life? List four things below. Choose one of Mariko's ideas and discuss why you think it is important. I think it's important to help each other because together we are stronger. I agree. When we help another person, we become better people ourselves.
In your opinion, what are some of the positive and negative things about volunteering for Habitat? Add your ideas to the chart below. Based on the information in your chart, would you encourage someone to volunteer for Habitat? Why or why not? For example, the word unimportant means not important and the word inactive means not active. Add the correct prefix un-, im-, in-, ir- to each adjective below to make the meaning negative.
Is it im possible to learn a new language in one year? Do you think sleeping on a cement floor would be very comfortable? What is the reading about? To identify the main idea of a reading, ask: What is the most important thing the writer says about the topic?