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FAQs; CONTACT; THE WORLD FACTBOOK ARCHIVE. Africa:: Seychelles Print. Page last updated on March 04, The World Factbook Country/Location. The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style. The World Factbook (also known as the CIA World Factbook) is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac- style.

Seychelles has no indigenous population and was first permanently settled by a small group of French planters, African slaves, and South Indians in The total fertility rate dropped sharply from 4. Life expectancy has increased steadily, but women on average live 9 years longer than men, a difference that is higher than that typical of developed countries. Despite some of its health and education indicators being nearly on par with Western countries, Seychelles has a high level of income inequality. An increasing number of migrant workers — mainly young men — have been coming to Seychelles in recent years to work in the construction and tourism industries. As of , foreign workers made up nearly a quarter of the workforce. Since independence in , per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the pre-independence, near-subsistence level, moving the island into the high income group of countries. In recent years, the government has encouraged foreign investment to upgrade hotels and tourism industry services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of the offshore financial, information, and communication sectors, and renewable energy.

An increasing number of migrant workers — mainly young men — have been coming to Seychelles in recent years to work in the construction and tourism industries.

As of , foreign workers made up nearly a quarter of the workforce. Since independence in , per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the pre-independence, near-subsistence level, moving the island into the high income group of countries.

In recent years, the government has encouraged foreign investment to upgrade hotels and tourism industry services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of the offshore financial, information, and communication sectors, and renewable energy. In December , the IMF declared that Seychelles had successfully transitioned to a market-based economy with full employment and a fiscal surplus.

However, state-owned enterprises still play a prominent role in the economy. Effective 1 January , Seychelles was no longer eligible for trade benefits under the US African Growth and Opportunities Act after having gained developed country status.

As a very small open economy dependent on tourism, Seychelles remains vulnerable to developments such as economic downturns in countries that supply tourists, natural disasters, and changes in local climatic conditions and ocean temperature.

One of the main challenges facing the government is implementing strategies that will increase Seychelles' long-term resilience to climate change without weakening economic growth. We read every letter or e-mail we receive, and we will convey your comments to CIA officials outside OPA as appropriate. However, with limited staff and resources, we simply cannot respond to all who write to us. Submit questions or comments online.

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Abbreviations B: International Organizations and Groups C: Selected International Environmental Agreements D: Weights and Measures H: Seychelles Print. Page last updated on May 14, Flag Description. All Landscapes. The Republic of Seychelles is an island country spanning an archipelago of islands in the Indian Ocean. It is about 1, km mi east of the African continent, and spreads out over a vast area of ocean north of Madagascar. Independent from the UK since , the country nevertheless is far more French after years of early French settlement and influence.

Since independence, tourism has grown dramatically to become the primary industry of Seychelles, overtaking plantation agriculture.

This image of some of the northern Seychelles islands covers an area of 54 x 66 km 34 x 41 mi. Photo courtesy of NASA. Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.

Agency Copyright Notice. This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends. A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in , when they were ceded to the latter.

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During colonial rule, a plantation-based economy developed that relied on imported labor, primarily from European colonies in Africa. Independence came in Single-party rule was brought to a close with a new constitution and free elections in This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water.

Geographic coordinates: This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid or center point of a country expressed in degrees and minutes; it is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Names Server GNS , maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names.

Map references: This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. Note that boundary representations on these maps are not necessarily authoritative.

The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries. This entry includes three subfields. Area - comparative: This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements revised provided by the US Bureau of the Census.

Land boundaries: This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries. When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used. Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ. This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area including islands and the sea.

Maritime claims: This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOS , which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year; in the Word entry only, it includes four subfields that describe climate extremes: This entry contains a brief description of the topography.

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Mahe Group is volcanic with a narrow coastal strip and rocky, hilly interior; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs. This entry includes the mean elevation and elevation extremes, lowest point and highest point. Indian Ocean 0 m. Morne Seychellois m. Natural resources: This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance, such as rare earth elements REEs.

In general, products appear only if they make a significant contribution to the economy, or are likely to do so in the future. Land use: This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: Irrigated land: This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water.

Population distribution: This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country. While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures.

Natural hazards: This entry lists potential natural disasters. For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically active volcanoes. Environment - current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions see acid rain.

Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxi. Environment - international agreements: This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified.

Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name. Geography - note: This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere. People and Society:: This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends. The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region.

Starting with the Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries mostly African have explicitly taken into account t. This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective. Seychellois singular and plural.

Ethnic groups: This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population. This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages.

When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language. For those countries without available data, languages are listed in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language. Seychellois Creole official This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population.

The core characteristics and beliefs of the world's major religions are described below. Baha'i - Founded by Mirza Husayn-Ali known as Baha'u'llah in Iran in , Baha'i faith emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God. Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m.

Roman Catholic Demographic profile: Some of the topics addressed are population age structure, fertility, health, mortality, poverty, education, and migration. Age structure: This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group as follows: The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population.

Image Description. This is the population pyramid for the Seychelles. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right.

The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top.

The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab. Dependency ratios: Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population. They relate the number of individuals that are likely to be economically "dependent" on the support of others.

Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures. As fertility leve. Median age: This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population.

Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Niger and Uganda to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan. See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a high. Population growth rate: The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus or deficit of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country.

The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure e. Rapid population growth can be seen as. Birth rate: This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate.

The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population. Death rate: This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1, population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth.

This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining.

Net migration rate: This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1, persons based on midyear population. An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration e.

The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population chan. This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country.

The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time. Additionally, the World entry includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising th. Major urban areas - population: This entry provides the population of the capital and up to six major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least , people.

An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city.

For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of , or more, only the population of the capital is presented. Sex ratio: This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, years, 65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons.

This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit. Infant mortality rate: This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1, live births in the same year.

This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country. Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.

Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures. Total fertility rate: This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

The total fertility rate TFR is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replaceme. Health expenditures: This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP. Physicians density: This entry gives the number of medical doctors physicians , including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1, of the population.

Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans through the application of modern medicine. They also plan, supervise, and evaluate care and treatment plans by other health care providers. The World Health Organization estimates that f. Hospital bed density: This entry provides the number of hospital beds per 1, people; it serves as a general measure of inpatient service availability.

Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers.

In most cases, beds for both acute and chronic care are included. Because the level of inpatient services required for individual countries depends on several factors - such as demographic issues and the burden of disease - there is. Drinking water source: This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country.

Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: Unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: Sanitation facility access: This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country. Improved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: Unimproved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: This entry gives an estimate of all people adults and children alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.

This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year. Obesity - adult prevalence rate: This entry gives the percent of a country's population considered to be obese.

BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight in kg and dividing it by the person's squared height in meters. Children under the age of 5 years underweight: This entry gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight.

Underweight means weight-for-age is approximately 2 kg below for standard at age one, 3 kg below standard for ages two and three, and 4 kg below standard for ages four and five. This statistic is an indicator of the nutritional status of a community. Education expenditures: This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP. This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females.

There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age.

Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook.

Information on literacy, while not a perfect measu. School life expectancy primary to tertiary education: School life expectancy SLE is the total number of years of schooling primary to tertiary that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age.

Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or qualit. Unemployment, youth ages This entry gives the percent of the total labor force ages unemployed during a specified year.

Country name: This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names Italy is used as an example: Also see the Terminology note. Republic of Seychelles.

Government type: This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows. Note that for some countries more than one definition applies. Absolute monarchy - a form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, i.

Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority. Authoritarian - a form of government in whic. This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time UTC and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time DST.

Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones. Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN. Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters.

For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood.

National holiday: This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day. The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution. Legal system: This entry provides the description of a country's legal system. A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries.

The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: An addition. International law organization participation: Appendix B: Physicians density: Hospital bed density: Drinking water source: Sanitation facility access: Major infectious diseases: Obesity - adult prevalence rate: Children under the age of 5 years underweight: Education expenditures: School life expectancy primary to tertiary education: Unemployment, youth ages People - note: Country name: Dependency status: Government type: Administrative divisions: Dependent areas: National holiday: Legal system: International law organization participation: Executive branch: Legislative branch: Judicial branch: Political parties and leaders: International organization participation: Diplomatic representation in the US: Diplomatic representation from the US: Flag description: National symbol s: National anthem: Government - note: Economy - overview: GDP downloading power parity: GDP official exchange rate: GDP - real growth rate: Gross national saving: GDP - composition, by end use: GDP - composition, by sector of origin: Agriculture - products: Industrial production growth rate: Labor force: Labor force - by occupation: Unemployment rate: Population below poverty line: Household income or consumption by percentage share: Distribution of family income - Gini index: Taxes and other revenues: Public debt: Fiscal year: Inflation rate consumer prices: Central bank discount rate: Commercial bank prime lending rate: Stock of narrow money: Stock of broad money: Stock of domestic credit: Market value of publicly traded shares: Current account balance: Exports - partners: Exports - commodities: Imports - commodities: Imports - partners: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: Debt - external: Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: Exchange rates: Marine fisheries: Electricity access: Electricity - production: Electricity - consumption: Electricity - exports: Electricity - imports: Electricity - installed generating capacity: Electricity - from fossil fuels: Electricity - from nuclear fuels: Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: Electricity - from other renewable sources: Crude oil - production: Crude oil - exports: Crude oil - imports: Crude oil - proved reserves: Refined petroleum products - production: Refined petroleum products - consumption: Refined petroleum products - exports: Refined petroleum products - imports: Natural gas - production: Natural gas - consumption: Natural gas - exports: Natural gas - imports: Natural gas - proved reserves: Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: Telephones - fixed lines: Telephones - mobile cellular: Telephone system: Broadcast media: Internet country code: Internet users: Broadband - fixed subscriptions:

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