NX Motion Simulator - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read NX WAVE Control Structure Tutorial Unigraphics NX8 Modeling. The files of components are also available online to download and use. We first released the tutorial for Unigraphics 18 and later updated for NX 2 followed by . For example, kinematic analysis programs can be used to determine motion paths .. Choose the file type as Model ➢ Choose Menu →Insert →Design Feature. 0 Tutorial Siemens Nx CAM Mill Multi Axis. novation supernova manual pdf NX answer questions and download tutorials. ug nx motion simulation tutorial pdf.

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NX™ Motion Simulation-RecurDyn software helps designers and engineers predict and understand the functional behavior of parts and assemblies. It delivers a. UG NX MOTION SIMULATION TUTORIAL PDF: Approximately 98,63,+ pdf, ppt, doc, interviews, faq's references, UG NX reviews, software information, download, Educational notes, files, free stuff, pdf, ppt, txt .. UG NX FILE EXTENSION. One of the best things in NX Motion Simulation is that it defines automatically the Links and Joints from the assembly. Assembly parts are.

Kinematic-Simulation The motion simulator 5. The assembly, which was created in the previous steps, is loaded first. The environment is changed to kinematics through the main menu, Start. A new window Environment now opens. The dynamic analysis type is confirmed with the OK button. At this point of time, the Motion Joint Wizard will prompt the user if the constrains have to be transferred from the assembly. For the purpose of getting familiar with this workbench, it is recommended to cancel this operation. The constraints can now be redefined. Defining the links allows the user to set which parts of the assembly should have movement. This is one of the important requirements to construct the motion model. A click on Link option opens a new window as seen in the picture besides. The user can select one or more objects from the assembly. If more than one component is selected as a link, they always move together in the simulation. The selection can be made by a direct mouse click on the component, or through the model tree.

As an example, the Time is input as 2 seconds and the number of Steps is defined as All parameters are confirmed with OK.

With the command button Solve the entries are calculated. An information window appears indicating the redundant degrees of freedom or constraints. A redundant constraint means that the degree of freedom of the system is overdetermined. The over-determination of complex assemblies can lead to conflicts. To make sure that we arrive at a conflict-free solution, these provisions are eliminated automatically by the motion analyzer.

The joint type of. After this change, the system must be The simulation cannot be started with the Play button at this stage, since the system still does not have a driver excluding gravity , it just oscillates under gravity. The animation can be stopped using Finish animation. One of the important information listed here is the number of degrees of freedom. In this example, the system should have one degree of freedom, which is rotation.

The animation shows clearly that the mechanism can rotate around the axis. A driver has to be added for the mechanism for complete rotation. This is done by right click on the first joint, J and edit.

The tab Driver in the menu is selected. At this point of time, the driver is None. The dropdown menu has other options, where Constant is selected. The Constant rotation executes a simulation with constant motion and acceleration with respect to time.

The system has to be calculated with the new parameters using Solve. The animation can be started with Play. Our animation is controlled using the Animation Control menu, as seen below.

To slow down the animation velocity, a higher value for example 50 for the Animation delay could be given. Other options include Play once , which would run the simulation only once. The option Loop allows the user to view an endless animation and the option Retrace runs the simulation once forwards and once backwards respectively. Once the settings are entered as required, they are confirmed and the window is closed with OK.

The animation can now be started with the Play button in Animation Control as discussed before. The advantage of graphical notation is that the designer can get a quick overview and make necessary changes. Use the Mech BCs window to apply the trajectory Apply the Mech BC the appropriate boundary condition Use the trajectory window to define an incremental range of steps, eg. Simulation data tables can be exported. Control the axis range and type using the Axis menu. Values at all nodes in parabolic elements are now used high resolutions 36 Advanced Solvers PZE Solver - MemMech can be configured for piezoelectric analysis.

Computes stress that develops when deformation is prevented or restrained by surrounding materials Assumes linear coupling relationship between electrical displacement or field strength and mechanical factors. MemPZR - uses stress and material s PZR coefficients to compute the piezoresistive sensor s potential field and the resulting change in current. Facilitates design of multiple piezoresistive sensors of arbitrary shape and size To match process parameters, such as diffusion depth, the user may independently control the process-dependent geometry of each resistor.

MemHenry - computes frequencydependent resistance and inductance matrices for a set of conductors Accurate, 3D computation can be applied to on-chip passive inductor analysis and parasitic extraction for packaging analysis. For example, in a city street scene, there is generally no need to draw the polygons on the sides of the buildings facing away from the camera; they are completely occluded by the sides facing the camera. It is important to note that this technique only works with single-sided polygons, which are only visible from one side.

Double-sided polygons are rendered from both sides, and thus have no back-face to cull. Beams are shaped like unbounded pyramids, with possibly complex polygonal cross sections.

In beam tracing, a pyramidal beam is initially cast through the entire viewing frustum. This initial viewing beam is intersected with each polygon in the environment, from nearest to farthest. Each polygon that intersects with the beam must be visible, and is removed from the shape of the beam and added to a render queue. A variant of beam tracing casts a pyramidal beam through each pixel of the image plane.

This sort of implementation is rarely used, as the geometric processes involved are much more complex and therefore expensive than simply casting more rays through the pixel.

Beam tracing solves certain problems related to sampling and aliasing, which can plague conventional ray tracing. However, the additional computational complexity that beams create has made them unpopular. In recent years, increases in computer speed have made Monte Carlo algorithms like distributed ray tracing much more viable than beam tracing. Beam tracing is related in concept to cone tracing.

Most of the time, when drawing a textured shape on the screen, the texture is not displayed exactly as it is stored, without any distortion. The formula In these equations, uk and vk are the texture coordinates and yk is the color value at point k. Values without a subscript refer to the pixel point; values with subscripts 0, 1, 2, and 3 refer to the texel points, starting at the top left, reading right then down, that immediately surround the pixel point.

These are linear interpolation equations. However, if the image is merely scaled and not rotated, sheared, put into perspective, or any other manipulation , it can be considerably faster to use the separate equations and store yb and sometimes ya, if we are increasing the scale for use in subsequent rows. Sample Code This code assumes that the texture is square an extremely common occurrence , that no mipmapping comes into play, and that there is only one channel of data not so common.

Nearly all textures are in color so they have red, green, and blue channels, and many have an alpha transparency channel, so we must make three or four calculations of y, one for each channel. The red numbers represent texels that would not be used in calculating the 3-texel texture at all. This works best when the texture is being tiled. This is probably not that great an idea, but it might work if the texture is designed to be laid over a solid background or be transparent.

This works well if the texture is designed to not be repeated. The angle between N and H is therefore sometimes called the halfway angle.

In high dynamic range rendering HDR applications, it is used when the necessary brightness exceeds the contrast ratio that a computer monitor can display. A bloom works by radiating, or blooming, the high intensity light around the very bright object, so that the bright light appears to be coming from around the object, not only from the object itself. This gives the illusion that the object is brighter than it really is. It can be used without HDR rendering to represent a surface that is being illuminated with an extremely bright light source, and as a result, is often mistaken for a full implementation of HDR Rendering.

Bloom became very popular after Tron 2. Normally, simpler volumes have simpler ways to test for overlap. D R A F T 35 Bounding volume A bounding volume for a set of objects is also a bounding volume for the single object consisting of their union, and the other way around.

Uses of bounding volumes Bounding volumes are most often used to accelerate certain kinds of tests. In ray tracing, bounding volumes are used in ray-intersection tests, and in many rendering algorithms, it is used for viewing frustum tests. If the ray or viewing frustum does not intersect the bounding volume, it cannot intersect the object contained in the volume.

These intersection tests produce a list of objects that must be displayed. Here, displayed means rendered or rasterized. In collision detection, when two bounding volumes do not intersect, then the contained objects cannot collide, either. In either case, it is computationally wasteful to test each polygon against the view volume if the object is not visible.

OBB trees. The basic idea behind this is to organize a scene in a tree-like structure where the root comprises the whole scene and each leaf contains a smaller subpart. Common types of bounding volume The choice of the type of bounding volume for a given application is determined by a variety of factors: the computational cost of computing a bounding volume for an object, the cost of updating it in applications in which the objects can move or change shape or size, the cost of determining intersections, and the desired precision of the intesection test.

It is common to use several types in conjunction, such as a cheap one for a quick but rough test in conjunction with a more precise but also more expensive type.

The types treated here all give convex bounding volumes. If the object being bounded is known to be convex, this is not a restriction. If non-convex bounding volumes are required, an approach is to represent them as a union of a D R A F T 36 Bounding volume number of convex bounding volumes. Unfortunately, intersection tests become quickly more expensive as the bounding boxes become more sophisticated.

A bounding sphere is a sphere containing the object. In 2-D graphics, this is a circle. Bounding spheres are represented by centre and radius. They are very quick to test for collision with each other: two spheres intersect when the distance between their centres does not exceed the sum of their radii.

This makes bounding spheres appropriate for objects that can move in any number of dimensions. A bounding cylinder is a cylinder containing the object. In most applications the axis of the cylinder is aligned with the vertical direction of the scene. Cylinders are appropriate for 3-D objects that can only rotate about a vertical axis but not about other axes, and are constrained to move by horizontal translation only, orthogonal to the vertical axis. Two vertical-axis-aligned cylinders intersect when, simultaneously, their projections on the vertical axis intersect — which are two line segments — as well their projections on the horizontal plane — two circular disks.

Both are easy to test. In video games, bounding cylinders are often used as bounding volumes for people standing upright. A bounding box is a cuboid, or in 2-D a rectangle, containing the object. In dynamical simulation, bounding boxes are preferred to other shapes of bounding volume such as bounding spheres or cylinders for objects that are roughly cuboid in shape when the intersection test needs to be fairly accurate. In many applications the bounding box is aligned with the axes of the coordinate system, and it is then known as an axis-aligned bounding box AABB.

The DOP is then the convex polytope resulting from intersection of the half-spaces bounded by the planes.

Popular choices for constructing DOPs in 3-D graphics include the axis-aligned bounding box, made from 6 axis-aligned planes, and the beveled bounding box, D R A F T 37 Bounding volume made from 10 if beveled only on vertical edges, say 18 if beveled on all edges , or 26 planes if beveled on all edges and corners. A DOP constructed from k planes is called a k-DOP; the actual number of faces can be less than k, since some can become degenerate, shrunk to an edge or a vertex. A convex hull is the smallest convex volume containing the object.

The idea here is that, if there exists an axis by which the objects do not overlap, then the objects do not intersect. Often, this is followed by also checking the cross-products of the previous axes one axis from each object.

In the case of an AABB, this tests becomes a simple set of overlap tests in terms of the unit axes. An OBB is similar in this respect, but is slightly more complicated.

This concept of determining non-intersection via use of axis projection also extends to Convex Polyhedra, however with the normals of each polyhedral face being used instead of the base axes, and with the extents being based on D R A F T 38 Box modeling the minimum and maximum dot products of each vertex against the axes.

Note that this description assumes the checks are being done in world space. This is in contrast with the edge modeling method, where the modeler edits individual vertices.

Subdivision Subdivision modeling is derived from the idea that as a work is progressed, should the artist want to make his work appear less sharp, or "blocky", each face would be divided up into smaller, more detailed faces usually into sets of four.

However, more experienced box modelers manage to create their model without subdividing the faces of the model. Basically, box modeling is broken down into the very basic concept of polygonal management. Quads Quadrilateral faces, or quads, are the fundamental entity in box modeling.

Obviously, if one were to start off from a cube, the artist would have six quad faces to work with before extrusion. While most applications for three-dimensional art provide abilities for faces up to any size, results are often more predictable and consistent by working with quads.

This is so because of the fact if you were to draw an X connecting the corner vertices of a quad, the surface normal is nearly always the same. Advantages and disadvantages Box modeling is a modeling method that is quick and easy to learn.

It is also appreciably faster than placing each point individually. But his inventions are remembered under his given name Phong. Bui Tuong published the description of the algorithms in his PhD dissertation15 and a paper He received his Ph.