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Aromaticity as a chemical property bears no general relationship with the olfactory properties of such compounds how they smell , although in , before the structure of benzene or organic compounds was understood, chemists like Hofmann were beginning to understand that odiferous molecules from plants, such as terpenes, had chemical properties that we recognize today are similar to unsaturated petroleum hydrocarbons like benzene.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
The configuration of six carbon atoms in aromatic compounds is known as a benzene ring, after the simplest possible such hydrocarbon, benzene. Crude petroleum is composed of two elements, carbon and hydrogen. Comets are renowned for appearing carbonised e. Secondly, Giotto revealed Comet Halley is more tarball than snowball. Swan bands are a characteristic of the spectra of carbon stars, comets and of burning hydrocarbon fuels.
They are named for the Scottish physicist William Swan who first studied the spectral analysis of radical Diatomic carbon C2 in Swan bands consist of several sequences of vibrational bands scattered throughout the visible spectrum. Calculations of its size and orbit showed it to be a large comet that would pass close to the Sun, reaching perihelion at the end of These events lead to several key statements: Venus must be still very hot as young planets radiate heat.
Velikovsky suggested some additional ideas that he said derived from these claims, including: Jupiter emits radio noises. The rotation of the Earth can be affected by electromagnetic fields. Velikovsky arrived at these proposals using a methodology which would today be called comparative mythology — he looked for concordances in the myths and written histories of unconnected cultures across the world, following a literal reading of their accounts of the exploits of planetary deities.
He argues on the basis of ancient cosmological myths from places as disparate as India and China , Greece and Rome , Assyria and Sumer.
For example, ancient Greek mythology asserts that the goddess Athena sprang from the head of Zeus. This myth, along with others from ancient Egypt , Israel , Mexico , etc.
Contemporary reactions[ edit ] The plausibility of the theory was summarily rejected by the physics community, as the cosmic chain of events proposed by Velikovsky contradicts basic laws of physics.
Velikovsky's ideas had been known to astronomers for years before the publication of the book, partially by his writing to astronomer Harlow Shapley of Harvard , partially through his pamphlet Cosmos Without Gravitation,   and partially by a preview of his work in an article in the August 11, , edition of the New York Herald Tribune. An article about the upcoming book was published by Harper's Magazine in January , which was followed by additional articles in Newsweek Bauer —4 and Reader's Digest in March Shapley, along with others such as astronomer Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin also at Harvard , instigated a campaign against the book before its publication.
Initially, they were highly critical of a publisher as reputable as Macmillan publishing such a pseudoscientific book, even as a trade book. The fundamental criticism against the book from the astronomy community was that its celestial mechanics were irreconcilable with Newtonian mechanics, requiring planetary orbits which could not be made to conform to the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of angular momentum Bauer Velikovsky conceded that the behavior of the planets in his theories is not consistent with Newton 's laws of motion and universal gravitation.
He proposed that electromagnetic forces could be the cause of the movements of the planets, although such forces between astronomical bodies are known to be essentially zero. This strategy did not protect him: the Appendix was an expanded version of the Cosmos Without Gravitation monograph, which he had already distributed to Shapley and others in the late s — and they had regarded the physics within it as egregiously in error.
Carl Sagan[ edit ] In his science book Broca's Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science , astronomer Carl Sagan wrote that the high surface temperature of Venus was known prior to Velikovsky, and that Velikovsky misunderstood the mechanism for this heat.
He also did not understand the greenhouse effect caused by Venus' atmosphere, which had earlier been elucidated by astronomer Rupert Wildt. Redeeming Culture: In Defence of Science: Science, technology, and, politics in modern society , University of Toronto Press. Velikovsky", section: Problem VIII: The Temperature of Venus.
Problem VII: The Clouds of Venus. Velikovsky", Section: Some Other Problems, p. A New Mythology: Skeptic , 13 4 , Worlds in Derision: Velikovsky vs. Modern Science. Broca's Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science.
New York: Ballantine Books. Reprinted as Sagan, Carl Reflections on the Romance of Science". Science and the Paranormal: Probing the Existence of the Supernatural. Tempe, Ariz: New Falcon Publications. A Personal Voyage. Retrieved Velikovsky's Sources. In six volumes, with Notes and Index Volume.
Privately published by the author, Manchester. Velikovsky Mythistoricus.
A lesson from Velikovsky. Skeptical Inquirer , 10 4 , An antidote to Velikovskian delusions. Skeptic , 3 4 , Velikovsky at Fifty: Cultures in Collision on the Fringes of Science. Skeptic , 9 1 , ; reprinted in Shermer, Michael editor This survey confirms the hunch expressed by Morrison and Clark R.
Chapman in Chap. Velikovsky Revisited". Exodus to Arthur: Catastrophic Encounters with Comets.
Velikovsky's evidence? Nature , November Ellenberger, C. Nature ] is corroborated by ocean sediments and bristlecone pine rings [ref. Kronos X: Cato, I. Boreas 14 , ]. Either their mere existence contradicts Velikovsky or they do not contain debris suggesting a catastrophe. Velikovskian catastrophes are neither indicated by nor necessary to explain the natural stratigraphies of the Holocene. Tree Rings.
Kronos X , 1, October, pp. In other words,.