People with social anxiety tend to fear and avoid social situations. They are very concerned that . It's not the end of the world. We all say silly things and most of. other kinds of anxiety disorders, please see the end of this booklet. Social Phobia . Page 4. Social Phobia. Social phobia is a strong fear of being judged by others and of being . You can browse online, download documents in PDF, and order . Social anxiety is a common disorder characterized by a persistent and excessive fear of one or .. tary–adrenal (HPA) axes, and their respective end products.
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PDF | A greater understanding of the origins of social phobia is much ized social phobia situated at one end and avoidant personality disor-. Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is one of the most In social anxiety disorder, the fear can occur in vir . soclallunctioning end dioablilly . social phobia offered by the Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety Disorders at St . What you can expect by the end of this program is for your symptoms to have.
To other scholars, the problem is prevalent in Asians and African Latinos who live in urban areas Hofmann, The assumption of the proponents of this line of thought is that most of these people live in the rural areas and therefore when they are exposed to urban areas they become anxious. What they fear is that they shall be seen as not able to adapt to the urban environment and therefore they refuse to have healthy relationships with the inhabitants of those urban areas.
The same case also applies to those people living in urban areas and is likely to be exposed to be exposed to rural areas.
Education levels have been held by psychologists as a big cause of the disorder. Less learned people are likely to suffer from the disorder as compared to those that are more learned. The less learned are reluctant to engage in any healthy discussion with the highly educated lot. They always feel belittled, humiliated and lowered in the presence of the people who are more educated than they are.
They will therefore feel anxious and afraid to interact with them Srinivasan, The study which was carried out by scholars in India showed that the more educated class and the less educated class have a tendency to live as two distinct classes who never interact. This is replicated in other parts of the world as well. In America, scholars have found that the more educated people live separately from the less educated people and in good houses, drive good cars and have more business engagements as compared with their counterparts who are less educated.
Kleiman, Fear of humiliation and embarrassment by other people is arguably the biggest cause of social anxiety disorder. In this perspective, people fear engaging with others in the belief that possibly they possess certain extraneous physical, emotional or social flaws and possibly possess a socially inappropriate behavior. They therefore fear that they may offend others in social gatherings.
This fear is so aggravated that they rarely engage themselves in any interaction with those people who may be said to be socially upright. In fact, studies have shown that some of the people who experience or have the following are the most affected by the disorder: Various scholars have also found that this disorder is phenotypic. People with the disorder always fear various changes over time the reason as to why they are always anxious. The disorder also depends on whether the people that are affected are male or female.
For male, their fear is dreading how their female friends will perceive them possibly because they possess some inefficiency or are deformed in a way. For females, they fear their female friends more that they fear their male friends. This is because on matters romance, they fear that their female counterparts may pose unhealthy competition for male friends and therefore they are anxious not to engage or relate with them in any way.
In fact they avoid them to the best of their ability Clark, What is common among all the scholars is that the gravity of this fear depends largely on personal orientation and social values. A person who is highly oriented to what is happening everywhere all over the world is likely not to be affected too much by the disorder. This is because they are highly connected, have interacted with various people and they have been assisted to discover and deal with their weaknesses.
In a society where social values are the norm, those people who find it hard to cope with these social values are highly likely to suffer from the disorder. It therefore follows that for there to be less social anxiety disorder, people have to be obedient to and conform to a certain norm, possibly set by the society and which people must conform to D Hinton, Various studies conducted in Asia show that people are highly affected by social values and ties coupled with their personal orientation and ability to conform to various set standards and norms D Hinton, There was also consensus among the scholars that the disorder is arguably one of the most common and prevalent among the various psychiatric disorders.
Some scholars even went overboard to state that the disorder mostly strikes on adolescence. In school, the disorder is characterized by lower grades while at work it is characterized by unemployment or laxity at work. In relationships, it is characterized by low marriage rates. Most Western scholars are in agreement that the disorder is characterized by social phobia, shyness and tendency of people to avoid other personality traits.
Scholars in the world over agree that exposure to any social situation for a person suffering from the disorder may trigger the following: Profuse sweating, blushing anyhow, embarrassment, palpitations, trembling and in some instances the person may experience difficulty in speaking publicly Kleimann, However, there are so many discrepancies when it comes to what really causes the disorder.
As outlined earlier in this paper, the disorder is a disorder, properly so called. It should never be mistaken to a disease. That is why some researchers have even gone ahead to prescribe medication for the same. The result has been to improperly address the disorder, the reason as to why it has persisted to-date. We therefore see the need for new studies towards ensuring that the disorder is properly diagnosed. We stated from the outset that the intention of this paper was to outline the various reasons as to why there has been no solution so far to the disorder of social anxiety.
In this part, we have lived to our promise by stating the diagnostic challenges that eventually lead to poor prescription of solutions towards solving the disorder.
If the model does apply to adolescents, then a treatment that rather single-mindedly focuses on the maintenance factors specified in the model may be helpful for this population.
Certainly, this type of approach, in which interventions are very tightly tied to known maintenance factors, has proved successful as a strategy for developing effective forms of CBT for a range of anxiety-related conditions in adults Clark A number of cognitive accounts have been put forward to try to explain this Clark and Wells ; Heimberg et al.
There is considerable overlap amongst these models, for example they all highlight the importance of fear of negative evaluation and of self-focused attention in maintaining social anxiety. A useful review of the prominent cognitive behavioural models including a description of their commonalities and differences is provided by Wong and Rapee According to the cognitive model developed by Clark and Wells , people with social anxiety hold firm beliefs about the importance of making a good impression to others, but they also believe they come across badly Leary These negative beliefs are activated in social settings and understandably trigger alarm Hofmann The sense of threat then motivates a chain of cognitive, affective and behavioural responses.
This chain of responses is self-perpetuating and closed off to new information. These are described in more detail below, and the model is displayed in Fig. As a result, individuals often fail to observe that other people are responding to them in a broadly benign manner.
Another consequence of the shift to an internal focus of attention is an increased awareness of feared sensations. Second, the model proposes that individuals use internally generated information to create an impression of how they appear to other people. The information drawn upon includes feelings of anxiety and negative self-imagery. Negative images are common. Images usually come to mind from an observer perspective rather than a personal or field viewpoint, and so it is natural that the images are assumed to be an accurate representation of how the individual looks to other people.
Third, the use of safety behaviours, which are motivated by the desire to prevent or minimise the consequences of feared outcomes such as sounding stupid or blushing , further maintains social anxiety and negative social beliefs.
Common safety behaviours in social anxiety include avoiding eye contact, preparing topics of conversation in advance, wearing lots of make-up, and agreeing with others. Safety behaviours are unhelpful for a number of reasons.
They prevent the individual from discovering that the feared outcome was very unlikely to happen anyway. Safety behaviours can directly cause feared symptoms. For example, covering your cheeks to prevent blushing can make you hotter and cause flushing.
Safety behaviours can make one appear withdrawn and unfriendly. Behaviours such as avoiding eye contact or keeping conversations short can contaminate the social interaction and give the impression that one is not interested. Finally, safety behaviours can draw attention to feared behaviours. For example, speaking very quietly may cause others to lean in and pay especially close attention in order to hear what is said. Safety behaviours comprise a broad range of overt behaviours and mental operations.
Some safety behaviours involve avoidance, such as speaking less and avoiding eye contact, whilst others are concerned with making a good impression, for example checking you are coming across well and preparing topics in advance. Whilst it is suggested that both groups of safety behaviours are unhelpful as they prevent disconfirmation of negative beliefs and increase anxiety, only avoidance behaviours contaminate the social situation by making the individual appear withdrawn and unfriendly.
Three studies have provided support for the distinction between avoidance and impression management safety behaviours.
Plasencia et al. In addition, correlational analyses indicated that both sets of safety behaviour appear to maintain social anxiety, but only the avoidance behaviours had a negative effect on other people.
In an earlier study, Hirsch et al. They found that items assessing avoidance behaviours were significantly correlated with negative ratings of the conversation, whilst items assessing impression management behaviours were not.
Extending these correlational studies, a recent experimental study Gray and Clark submitted directly manipulated the use of safety behaviours during a conversation task.
The pattern of results was as expected, with use of both safety behaviour types increasing anxiety, but only avoidance behaviours resulting in a negative response from the conversation partner. Further unhelpful processes include anticipatory worry and post-event processing.
Before a social event, individuals with social anxiety will review what they think is going to happen in detail. Negative predictions will prevail and are associated with anxiety and a host of memories of past failures and negative self-images. This worry is often enough to stop someone entering a social situation in the first place. If they do manage to go, they will be cued up to interpret social failings.
Despite some brief relief on leaving a social situation, socially anxious individuals often describe a continued cycle of negative thoughts and distress. Due to the inherently ambiguous nature of most social situations, it is rare that people receive an unquestionable seal of social approval.
Post-mortems involve detailed revisiting of the previous event. However, because attention is trained internally during social events, and the focus is on negative thoughts, feelings and images, it is this that is reviewed in detail especially the most distressing moments , rather than the objective facts of the event.
As a result, the event will most likely be labelled a failure. Intense humiliation and shame commonly run alongside these ruminative thoughts.
The post-mortem process can continue for days and sometimes weeks after an event. We suggest that the cognitive model of Clark and Wells has the potential to be a good fit for an adolescent population.
For example, self-focused attention is emphasised in this model and it is a construct that has clear parallels with self-consciousness Stein which is heightened during adolescence. Likewise, the concept of safety behaviours, which is emphasised in the model, may be pertinent to a teenage population.
Avoidant safety behaviours may elicit particularly negative responses amongst adolescent peers, who as a group are especially sensitive to perceived peer rejection compared to children and adults see Kilford et al.
But the situations that trigger the symptoms of social anxiety disorder can be different. Some people experience anxiety in most social situations. For others, anxiety is connected to specific social situations, such as speaking to strangers, mingling at parties, or performing in front of an audience.
Common social anxiety triggers include:. Social anxiety disorder, on the other hand, does interfere with your normal routine and causes tremendous distress.
But if you have social anxiety, you might worry for weeks ahead of time, call in sick to get out of it, or start shaking so bad during the speech that you can hardly speak. The first step is challenging your mentality. Social anxiety sufferers have negative thoughts and beliefs that contribute to their fears and anxiety. These can include thoughts such as:.
Challenging these negative thoughts is an effective way to reduce the symptoms of social anxiety. Step 1: Identify the automatic negative thoughts that underlie your fear of social situations. Step 2: Analyze and challenge these thoughts. It helps to ask yourself questions about the negative thoughts: It can be incredibly scary to think about why you feel and think the way you do, but understanding the reasons for your anxieties will help lessen their negative impact on your life.
You may be convinced that everyone is looking at you and judging you.
Your focus is on your bodily sensations, hoping that by paying extra close attention you can better control them. Switching from an internal to an external focus can go a long way toward reducing social anxiety.
Instead, do your best to engage them and make a genuine connection. Chances are other people are feeling just as nervous as you—or have done in the past.
Release the pressure to be perfect. Instead, focus on being genuine and attentive—qualities that other people will appreciate. Many changes happen in your body when you become anxious. One of the first changes is that you begin to breathe quickly. Overbreathing hyperventilation throws off the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your body—leading to more physical symptoms of anxiety, such as dizziness, a feeling of suffocation, increased heart rate, and muscle tension.
Learning to slow your breathing down can help bring your physical symptoms of anxiety back under control. Practicing the following breathing exercise will help you stay calm:. One of the most helpful things you can do to overcome social anxiety is to face the social situations you fear rather than avoid them. Avoidance keeps social anxiety disorder going.
While avoiding nerve-wracking situations may help you feel better in the short term, it prevents you from becoming more comfortable in social situations and learning how to cope in the long term.
In fact, the more you avoid a feared social situation, the more frightening it becomes. For example, a fear of speaking up may prevent you from sharing your ideas at work, standing out in the classroom, or making new friends.